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Egypt shall be conquered,

CHAP. XXX

pillaged, and scattered. 14 And I will make Pathros be bound up to be healed, to put OI. LII. I. desolate, and will set fire in a roller to bind it, to make it 01. XLVIII. 1. Sertii Tuhii, Zoan, z. a and will execute judg- strong to hold the sword. Tarquinii Prisci, R. Roman., 7. ments in No:

22. Therefore thus saith the R. Roman., 29. 15 And I will pour my fury upon "Sin, the Lord God; Behold, I am against Pharaoh strength of Egypt; ¢ and I will cut off the king of Egypt, and will ? break "his arms, the multitude of No.

strong, and that which was broken ; and I will 16 And I will d set fire in Egypt: Sin shall cause the sword to fall out of his hand. have great pain, and No shall be rent asunder, -23 - And I will scatter the Egyptians among and Noph 'shall have distresses daily. the nations, and will disperse them through

17 The young men of e Aven and of Pis the countries. beseth shall fall by the sword; and these cities 24 And I will strengthen the arms of the shall go into captivity.

king of Babylon, and put my sword in his 18 8 At Tehaphnehes also the day shall be hand : but I will break Pharaoh's arms, and h darkened, when I shall break there the yokes he shall groan before him with the groanings of Egypt: and the pomp of her strength shall. of a deadly wounded man. cease in her: as for her, a cloud shall cover 25 But I will strengthen the arms of the her, and her daughters shall go into captivity. king of Babylon, and the arms of Pharaoh

19 Thus will I execute judgments in Egypt: shall fall down; and they shall know that and they shall know that I am the LORD. I am the LORD, when I shall put my

20 And it came to pass in the sword into the hand of the king of Babylon, Ol. XLVIII. 1. eleventh year, in the first month, and he shall stretch it out upon the land of Tarquinii Prisci, in the seventh day of the month, Egypt. R. Roman., 29. that the word of the Lord came

26 • And I will scatter the Egyptians among ,

the nations, and disperse them among the 21 Son of man, I have i broken the arm of countries; and they shall know that I am Pharaoh king of Egypt; and lo, it shall not the LORD.

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Chap. xxix. 14.- -y Psa. lxxviii. 12, 43. Or, Tanis. & Jer. ii. 16. b Or, restrained. Jer. xlvii. 25.

Lk Jer. * Nah. iii. 8, 9, 10.- + Or, Pelusium. Jer. xlvi. 25.- _d Ver. xlvi. Il.- Psa. xxxvii, 17. m Ver. 26; chap. xxix. 12. 8. -€ Or, Heliopolis. Or, Pubaslum.

Psa. ix. 16. Ver. 23; chap. xxix, 12.

Afterwards Memphis, and now Cairo or Kahira. This Verse 20. In the eleventh year, in the first month, was the seat of Egyptian idolatry, the place where in the seventh day] This was the eleventh year of the Apis was particularly worshipped.

captivity of Jeconiah, and the date here answers to No more a prince of the land of Egypt) Not one, April 26, A. M. 3416 ; a prophecy anterior by sevefrom that time to the present day. See the note on ral years to that already delivered. In collecting the chap. xxix. 14.

writings of Ezekiel, more care was taken to put all Verse 14. I will make Pathros desolate] See the that related to one subject together, than to attend to preceding chapter, ver. 14.

chronological arrangement. Zoan] Tanis, the ancient capital of Egypt.

Verse 21. I have broken the arm of Pharaoh) PerNo.] Diospolis, or Thebes, the city of Jupiter. haps this may refer to his defeat by Nebuchadnezzar,

Verse 15. My fury upon Sin} Pelusium, a strong when he was coming with the Egyptian army to succity of Egypt, on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea. cour Jerusalem.

Verse 16. Noph] Cairo or Kahira ; şee ver. 13. Verse 22. I will cause the sword to fall out of his

Verse 17. Aven] Or On, the famous Heliopolis, or hand.) When the arm is broken, the sword will nacity of the sun.

turally fall. But these expressions show that the Pibeseth] Bubastum or Bubaste, by a slight alter- Egyptians would be rendered wholly useless to Zedeation of the letters. It is situated on the eastern branch kiah, and should never more recover their political of the Nile, towards Arabia.

strength. 'This was the case from the time of the Verse 18. Tehaphnehes] Called also Tahapanes, rebellion of Amasis. Jer. ï. 16. This is the Pelusian Daphne.

Verse 26. I will scatter the Egyptians) Several Break there the yokes] The sceptres. Nebuchad- filed with Apries to Upper Egypt; and when Nebunezzar broke the sceptre of Egypt when he confirmed chadnezzar wasted the country, he carried

many

of the kingdom to Amasis, who had rebelled against Apries. I them to Babylon. See on chap. xxix. 12.

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A prophecy sent to Pharaoh ,

EZEKIEL,

and his multitude.

CHAPTER XXXI.

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This very beautiful chapter relates also to Egypt. The prophet describes to Pharaoh the fall of the king of

Nineveh, (see the books of Nahum, Jonah, and Zephaniah,) under the image of a fair cedar of Lebanon, once exceedingly tall, flourishing, and majestic, but now cut down and withered, with its broken branches strewed around, 1-17. He then concludes with bringing the matter home to the king of Egypt, by telling him that this was a picture of his approaching fate, 18. , The beautiful cedar of Lebanon, remarkable for its loftiness, and in the most flourishing condition, but afterwards cut down and deserted, gives a very lively painting of the great glory and dreadful catastrophe of both the Assyrian and Egyptian monarchies. The manner in which the prophet has embellished his subject is deeply interesting; the colouring is of that kind which the mind will always contemplate with pleasure. AND it came to pass in the length of his branches : for his

- B. C. 588, OL XLVIII. 1. eleventh year, in the third root was by great waters.

Ol. XLVIII. I. Tarquinii Prisci, month, in the first day of the 8. The cedars in the garden of. Tarquinii Prisci, R. Roman., 29. month, that the word of the God could not hide him: the fir R. Roman., 29. LORD came unto me, saying,

trees were not like his boughs, and the chesnat 2 Son of man, speak unto Pharaoh king of trees were not like his branches ; nor any tree Egypt, and to his multitude; a Whom art thou in the garden of God was like unto him in like in thy greatness?

his beauty 3. Behold, the Assyrian was a cedar in Le- 9 I have made him fair by the multitude of banon with fair branches, and with a shadow- his branches, so that all the trees of Eden, ing shroud, and of a high stature ; and his top that were in the garden of God, envied him. was among the thick boughs.

10 Therefore thus saith the Lord God; Be. 4 d.The waters made him great, the deep cause thou hast lifted up thyself in height, and I set him up on high with her rivers running he hath shot up his top among the thick boughs, round about his plants, and sent out her 5 lit- and m his heart is lifted up in his height; tle rivers unto all the trees of the field.

11 I have therefore delivered him into the 5 Therefore his height was exalted above hand of the mighty one of the heathen; "he all the trees of the field, and his boughs were shall surely deal with him : I have driven him multiplied, and his branches became long be- out for his wickedness. cause of the multitude of waters, when he 12 And strangers, the terrible of the nations, shot forth.

have cut him off, and have left him: Pupon the 6 All the k fowls of heaven made their nests mountains and in all the valleys his branches in his boughs, and under his branches did all are fallen, and his boughs are broken by all the beasts of the field bring forth their young, the rivers of the land ; and all the people of and under his shadow dwelt all great nations. the earth are gone down from his shadow, and

7 Thus was he fair in his greatness, in the have left him.

a Ver. 18. b Dan. iv. 10. -c Heb, fair of branches. _d Jer. * Chap. xvii. 23 ; Dan. iv. 12.—Gen. ii. 8; xiii. 10; chap. li. 36. Or, nourished. -Or, brought him up. Or, con- xxviii. 13.- _m Dan. x. 20. Heb. in doing he shall do unto duits. h Dan. iv. II. Or, when it sent them forth.

him. • Chap. xxvi. 7. - -R Chap. xxxii. 5; XXXV. 8.

NOTES ON CHAP. XXXI.

became very opulent. These nations are represented Verse 1. In the eleventh year] On Sunday, June 19, as fowls and beasts, taking shelter under the protecA. M. 3416, according to Abp. Usher ; a month before tion of this great political Egyptian tree, ver. 6. Jerusalem was taken by the Chaldeans.

Verse 8. The cedars in the garden of God] Egypı Verse 3. Behold, the Assyrian was a cedar] Why was one of the most eminent and affluent of all the is the Assyrian introduced here, when the whole chap- neighbouring nations. ter concerns Egypt? Bp. Lowth has shown that Verse 1:1. The mighty one of the heathen) Nebu

WX ashshur erez should be translated the tall ce- chadnezzar. It is worthy of notice, that Nebuchad. dar, the very stately cedar ; hence there is reference nezzar, in the first year of bis reign, rendered himself to his lofty top; and all the following description be- master of Nineveh, the capital of the Assyrian empire. longs to Egypt, not to Assyria. But see on ver. 11. See Sedar Olam. : This happened about twenty years

Verse 4. The waters made him great) Alluding to before Ezekiel delivered this prophecy; on this acthe fertility of Egypt by the overflowing of the Nile. count, Ashshur, ver. 3,- may relate to the Assyrians, But waters often mean peoples. By means of the dif- to whom it is possible the prophet here compares the ferent nations under the Egyptians, that government Egyptians. But see on ver. 3.

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The dreadful destruction,

CHAP. XXXII.

of the king of Egypt. A M. 3416.

13 Upon his ruin shall all the 16 I made the nations to shake B. C. 588, 01. XLVIII. 1. fowls of the heaven remain, and at the sound of his fall, when I 01. XLVIII. 1. Tarquinii Prisci, all the beasts of the field shall cast him down to hell with them Tarquinii Prisci, R. Roman., be his branches : upon

R. Roman., 29.

that descend into the pit: and 14 To the end that none of all the trees by all the trees of Eden, the choice and best of the waters exalt themselves for their height, Lebanon, all that drink water, shall be comneither shoot up their top among the thick forted in the nether parts of the earth. boughs, neither their trees ? stand up in their 17 They also went down into hell with him height, all that drink water: for s they are unto them that be slain with the sword; and all delivered unto death, ! to the nether parts they that were his arm, that'? dwelt under his of the earth, in the midst of the children of shadow in the midst of the heathen. men, with them that go down to the pit. 18 - To whom art thou thus like in glory and

15 Thus saith the Lord God; In the day in greatness among the trees of Eden? yet when he went down to the grave I caused a shalt thổu be brought down with the trees of mourning : I covered the deep for him, and I Eden unto the nether parts of the earth : -- thou restrained the floods thereof, and the great shalt lie in the midst of the uncircumeised with waters were stayed: and I caused Lebanon to them that be slain by the sword. This is mourn for him, and all the trees of the field Pharaoh and all his multitude, saith the fainted for him.

Lord God.

9 Isa. xviii. 6; chap. xxxii. 4.- Or, stand upon themselves w Isa. xiv. 15. Isa. xiv. 8. - Chap xxxii, 31.

- Lam, for their height. - Psa. lxxxii. 7.- - Chap. xxxii. 18. iv. 20.Ver. 2; chap. xxxii. 19. Chap. xxviii. 10; xxxii. Heb. to be black. Chap. xxvi. 15.

19, 21, 24, &c.

Verse 13. Upon his ruin shall all the fowls] The the confederates of Pharaoh are represented as deplorfall of Egypt is likened to the fall of a great tree; and ing his fall, ver. 16, 17. as the fowls and beasts sheltered under its branches Verse 17. They also went down into hell with him) before, ver. 6, so they now feed upon its ruins. Into remediless destruction.

Verse 14. To the end that none of all the trees] Verse 18. This is Pharaoh] All that I have spoken Let this ruin, fallen upon Egypt, teach all the nations in this allegory of the lofty cedar refers to Pharaoh, that shall hear of it to be humble, because, however king of Egypt, his princes, confederates, and people. elevated, God can soon bring them down; and pride Calmet understands the whole chapter of the king of and arrogance, either in states or individuals, have the Assyria, under which he allows that' Egypt is adumpeculiar abhorrence of God. Pride does not suit the brated ; and hence on this verse he quotes,-. sons of men ; it made devils of angels, and makes

Mutato nomine, de te fabula narratur. fiends of men.

Verse 15. I caused Lebanon to mourn for him] All What is said of Assyria belongs to thee, O Egypt,

CHAPTER XXXII.

The prophet goes on to predict the fall of the king of Egypt, under the figure of an animal of prey, such

as a lion or crocodile, caught, slain, and his carcass left a prey to the fowls and wild beasts, 1-6. The figure is then changed ; and the greatness of his fall (described by the darkening of the sun, moon, and stars) strikes lerror into all the surrounding nations, 7-10. The prophet adds, that the overthrow of the then reigning Egyptian dynasty was to be effected by the instrumentality of the king of Babylon, who should leave Egypt so desolate, that its waters, (alluding to the metaphor used in the second verse,) should run as pure and smooth as oil, without the foat of man or the hoof of a beast to disturb them, 11-16. A beautiful, nervous, and concise description of a land ruined and left utterly desolate. In the remaining part of the chapter the same event is pourtrayed by one of the boldest figures ever attempted in any composition, and which at the same time is executed with astonishing perspicuity and force. God is introduced ordering a place in the lower regions for the king of Egypt and his host, 17, 18. The prophet delivers his message, pronounces their fate, and commands those who buried the slain to drag him and his multitudes to the subterraneous mansions, 19, 20. At the tumult and commotion which this mighty work occasions, the infernal shades are represented as roused from their couches to learn the cause, They see and congratulate the king of Egypt, on his arrival among them, 21. Pharaoh being now introduced into this immense subterraneous cavern, (see the fourteenth chapter of Isaiah, where a similar imagery is employed,) the prophet leads him all around the sides of the pit; shows him the gloomy mansions of former tyrants ; tells their names as he goes along ; beautifully contrasts their former pomp and destructive ambition, when they were a terror to the surrounding states, with their present most abject and helpless condition ; declares

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The dreadful fall

EZEKIEL

of the king of Egypt. that all these oppressors of mankind have not only been cut off out of the land of the living, but have gone dmon into the grave uncircumcised, that is, they have died in their sins, and therefore shall hate no resurrection to elernal life ; and concludes with showing Pharaoh the place destined for him in the midst of the uncircumcised, and of them that have been slain by the sword; 22–32. This prophetic ode sidered as a finished model in that species of writing which is appropriated to the exciting of terror. The imagery throughout is sublime and terrible; and no reader of sensibility and taste can accompany the prophet in this funeral procession, and visit the mansions of Hades, without being impressed with a degree of awe nearly approaching to horror. A. M. 3417.

A, M. 3417. AND it came to pass in the wherein thou swimmest, even to B. C. 587.

B. C. 587. Ol. XLVIII. 2. twelfth

year,

in the twelfth the mountains; and the rivers 01. XLVII. 2 Anno

Anno Tarquinii Prisci, month, in the first day of the shall be full of thee.

Targainii Prisci, R. Roman., 30. month, that the word of the Lord. 7. And when I shall ? put thee R. Roman, 30. came unto me, saying,

out, im I will cover the heaven, and make the 2 Son of man, a take up a lamentation for stars thereof dark; I will cover the sun with Pharaoh king of Egypt, and say unto him, a cloud, and the moon shall not give her light.

Thou art like a young lion of the nations, 8 All the bright lights of heaven will I make f and thou art as a d whale in the seas : and dark over thee, and set darkness - upon thy thou.camest forth with thy rivers, and troubledst land, saith the Lord GOD. the waters with thy feet, and • fouledst their 9 I will also P vex the hearts of many people, rivers :

when I shall bring thy destruction among the 3 Thus saith the Lord God; I will therefore nations, into the countries which thou hast not spread out my net over thee with a company known. of many people; and they shall bring thee up 10 Yea, I will make many people 1 amazed in my net.

at thee, and their kings shall be horribly afraid 4 Then will I leave thee upon the land, Ifor thee, when I shall brandish my sword bewill cast thee forth upon the open field, and fore them; and they shall tremble at every

will cause all the fowls of the heaven to re- moment, every man for his own life, in the day main upon thee, and I will fill the beasts of of thy fall. the whole earth with thee.

11 For thus saith the Lord God; The 5 And I will lay thy flesh i upon the moun- sword of the king of Babylon shall come upon tains, and fill the valleys with ihy height, thee. 6 I will also water with thy blood k the land 12 By the swords of the mighty will I cause

Chap. xxvii. 2; ver. 16.- Chap. xix. 3, 6; xxxviii. 13. m Isa. xiii. 10; Joel ii. 31 ; iii. 15; Amos viii. 9; Rev., vi. 12, c Chap. xxix. 3.

dOr, dragon.- Chap. xxxiv. 18. Ch. 13; Matt. xxiv. 29. — Heb. light of the light in hrane. xii. 13; xvii. 20; Hos. vii. 12.- - Chap. xxix. 6. Chap. o Heb. them dark. - Heb. provoke to anger, or grief.- –4 Chap xxxi. 13. Li Chap. xxxi. 12. - Or, the land of thy swimming. xxvii. 35.- + Chap. xxvi. 16.- Jer. xlvi. , 26; chap. 1Or, extinguish. NOTES ON CHAP. XXXII.

- Verse 5. And fill the valleys with thy height.) Some Verse 1. In the twelfth yjear, in the twelfth month, translate, with the worms, which should proceed from in the first day of the month) On Wednesday, March the putrefaction of his flesh. 22, the twelfth year of the captivity of Jeconiah, A. M. Verse 6. The land wherein thou swimmest] Egypt ; 3417.

so called, because intersected with canals, and overInstead of the twelfth year, five of Kennicote's 1 flowed annually by the Nile. MSS., and eight of De Rossi's, read 770 nuya in the · Verse 7. I will cover the heaven] Destroy the eleventh year. This reading is supported by the Sy- empire. riac; and is confirmed by an excellent MS. of my Make the stars thereof dark] Overwhelm all the own, about four hundred years old.

dependent states.. Verse 2. Thou art like a young lion--and thou art I will cover the sun] The king himself. as a whale in the seas) Thou mayest be likened to And the moon shall not give her light.] The queen two of the fiercest animals in the creation ; to a lion, may be meant, or some state less than the kingdom. the fiercest on the land ; to a crocodile, on tannim, Verse 8. And set darkness upon thy land] As I (see chap. xxix. 3,) the fiereest in the waters. It may, did when a former king refused to let my people go however, point out the hippopotamus, as there seems to the wilderness to worship me. I will involve thee, to be a reference to his mode of feeding. He walks and thy house, and thy people, and the whole land, in deliberately into the water over head, and pursues his desolation and wo, way in the same manner ; still keeping on his feet, Verse 9. I will also ver the hearts] Even the reand feeding on the plants, &c., that grow at the bottom. mote nations, who had no connexion with thee, shall Thus he fouls the water with his feet.

be amazed at the judgments which have fallen upon thee.

e

XXX. 4.

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The dreadful fall

CHAP. XXXII.

of the king of Egypt. thy multitude to fall, the terrible 20 They shall fall in the midst 01. XLVIII. 2. of the nations, all of them : 'and of them that are slain by the Ol. XLVIII. 2. Tarquinii Prisci, " they shall spoil the pomp of sword: she is delivered to the Tarquinii Prisci, R. Roman., 30.

Egypt, - and all the multitude sword: draw her and all her R. Roman., 30. thereof shall be destroyed.

multitudes. 13 I will destroy also all the beasts thereof 21 d The strong among the mighty shall from beside the great waters ; neither shall speak to him out of the midst of hell with them the foot of man trouble them any more, nor the that help him : they are gone down, they lie hoofs of beasts trouble them.

uncircumcised, slain by the sword. 14 Then will I make their waters deep, and 22 ^ Asshur is there and all her company : cause their rivers to run like oil, saith the his graves are about him : all of them slain, Lord God.

fallen by the sword: 15 When I shall make the land of Egypt 23 & Whose graves are set in the sides of the desolate, and the country shall be destitute pit, and her company is round about her grave: of that whereof it was full, when I shall smite all of them slain, fallen by the sword, which all them that dwell therein, * then shall they b caused i terror in the land of the living. know that I am the LORD.

24:-There is Elain and all her multitude 16 This is the y lamentation wherewith they round about her grave, all of them slain, fallen shall lament her: the daughters of the nations by the sword, which are ? gone down uncirshall lament her: they shall lament for her, cumcised into the nether parts of the earth, even for Egypt, and for all her multitude, saithm which caused their terror in the land of the the Lord God.

living; yet have they borne their shame with 17 It came to pass also in the twelfth year, them that go down to the pit. in the fifteenth day of the month, that the word, 25 They have set her a bed in the midst of of the Lord' came unto me, saying,

the slain with all her multitude : her graves 18 Şon of man, wail for the multitude of are round about him: all of them uncircumEgypt, and 2 cast them down, even her, and cised, slain by the sword : though their terror the daughters of the famous nations, unto the was caused in the land of the living, yet have nether parts of the earth, with them that go they borne their shame with them that go down down into the pit.

to the pit : he is put in the midst of them that 19 - Whom dost thou pass in beauty ? bgo be slain. down, and be thou laid with the uncircumcised. 26 There is Meshech, Tubal, and all her

Chap. xxviii. 7.— Chap. xxix. 19. Chap. xxix. II. c. Or, the sword is laid._ Isa. i. 31;< xiv. 9, 10; ver. 27. * Heb. desolate from the fulness thereof.- - Exod. vii. 5; xiv. 4, Ver. 19, 25, &c. + Ver. 24, 26, 29, 30.- Isa. xiv. 15. 18; Psa. ix. 16; chap. vi. 7.-y Ver. 2; 2 Sam. i. 17; 2 Chron. h Chap. xxvi. 17, 20; ver. 24, 25, 26, 27, 32. Or, dismaying. xxxv. 25; chap. xxvi. 17.-2 Chap. xxvi. 20; xxxi. 14. Ch. Jer. xlix. 34, &c.- I Vek 21. -m Ver. 23. Gen. x. 2; xxi. 2, 18. —-_ Ver. 21, 24, &c.; chap. xxvii. 10.

cbap. xxvii, 13; xxxviii. 2. Verse 14. Cause their rivers to run like oil] Bring Verse 21. Out of the midst of hell] boxu sheol, the whole state into quietness, there being no longer a the catacombs, the place of burial. There is somepolitical hippopotamus to foul the waters—to disturb thing here similar to Isa. xiv. 9, where the descent the peace of the country.

of the king of Babylon to the state of the dead is deVerse 15. Shall be destitute of that whereof it was scribed. full] Of corn, and all other necessaries of life. Verse 22. Asshur is there) The mightiest con

Verse 17. In the twelfth yearTwo of Kennicott's querors of the earth have gone down to the grave beMSS., one of De Rossi's, and one of my own, (that fore thee; there they and their soldiers lie together, mentioned ver. 1,) have, in the ELEVENTH year; and all slain by the sword. so has the Syriac, as before. This prophecy concerns Verse 23. Whose graves are set in the sides of the the people of Egypt.

pit] Alluding to the niches in the sides of the subVerse 18. Cast them down) Show them that they shall terranean caves or burying-places, where the bodies are be cast down. Proclaim to them a casting down prophecy, laid. These are numerous in Egypt.

Verse 19. Whom dost thou pass in beauty ?) How Verse 24. There is Elam] The Elamites, not far little does it signify, whether a mummy be well em- from the Assyrians ; others think that Persia is meant.. balmed, wrapped round with rich stuff, and beautifully It was invaded by the joint forces of Cyaxares and painted on the outside, or not. Go down into the Nebuchadnezzar. tombs, examine the niches, and see whether one dead Verse 26. There is Meshech, Tubal] See on chap. carcass be preferable to another.

xxvii. 13.

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