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xx. 40. Ver. 14.

X

The prophecy

EZEKIEL.

against Sidon. A. M. 3416. the workmanship of thy tabrets. 18 Thou hast defiled thy sanc

A. M. 3416.

B. C. 588. 01. XLVIII.1. and of thy pipes was prepared in tuaries by the multitude of thine Ol. XLVIII. I. Tarquini Prisci, thee in the day that thou wast iniquities, by the iniquity of thy Tarquinii Prisci, R. Roman., 29. created. traffic; therefore will I bring

R. Roman., 29. 14 Thou art the anointed cherub that forth a fire from the midst of thee, it shall devour covereth : and I have set thee so : 'thou wast thee, and I will bring thee to ashes upon the upon " the holy mountain of God; thou hast earth in the sight of all them that behold thee. walked up and down in the midst of the 19 All they that know thee among the people stones of fire.

shall be astonished at thee : * thou shalt be sa 15 Thou wąst perfect in thy ways from the terror, and never shalt thou be any more. day that thou wast created, till iniquity was 20 Again the word of the LORD came unto found in thee.

me, saying, 16. By the multitude of thy merchandise they 21 Son of man, 2 set thy face a against Zidon, have filled the midst of thee with violence, and and prophesy against it, thou hast sinned: therefore I will cast thee as 22 And say, Thus saith the Lord God; profane out of the mountain of God: and I Behold, I am against thee, O Zidon; and I will destroy, thee, O covering cherub, from will be' glorified in the midst of thee: and the midst of the stones of fire..

c they shall know that I am the LORD, when 17 w Thine heart was listed up because of thy I shall have executed judgments in her, and beauty, thou hast corrupted thy wisdom by shall be a sanctified in her." reason of thy brightness : I will cast thee to 23

23 e For I will send into her pestilence, and the ground, I will lay thee before kings, that blood into her streets; and the wounded shall they may behold thee.

be judged in the midst of her by the sword •Chap. xxvi. 13. - See Exod. xxv. 20; ver. 16.- Chap *Isa, xxiii. 4, 12; Jer. xxv. 22; xxvii. 3; chap. xxxi. 30. -w Ver. 2, 5. Chap. xxvi. 21; xxvii. • Exod. xiv. 4, 17; chap. xxxix. 13. Psa. ix. 16.

4 Chap. 36.- Heb. lerrors.- Chap. vi. 2; xxv.^2; axix. 2.

XX. 41; xxxvi. 23; ver. 25.- Chap. xxxviii. 22. CHERUB, that guarded the gates of Paradise, and kept Beamy and bright with many a costly stone, the way of the tree of life; or to one of the cherubs The glowing purple rich.

Rowe. whose wings, spread out, covered the mercy-seat. - Thou wast upon the holy mountain of God] The Verse 15. Thou wast perfect in thy ways) The irony irony is still continued; and now he is compared to seems still to be kept up. Thou hast been like the Moses, and afterwards to one of the chief angels, who angels, like Moses, like the cherubs, like Adam, like has walked ap and down among the stones of fire; that God, till thy iniquity was found out. is, thy floors have been paved with precious stones, that Verse 16. I will cast thee as profane] Thou shalt shone and sparkled like fire.

be cast down from thine eminence. Lucan, describing the splendour of the apartments

From the midst of the stones of fire.] Some, supof Cleopatra, queen of Egypt, speaks in nearly a simi- posing that stones of fire means the stars, have thought lar language :

that the whole refers to the fall of Satan.

Verse 18. Thou hast defiled thy sanctuaries] Irony Nec summis crustata domus, sectisque nitebåt

continued. As God, as the angels, as the cherubim, Marmoribus, stabatque sibi non segnis achates,

thou must have had thy sanctuaries; but thou hast dePurpureusque lapis, totusque effusus in aula

filed them : and as Adam, thou hast polluted thy Eden, Calcabatur onyx

Pharsal. lib. x.

and hast been expelled from Paradise.
Rich as some fane by slavish zealots reared, Verse 19. Thou shalt be a terror] Instead of being
For the proud banquet stood the hall prepared : an object of adoration thou shalt be a subject of hor-
Thick golden plates the latent beams infold, ror, and at last be destroyed with thy city, so that no-
And the high roof was fretted o'er with gold., thing but thy name shall remain. It was entirely burnt
Of solid marble all the walls were made,

by Alexander the Great, as it had been before by NeAnd onyx s'en the meaner floor inlaid ;

buchadnezzar. While porphyry and agate round the court

Verse 22. I am against thee, O Židon) Sidon for a In massy columns rose, a proud support:

long time had possessed the empire of the sea and of Of solid ebony each post was wrought,

all Phenicia, and Tyre was one of its colonies; but, From swarthy Meroë profusely brought.

in process of time, the daughter became greater than With ivory was the entrance crusted o'er, the mother. It seems to have been an independent And polished tortoise hid each shining door; place at the time in which Tyre was taken ; but it is While on the cloudy spots enchased was seen likely that it was taken by the Chaldeans soon after the The trusty emerald's never-fading green.

former. Within the royal beds and couches shone,

Verse 23. And the wounded) Sh chalal, the soldiery,

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Deliverance from

CHAP. XXIX.

captivity promised. A. M. 3416.

A. M. 3416.
upon her on every side ; and they shall be sanctified in them in
B. C. 588.
Ol. XLVIII. r. shall know that I an the LORD. the sight of the heathen, then shall 01. XLVIII. 1.
Tarquinii Prisci,

24 And there shall be no more they dwell in their land that - I Tarquinii Prisci, nan., 29.

fa pricking brier unto the house have given to my servant Jacob. R. Roman., 29. of Israel, nor any grieving thorn of all that are 26 And they shall .dwell k safely therein, round about them, that despised them; and and shall "build houses, and plant vineyards ; they shall know that I am the Lord God. yea, they shall dwell with confidence, when I

25 Thus saith the Lord God; When I shall have executed judgments upon all those that
have gathered the house of Israel from the - despise them round about them; and they
people among whom they are scattered, and shall know that I am the LORD their God.
Num. xxxiii. 55, Josh. xxiii. 13. - Isa. xi. 12; xi. 17; XX.

- Jer. xxiii: 6; chap. xxxvi. 28. k Or, with confidence. 41 ; xxxiv, 13; xxxvii. 21.- Ver. 22.

Isa. lxv. 21; Amos ix. 14.-m Jer, xxxi. 5.- Or, spoil. All its supports shall be taken away, and its defenders Israel] In their long captivity, God had been prepardestroyed.

ing the land for them so as to make it a safe dwelling ; Verse 24. There shall be no more a pricking brier] and hence he executed judgments on all the heathen Nothing to excite Israel ta idolatry when restored from nations round about by means of the Chaldeans. Thus their captivity. Perhaps there is an allusion to Jeze- Tyre and Sidon were destroyed, as were the Ammon'bel, daughter of Ethbaal, king of Sidon, and wife to ites and others who had been the inveterate enemies Ahab, king of Israel, who was the greatest curse to of the Jews. Judgment first began at his own house, Israel, and the universal restorer of idolatry in the land, then proceeded to the heathen nations; and when they see 1 Kings xvi. 31. Sidon being destroyed, there were brought down, then he visited and redeemed his would come no encourager of idolatry from that quarter. people. Thus God's ways are proved to be all equal ;

Verse 25. When I shall have gathered the house of partialities and caprices belong not to him.

CHAPTER XXIX.

This and the three following chapters foretell the conquest of Egypt by Nebuchadnezzar, which he accomplished in the twenty-seventh year of Jehoiachin's captivity. The same event is foretold by Jeremiah, chap. xlvi, 13, &c. The prophecy opens with God's charging the king of Egypt (Pharaoh-hophra) with the same extravagant pride and profanity which were in the preceding chapter laid to the charge of the prince of Tyre. He appears, like him, to have affected Divine 'honours; and boasted so much of the strength of his kingdom, that, as an ancient historian (Herodotus) tells us, he impiously declared that God himself could not dispossess him. Wherefore the prophet, with great majesty, addresses him under the image of one of those crocodiles or monsters which inhabiled that river, of whose riches and revenue he vaunted ; and assures him that, with as much ease as a fisherman drags the fish he has hooked, God would drag him and his people into captivity, and that their carcasses should fall a prey to the beasts of the field and to the fowls of heaven, 1–7. The figure is then dropped ; and God is introduced denouncing, in plain terms, the most awful judgments against him and his nation, and declaring that the Egyptians should be subjected to the Babylonians till the fall of the Chaldean empire, 8-12. The prophet then foretells that Egypt, which was about to be devastated by the Babylonians, and many of the people carried into captivity, should again become a kingdom ; but that it should never regain its ancient political importance ; for, in the lapse of time, it should be even the basest of the kingdoms, à circumstance in the prophecy most literally fulfilled, especially under the Christian dispensation, in its government by the Mameluke slaves, 13–. 16. The prophecy, beginning at the seventeenth verse, is connected with the foregoing, as it relates to the same subject, though delivered about seventeen years later. Nebuchadnezzar and his army, after the long siege of Tyre, which made every head bald by constantly wearing their helmets, and wore the skin off every shoulder by carrying burdens to raise the fortifications, were disappointed of the spoil which they expected, by the retiring of the inhabitants to Carthage. God, therefore, promises him Egypt for his reward, 17–20. · The chapter concludes with a prediction of the return of the Jews from the Babylonish caplivity, 21.

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The prophecy against

EZEKIEL

Pharqoh-hophra. A. M. 3415.

A. M. 3415. B. C. 589,

IN the tenth year, in the tenth | been a staff of reed to the
Ol. XLVII. 4. month, in the twelfth day of house of Israel.

OL. XLVII. 4.
Anno
Tarquinii Prisci, the month, the word of the LORD og When they took hold of Tarquinii Prisci,
R. Roman., 28.
came unto me, saying,

thee by thy hand, thou didst break, R. Roman., 28. 2 Son of man, a set thy face against Pharaoh and rend all their shoulder: and when they king of Egypt, and prophesy against him, and leaned upon thee, thou brakest, and madest all bagainst all Egypt :

their loins to be at a stánd. 3 Speak, and say, Thus saith the Lord God; 8 Therefore thus saith the Lord God; Be• Behold, I am against thee, Pharaoh king of hold, I will bring ma sword-upon thee, and cut Egypt, the great d'dragon that lieth in the off man and beast out of thee. midst of his rivers, which hath said, My river 9 And the land of Egypt shall be desolate is mine own, and I have made it for myself. and waste; and they shall know that I am the

4 But I will put hooks in thy jaws, and I LORD: because he hath said, The river is will cause the fish of thy rivers to stick upto mine, and I have made it. thy scales, and I will bring thee up out of the 10 Behold, therefore I am against thee, and midst of thy rivers, and all the fish of thy against thy rivers, and I will make the land rivers shall stick unto thy scales.

of Egypt outterly waste and desolate, P from?
· 5 And I will leave thee thrown into the the tower of Syene, even unto the border of
wilderness, thee, and all the fish of thy rivers : Ethiopia.
thou shalt fall upon the s open fields; thou 11 * No foot of man shall pass through it,
shalt not be brought together, nor gathered : por foot of beast shall pass through it, neither

I have given thee for meat to the beasts of shall it be inhabited forty years.
the field and to the fowls of the heaven. 12 And I will inake - the land of Egypt

6 And all the inhabitants of Egypt shall desolate in the midst of the countries that are
know that I am the Lord, because they have desolate, and her cities among the cities that

Chap. xxviii. 21. Isa. xix. 1; Jer. xxv. 19; xlvi. 2, 25. * 2 Kings xviii. 21 ; Isa. xxxvi. 6. _1 Jer. xxxvii. 5, 7, n;
Jer. xliv: 30; chap. xxviii.-22 ; ver. 10.—_Psa. Ixxiv. 13, 14; | chap. xvii. 17.- m Chap. xiv, 17; xxxii. 11, 12, 13,- Chap
Isa. xxvii. 1; li. 9; chap. xxxii. 2. See chap. xxviii. 2. xxx. 12.-0 Heb. wastes of waste,- -p Or, from Migdol to Sy.
Isa. xxxvii. 29; chap. xxxviii. 4. Heb. face of the field. ene ; Exod. xiv. 2; Jer. xliv. I. - Chap. XXX. 6. Heb.
b Jer. viii. 2; xvi. 4 ; xxv. 33.- -i Jer. vii. 33; xxxiv. 20.

Chap. xxxii. 13. Chap. xxx. 7, 26.
NOTES ON CHAP. XXIX.

bury their heads in their flesh, under their scales, and Verse 1. In the tenth year] Of Zedekiah ; and tenth suck out the vital juices. The allusion seems to be to of the captivity of Jeconiah.

this. Pharaoh was the crocodile ; the fish, the comThe tenth month, in the twelfth day of the month] mon people ; and the sticking to his scales, the insurAnswering to Monday, the first of February, A. M. rection by which he was wasted and despoiled of his 3415,

kingdom. Verse 2. Set thy face against Pharaoh king of Verse 5. I will leave thee thrown into the wilderness] Egypt] This was Pharaoh-hophra or Pharaoh-apries, Referring to his being obliged to take refuge in Upper whom we have so frequently met with in the prophe- Egypt. . But he was afterwards taken prisoner, and cies of Jeremiah, and much' of whose history has been strangled by Amasis. Herod. lib. ii. s. 169. given in the notes.

Verse 6. They have been a staff of reed] An inVerse 3. The great dragon] 03/17 hattannim should efficient and faithless ally. The Israelites expected here be translated crocodile, as that is a real animal, assistance from them when Nebuchadnezzar came and numerous in the Nile; whereas the dragon is against Jerusalem ; and they made a feint to help them, wholly fabulous. - The original signifies any large but retired when Nebuchadnezzar went against them. animal.

Thus were the Jews deceived and ultimately ruined, The midst of his rivers) This refers to the several see ver. 7. branches of the Nile, by which this river empties itself Verse 10. From the tower of Syene] njia bodo into the Mediterranean. The ancients termed them mimmigdol seveneh, “ from Migdol to Syene." Syene, septem ostia Nili, “the seven mouths of the Nile.” now called Essuan, was the last city in Egypt, going The crocodile was the emblem' of Egypt.

towards Ethiopia. It was famous for a well into which Verse 4. I will put hooks in thy jaws) Amasis, one the rays of the sun fell perpendicularly at midday. of this king's generals, being proclaimed king by an in- Verse 12. Shall be desolate forty years] The counsurrection of the people, dethroned Apries, and seized try from Migdol or Magdolan, which was on the isthupon the kingdom ; and Apries was obliged to flee to mus between the Mediterranean and the Red Sea, was Upper Egypt for safety.

so completely ruined, that it might well be called de. I will cause the fish--to stick unto thy scales] Most sert ; and it is probable that this desolation continued fish are sorely troubled with a species of insect which during the whole of the reign of Amasis, which was

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Prophecy
CHAP. XXIX.

against Egypt. A. M. 3415. are laid waste shall be desolate day of the month, the word of

A. M. 3432 B. C. 589. Ot. XLVII. 4. forty years : and I will scatter the Lord came unto me, saying, OI. LII. I. Tarquinii Prisci, the Egyptians among the nations, 18 Son of man, 2 Nebuchadrez- Servii Tullii, R. Roman., 28. and will disperse them through the zar king of Babylon caused his

R. Roman., 7. countries.

army to serve a great service against Tyrus: 13 Yet thus saith the Lord God; At the every head was made bald, and every shoulder u end of forty years will I gather the Egyptians was peeled ; yet had he no wages, nor his from the people whither they were scattered : army, for Tyrus, for the service that he had

14 And I will bring again the captivity of served against it: Egypt, and will cause them to return into the 19 Therefore thus saith the Lord God; land of Pathros, into the land of their habita- Behold, I will give the land of Egypt unto tion; and they shall be there a " base * kingdom. Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon; and he

15 It shall be the basest of the kingdoms ; shall take her multitude, and · take her spoil, neither shall it exalt itself any more above the and take her prey; and it shall be the wages nations : for I will diminish them, that they for his army. shall no more rule over the nations.

20 I have given him the land of Egypt for 16 And it shall be no more » the confidence of his labour wherewith he served against it, bethe house of Israel, which bringeth their iniquity cause they wrought for me, saith the Lord God. to remembrance, when they shall look after them: 21 In that day I will I cause the horn of the but they shall know that I am the Lord God. house of Israel to bud forth, and I will give

17 And, it came to pass in the seven and thee the opening of the mouth in the midst of twentieth year, in the first month, in the first them; and they shall know that I am the Lord.

#Isa. xix. 23; Jer. xlvi. 26. Or, birth. Hebrew, z Jer. xxvii. 6; chap. xxvi. 7, 8.- - Heb. spoil her spoil, and low. Chapter xvii. 6, 14. _y Isaiah xxx. 2, 3 ; xxxvi. prey her prey. b Or, for his hire.

_c Jer. xxv. 9,

cxxxii. 17. Chap. xxiv. 27. just forly years. See Herod. lib. ii. c. 10; and see once so glorious, is the basést of kingdoms. See Calmet.

Newton on the prophecies. Verse 13. Will I gather the Egyptians)' It is pro- Verse 17. The seven and twentieth year] That is, bable that Cyrus gave permission to the Egyptians of the captivity of Jeconiah, fifteen years after the takbrought to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar, to return to ing of Jerusalem; about April 20, 3432. The pretheir own country. And if we reckon from the com- ceding prophecy was delivered one year before the takmencement of the war against Pharaoh-hophra by Ne- ing of Jerusalem; this, sixteen years after; and it is buchadnezzar, to the third or fourth year of Cyrus, the supposed to be the last which this prophet wrote. term will be about forty years,

Verse 18. Caused his army to serve a great service Verse 14. Into the land of Pathros] Supposed to against Tyrus] He was thirteen years employed in mean the Delta, a country included between the the siege. See Joseph. Antiq. lib. x. c. 11. In this branches of the Nile ; called a della, from its being in siege his soldiers endured great hardships. Being conthe form of the Greek letter of that name. It may tinually on duty, their heads' hecame bald by wearing mean the Pathrusim, in Upper Egypt, near to the The- their helmets ; and their shoulders bruised and peeled baid. This is most likely.

by carrying baskets of earth to the fortifications, and Shall be there a base kingdom.] That is, it shall con- wood, &c., to build towers, &c.; tinue to be tributary. It is upwards of two thousand Yet had he no wages, nor his army] The Tyrians, years since this prophecy was delivered, and it has finding it at last impossible to defend their city, put all been uninterruptedly fulfilling to the present hour. 1. their wealth aboard their vessels, sailed out of the Egypt became tributary to the Babylonians, under port, and escaped for Carthage ; and thus NebuchadAmasis. 2. After the ruin of the Babylonish empire, nezzar lost all the spoil of one of the richest cities in it became subject to the Persians. 3. After the Per- the world. sians, it came into the hands of the Macedonians. Verse 20. I have given him the land of Egypt for 4. After the Macedonians it fell into the hands of the his labour] Because he fulfilled the designs of God Romans, 5. After the division of the Roman empire against Tyre, God promises to reward him with the it was subdued by the Saracens. 6. About A. D. spoil of Egypt. 1250, it came into the hands of the Mameluke slaves. Verse 21. Will I cause the horn of the house of Is7. Selim, the ninth emperor of the Turks, conquered rael to bud) This may refer generally to the restorathe Mamelukes, A. D. 1517, and annexed Egypt to tion ; but particularly to Zerubbabel, who became one the Olloman empire, of which it still continues to be of the leaders of the people from Babylon. Or it may a province, governed by a pacha and twenty-four beys, respect Daniel, or Mordecai, or Jeconiah, who, about who are always advanced from servitude to the admin this time, was brought out of prison by Evil-meroistration of public affairs. So true is it that Egypt, dach, and afterwards kindly treated.

Destruction of Egypt by

EZEKIEL.

the Chaldeans foretold.

Anno

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CHAPTER XXX, This chapter describes, with great force and elegance, the ruin of Egypt and all her allies by the Chaldeans

under Nebuchadnezzar, 1-11; with an amplification of the distress of the principal cities of Egypt on that occasion, 12-19.. The remaining verses are a short prophecy relating to the same event, and therefore annered to the longer one preceding, although this was predicted sooner, 20–26.

A. M. 3432. A. MC 352 THE word of the Lord came 8 And they shall know that I

B. C. 572. Olymp. LIL 1, again unto me, saying, am the LORD, when I have set a Olymp. LII. Servii Tullii, 2 Son of man, prophesy and fire in Egypt, and when all her Servi Tullii, R. Roman., 7.

R. Roman., 7. say, Thus saith the Lord God; helpers shall be destroyed. • Howl ye, Wo worth the day!

9 In that day "shall messengers go forth from 3 For b the day is near, even the day of the me in ships to make the careless Ethiopians LORD is near, a cloudy day; it shall be the afraid, and great pain shall come upon them, time of the heathen.

as in the day of Egypt: for, lo, it cometh. 4 And the sword shall come upon Egypt, 10 Thus saith the Lord God: "I will also and great pain shall be in Ethiopia, when make the multitude of Egypt to cease by the the slain shall fall in Egypt, and they d shall hand of Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon. take away her multitude, and her foundations 11 He and his people with him, P the terrible shall be broken down.

of the nations, shall be brought to destroy the 5 Ethiopia, and Libya, and Lydia, and & all land : and they shall draw their swords against the mingled people, and Chub, and the h men Egypt, and fill the land with the slain. of the land that is in league, shall fall with 12 And I will make the rivers dry, and them by the sword.

sell the land into the hand of the wicked: 6 Thus saith the LORD; They also that up- and I will make the land waste, and all that hold Egypt shall fall; and the pride of her is therein, by the hand of strangers :: I the power shall come down : i from k the tower of Lord have spoken it. Syene shall they fall in it by the sword, saith 13 Thus saith the Lord God; I will also the Lord God.

" destroy the idols, and I will cause their 7 And they shall be desolate in the midst images to cease out of Noph; and there of the countries that are desolate, and her shall be no more a prince of the land of cities shall be in the midst of the cities that Egypt: and I will put a fear in the land of are wasted.

Egypt. A sa. xiii. 6. -b Chap. vii. 7, 12; Joel ji. 1; Zeph. i. 7. m Heb. broken. s Isa. xvii. I, 2.- Lo Chap. xxix. 19. cOr, fear.

-d Chap. xxix. 19. Jer. I. 15. Hels. Phut; P Chap. xxviii. 7.- - Isa. xix. 5, 6. - Heb. drought. chap. xxvij. 10.— Jer. xxv. 20, 24.

0:, xix. 4. Heb. the fulness thereof:- Işa. xix. 1; Jer. xlui. from Migdol to Syene.- Chap. xxix. 10.4 Chap. 12; xlvi. 25; Zech. xiii. 2.

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NOTES ON CHAP. XXX.

of the land,” &c. The Septuagint adds. the PerVerse 2. Howl ye, Wo worth the day!). My Old MS. sians and the Cretans." Bible,-Boule gee, woo woo to the day! 77 Subang Verse 7. Shall be desolate] All these countries or's heylilu, hah laiyom! " Howl ye, Alas for the shall be desolated; and the places named shall be day!" The reading in our present text is taken from chief in these desolations, Coverdale's Bible, 1535. The expressions signify that Verse 9. Messengers go forth from me in ships] a most dreadful calamity was about to fall on Egypt Ships can ascend the Nile up to Syene or Essuan, by and the neighbouring countries, called here the “ time the cataracts; and when Nebuchadnezzar's vessels of the heathen,” or of the nations ; ' the day of cala- went up, they struck terror into the Ethiopians. They mity to them. They are afterwards specified, Ethio are represented here as the “messengers of God.” pia, Libya, Lydia, and Chub, and the mingled people, pro- Verse 12. I will make the rivers dry] As the overbably persons from different nations, who had followed flowing of the Nile was the grand cause of fertility to the ill forture of Pharaoh-hophra or Pharaoh-apries, Egypt, the drying it up, or preventing that annual when he fled from Amasis, and settled in-Upper Egypt. inundation, must be the cause of dearth, famine, &c..

Verse 5. Lydia) This place is not well known. By rivers, we may understand the various canals cut The Ludim were contiguous to Egypt, Gen. xi. 13. from the Nile to carry water into the different parts

Chub] The Cubians, placed by Ptolemy in the Ma- of the land. When the Nile did not rise to its usual reotis. But probably instead of 2121 veckub, “and height, these canals were quite dry. Chub," we should read bai vechol, “and all the mèn Verse 13. Their images to cease out of Noph]

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