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The riches, glory, and

CHAP. XXVII.

commerce of Tyre. truth of the prophecy. And now it is found precisely a place of some consequence in the time of St. Paul. in the state which the above prophetic declarations, There was a Church there, (see Acts xxi. 3, 4, &c.,) taken according to the letter, point out! No word of which afterwards became famous. Calmet observes, God can ever fall to the ground.

ít afforded a great number of martyrs for the Christian Notwithstanding the former destructions, Tyre was Church.

CHAPTER XXVII.

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This chapter may be considered as the second part of the prophecy concerning Tyre. The prophet pursues

his subject in the manner of those ancient lamentations or funeral songs, in which the preficiæ or mourning women first recounted whatever was great or praiseworthy in the deceased, and then mourned his fall. Here the riches, glory, and extensive commerce of Tyre are enlarged upon, 1-25. Her downfall is then described in a beautiful allegory, executed in a few words, with astonishing brevity, propriety, and perspicuity, 26 ; upon which all the maritime and commercial world are represented as grieved and astonished at her fate, and greatly alarmed for their own; 27-36, Besides the view which this chapter gives of the conduct of Providence, and the example with which it furnishes the critic and man of taste of a very elegant and highly finished piece of composition, it likewise affords the antiquary a very curious and interesting account of the wealth and commerce of ancient times. And to the mind that looks for a city that hath foundations,what a picture does the whole present of the mutability and inanity of all earthly things ! Many of the places mentioned in ancient history have, like Tyre, long ago lost their political consequence ; the geographical situation of others cannot be traced ; they have sunk in the deep waters of oblivion ; the east wind hath carried them away. A. M. 3416.

A. M. 3416. B, C. 588. THE word of the LORD came merchant of the people for many

B. C. 588. Ol. XLVIII. 1. again unto me, saying, isles, Thus saith the Lord God; 01. XLVIII. 1. Tarquinii Prisci,

2 Now, thou son of man, a take O Tyrus, thou hast said, " I am Tarquinii Prisci, R. Roman., 29. up a lamentation for Tyrus; of perfect beauty.

R. Roman., 29. 3 And say unto Tyrus, b Othou that art 4 Thy borders are in the midst of the situate at the entry of the sea, which art a seas, thy builders have perfected thy beauty. a Chap. xix. 1; xxvi. 17; xxviii. 12; xxxii. 2.- Ohap. xxviii. - Chap. xxviii. 12. Heb. perfect of beauty. Heb. 2.- Isa. xxiii. 3.

heart. NOTES ON CHAP. XXVII.

Non Di, quos iterum pressa voces malo : Verse 2. Take up a lamentation for Tyrus) This Quamvis Pontica pinus, is a singular and curious chapter. It gives a very cir

Sylvæ filia nobilis, cumstantial account of the trade of Tyre with different Jactes et genus, et nomen inutile. parts of the world, and the different sorts of merchan- Nil pictis timidus navita puppibus dise in which she trafficked. The places and the im

Fidit. Tú, nisi ventis ports are as regularly entered here as they could have

Debes ludibrium, cave. been in a European custom-house.

Unhappy vessel, shall the waves again Verse 3. The entry of the sea] Tyre was a small

Tumultuous bear thee to the faithless main ? island, or rather rock, in the sea, at a short distanoe

What, would thy madness thus with storms to sport? from the main land. We have already seen that there

Cast-firm your anchor in the friendly port. was another Tyre on the main land; but they are both

Behold thy naked decks, the wounded mast, considered as one city.

And sail-yards groan beneath the southern blast. Verse 4. Thy builders have perfected thy beauty.)

Nor, without ropes, thy keel can longer brave Under the allegory of a beautiful ship, the prophet,

The rushing fury of the imperious wave: here and in the following verses, paints the glory of

Torn are thy sails ; thy guardian gods are lost, this ancient city. Horace describes the commonwealth

Whom you might call, in future tempests tost. of Rome by the same allegory, and is as minute in his

What, though majestic in your pride you stood, description, Carm. lib. i. Od. xiv :

A noble daughter of the Pontic wood, O navis, referent in mare te novi

You now may vainly boast an empty name, Fluctus ? O quid agis ?

Fortiter occupa

Of birth conspicuous in the rolls of fame.
: Portum. Nonne vides, ut

The mariner, when 'storms around him rise,
Nudum remigio latus,

No longer on a painted stern relies.
Et malus celeri saucius Africo,

Ah! yet take heed, lest these new tempests sweep, Antennæque gemant ? ac sine funibus

In sportive rage, thy glories to the deep.

FRANCIS.
Vix durare carinæ
Possint imperiosius

I give this as a striking parallel to many passages Æquor ? non tibi sunt integra lintea ;

in this chapter.

Tyre represented under the

: EZEKIEL.

metaphor of a gallant ship. A: M. 3416.

A. M. 3416. 5 They have s made all thy | 10 They of Persia and of Lud B. C. 588.

B. C. 689. Ol. XLVIII. 1. ship boards of fir trees of h Senir : and of Phut were in thine army, 01. XLVIII. 1. Tarquinii Prisci, they have taken i cedars from thy men of war : they hanged the Tarquinii Prisci,

R. Roman., 29. R. Roman., 29. Lebanon to make masts for thee. shield- and helmet in thee; they

6 Of the oaks of Bashan have they made set forth thy comeliness. thine oars : k the "coinpany of the Ashurites. 11. The men of Arvad with thine army were have made thy benches of ivory, brought out upon thy walls round about, and the Gammaof m the isles of Chittim.

dims were in thy towers : they hanged their 9 Fine, linen with broidered work from shields upon thy walls round about; they Egypt was that which thou spreadest forth to have made thy beauty perfect. be thy sail; - blue and purple from the isles 12 • Tarshish was thy merchant by reason of Elishah was that which covered thee. of the multitude of all kind of riches; with

The inhabitants of Zidon and Arvad were silver, iron, tin, and lead, they traded in thy fairs. thy mariners: thy wise men, O Tyrus, that 13 u Jayan, Tubal, and Meshech, they were were in thee, were thy pilots.

thy merchants : they traded the persons of 9 The ancients of • Gebal and the wise men men and vessels of brass in thy w market. thereof were in thee thy ” calkers 9; all the 14 They of the house of · Togarmab traded ships of the sea with their mariners were in in thy fairs with horses and horsemen and thee to occupy thy merchandise.

mules. & Heb. built. uh Deut. iii. 9. Judg. ix. '15,- Or, they p Or, stoppers of chinks. - Heb. strengtheners.- Jer. xlvi. have made thy hatches of ivory well trodden. Heb. the daughter. 9; chap. xxx. 5 ; xxxviii. 3. - Ver. 3. Gen. x. 4; 2 Chron. m Jer. ii. 10. Or, purple and scarlet. -01 Kings v. 18; Psa. xx. 36. Lu Gen. x. 2. Rev. xviii. 13.—* Or, merchandise. lxxxiii. 7.

* Gen. x. 3; chap. xxxviij. 6. Verse 5. Fir trees of Senir] Senir is a mountain 'ors from every part. Skilful and desperate men will which the Sidonians called Sirion, and the Hebrews go any where after their price. Hermon, Deut. iii. 9. It was beyond Jordan, and ex- Verse 11. The Gammadims were in thy towers) tended from Libanus to the mountains of Gilead. Some think these were a people of Phænicia ; others,

Verse 6. Of the oaks of Bashan] Some translate that tutelar images are meant ; others, that the word alder, others the pine.

expresses strong men, who acted as guards. The The company of the Ashurites] The word d'YUN| Vulgate reads Pygmei, the pygmies, who were fabled asherim is by several translated box-wood. The seats to be a little people of a cubit in height, from 700 goor benches being made of this wood inlaid with ivory. med, a cubit; and we are told that this little people

Isles of Chittim) The Italian islands; the islands were celebrated for their wars with the cranes ; but of Greece'; Cyprus. Calmet says Macedonia is nothing of this kind can enter into this description. meant.

Probably a people inhabiting the promontories of PhaVerse 7. Fine linen] vw shesh, cotton cloth. In nicia are here intended ; and their hanging their shields this sense the word is generally to be understood. upon the walls is a proof that soldiers are meant, and

To be thy sail] Probably the flag-ensign or pen- persons of skill and prowess too. nant, is meant.

Verse 12, Tarshish was thy merchant] After haBlue and purple from the isles of Elishah] Elis, a ving given an account of the naval and military equippart of the Peloponnesus.

ment of this city, he now speaks of the various places Verse 8. Zidon and Arvad] Or Arad. Two power and peoples with whom the Tyrians traded, and the ful cities on the Phænician coast, in the neighbour different kinds of merchandise imported from those hood of Tyre, from which Tyre had her sailors ; and places. the best instructed of her own inhabitants were her By Tarshish some understand the Carthaginians ; pilots or steersmen.

some think Tartessus, near the straits of Gibraltar, is Verse 9. The ancients of Gebal] This was a city meant; others, Tharsis in Cilicia. The place was faof Phænicia, near Mount Libanus, Josh. xiii. 5. It was mous for all the useful metals, silver, iron; lin, and lead. called Biblos by the Greeks.

All these. they might have had from Britain, Thy çalkers) Those who repaired their vessels ; Verse 13. Javan, Tubal, and Meshech] The lopaying, as it is termed, pitched hemp into the seams, nians, the Tybarenians, and the Cappadocians, or Musto prevent the water from oozing through.

covites, To occupy thy merchandise.] That is, to be thy They traded the persons of men] That is, they agents or factors.

trafficked in slaves. The bodies and souls of men Verse 10. They of Persia] Lud, thé Lydians; were bought and sold in those days, as in our degePhut, a people of Africa, see Gen. x. 6. From these nerate age. With these also they traded in brazen places they had auxiliary troops; for as they traded vessels. with the then known world, were rich, and could afford Verse 14. Togarmah| The Sarmatians. Some to give good pay, they no doubt had soldiers and sail- I think Cappadocia. With these they dealt in horses, 498

( 32* ')

A. M. 3416.
B. C. 588.

A summary of the
CHAP. XXVII.

trade of 'Tyre. A. M. 3416. 15 The men of y Dedan were 20.8 Dedan was thy merchant

B. C. 588. 01. XLVIII. 1. thy merehants; many isles were in precious clothes for chariots. 01. XLVIII. 1. Tarquinii Prisci, the merchandise of thine hand :

21 Arabia, and all the princes Tarquinii Prisci, R. Roman., 29. - they brought thee for a present of i Kedar, k they occupied with R. Roman., 29. horns of ivory and ebony.

thee in lambs, and rams, and goats: in these 16 Syria was thy merchant by reason of the were they thy merchants. multitude of ? the wares of thy making : they 22 The merchants of Sheba and Raamah, occupied in thy fairs with emeralds, purple, they were thy merchants: they occupied in and broidered work, and fine linen, and coral, thy fairs with chief of all spices, and with all a

precious stones, and gold. 17 Judah, and the land of Israel, they were 23 - Haran, and Canneh, and Eden, the thy merchants : they traded in thy market merchants of Sheba, Asshur, and Chilmad, \ wheat of & Minnith, and Pannag, and honey, were thy merchants. i and oil, and a balm.

24. These were thy merchants in all sorts 18 Damascus was thy merchant in the mul- of things, in blue Pclothes, and broidered work, titude of the wares of thy making, for the and in chests of rich apparel, bound with cords, multitude of all riches; in the wine of Helbon, and made of cedar, among thy merchandise. and white wool.

25 ? The ships of Tarshish did sing of thee 19 Dan also and Javan going to and fro in thy market: and thou wast replenished, and occupied in thy fairs : bright iron, cassia, and made very glorious' in the midst of the seas. calamus, were in thy market.'

26 Thy rowers have brought thee into great

and - agate.

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y Gen. x. 7. -- Heb. thy works. - Heb. chrysoprase. * Heb. They were the merchants of thy hand. - Gen. x. 7 01 Kings v. 9, 11; Ezra iii. 7; Acts xü. 20.- Judg. xi. 33. 1 Kings x. 1, 2;,Psa. lxxii. 10, 15; Isa. 1x. 6. -m Gen. xi. 31; a Jer. viii. 22. — Or, rosin.ror, Meuzal.-Gen. xxv. 3. 2 Kings xix. 12. — Gen. xxv. 3. Lo Or, excellent things. Heb. clothes of freedom.- Gen. xxv. 13; Isa. lx. 7.

p Heb. foldings. .- Psa. xlviii. 7; Isa. ii. 16; xxii. 14. Ver. 4.

mules, and horsemen ; or probably draught horses and Verse 21. Arabia, and all the princes of Kedar] war horses are intended.

Arabia Deserta, on the confines of the Dead Sea. The Verse 15. The men of Dedan] Dedan was one of Kedarenes inhabited the same country. These brought the descendants of Abraham by Keturah, and dwelt lambs, rams, and goats for the consumption of the city. in Arabia, Gen. xxv. 3. Ivory and ebony might come Verse 22. Sheba and Raamah] Inhabitants of from that quarter. By way of distinction ivory is Arabia Felix, at the entrance of the Persian Gulf, who called both in Hebrew iv shen, and in Arabic cms were famous for their riches and spices. shen, the roots, as that beautiful substance is the Verse 23. Haran] In Mesopotamia ; well known tooth of the elephant.

in Scripture. Verse 16. Syria] These were always a mercantile Canneh) Or Chalane ; see Gen. x. 10. It is suppeople. For the precious stones mentioned here see posed to be a cape or port of Arabia Felix, on the Inthe notes on Exod. xxviii. 17.

dian Sea. Verse 17. Judah, and the land of Israel-traded in Eden] Equally famous : supposed to have been thy market wheat] The words have been understood situated near the confluence of the Tigris and Euas articles of merchandise, not names of places. So phrates. the Jews traded with the Tyrians in wheat, stacte, Sheba). Different from that in ver. 22.

This was balsam, honey, oil, and resin.

probably near the country of the Edomites. Verse 18. Damascus--wine of Helbon] Now called Asshur] Perhaps the Assyrians, by the Turks Haleb, and by us Aleppo.

Chilmad] Possibly Cholmadora, on the Euphrates. White wool.) Very fine wool : -wool of a fine qua- Ptol. lib. V., cap. 15. For several of these places, lity. Some think Milesian wool is meant.

and the persons from whom they derived their names, Verse 19. Dan also and Javan] It is probable that see Gen. x., and the notes there; and see Calmet. both these words mean some of the Grecian islands. Verse 24. These were thy merchants in all sorts of

Going to and fro] They both took and brought-- things] The above people traded with the Tyrians in imporțed and exported: but boxo meuzal, from uzal, a great variety of the most valuable merchandise : blue may be a proper name. What place is signified I or purple cloth, boxes of cedar, covered with skins, and cannot tell, unless it be Azal, a name, according to bound with silken cords, and sealed with an engraved Kamoos, of the capital of Arabia Felix.

seal, finely cut, fc. See the Chaldee, Verse 20. Dedan] Possibly the descendants of De- Verse 25, The ships of Tarshish] The ships of dan, son of Raamah, see Gen. x. 7.

Tharsis, in Cilicia, were the chief of those which In precious clothes for chariots.) Either fine car- traded with thee. pets, or rich housings for horses, camels, &c., used for Verse 26. Thy rowers have brought thee into great riding

waters] Tyre is still considered under the allegory

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The trade and

EZEKIEL

riches of Tyre. A. M. 3416. waters : s the east wind hath bro- and they shall weep for thee

A. M. 3416. B. C. 588.

B. C. 588. 01. XLVIII. 1. ken thee in the midst of the with bitterness of heart and bitter OL XLVIII. 1. Tarquinii Prisci, seas.

wailing

Tarquinii Prisci, R. Roman., 29.

27 Thy riches, and thy fairs, 32 And in their wailing they R. Roman., 29. thy merchandise, thy mariners, and thy pilots, shall d take up a lamentation for thee, and thy calkers, and the occupiers of thy merchan- lament over thee, saying, What city is like dise, and all thy men of war, that are in thee, Tyrus, like the destroyed in the midst of

and in all thy company which is in the midst the sea. of thee, shall fall into the wmidst of the seas 33 When thy wares went forth out of the in the day of thy ruin.

seas, thou filledst many people; thou didst 28. The 'suburbs y shall shake at the sound enrich the kings of the earth with the multiof the cry of thy pilots.

tude of thy riches and of thy merchandise: 29 And 2 all that handle the oar, the mari- 34. In the time when & thou shalt be broken ners, and all the pilots of the sea, shall come by-the seas in the depths of the waters, 1 thy down from their ships, they shall stand upon merchandise and all thy company in the midst the land,

of thee shall fall. 30, And shall cause their voice to be 35 i All the inhabitants of the isles shall be heard against thee, and shall cry bitterly, astonished at thee, and their kings shall be and shall cast up dust upon their heads, sore afraid, they shall be troubled in their they shall

wallow themselves in the countenance. ashes :

36 The merchants among the people k shall 31 And they shall • make themselves utterly hiss at thee'; 'thou shalt be ma terror, and bald for thee, and gird them with sackcloth, never shalt be any more.

Psa. xlviii. 1. Heb. heart. -u Prov. xi. 4 ; ver. 34; Rev. c Jer. xvi. 6; xlvij. 5; Mic. j. 16. -d Chap. xxvi. 17; ver. 2. xviii. 9, &c. Or, even with all. w Heb. heart. - Or, e Rev. xviii. 18. fRev. xviii. 19.- Chap. xxvi. 19. waves. y Chap. xxvi. 15, 18. - Rev. xviii. 17, &c.- La Jobb Ver. 27.- Chap. xxvj. 15, 16. - Jer. xviii. 16. Chap. ii. 12; Rev. xviii. 19.- Esth. iv. 1, 3; Jer, vi. 26.

xxvi. 21, Heb. terrors. Heb. shalt not be for ever. of a ship; and all the vessels of different nations a hurricane on a lee rocky shore, where the helm had trading with her are represented as towing her into lost its power, and the sails were rendered useless ? deep waters--bringing her into great affluence. But Dost thou remember that apparently last moment, when while in this state, a stormy east wind, or a destruc- the ship drove up to the tremendous rocks, riding on tive wind, meaning the Chaldeans, arises, and dashes the back of a mountainous surge ? Then what was her to pieces! See the ode from Horace, already the universal cry? Hast thou ever heard any thing quoted on ver. 4.

so terrific ? so appalling ? so death and judgment-like? Verse 27. Thy riches] This vast ship, laden with No. It is impossible. These are the circumstances, all kinds of valuable wares, and manned in the best this is the cry, that the prophet describes; disorder, manner, being wrecked, all her valuables, sailors, offi- confusion, dismay, and ruin. And this is a scene which cers, &c., went to the bottom.

the present writer has witnessed, himself a part of the Verse 28. The cry of thy pilots.). When the ship wretched, when all hope of life was taken away, the was dashed against the rocks by the violence of the yawning gulf opened, and nothing presented itself to winds and the waves, and all hope of life was taken support body or soul but that God who gave to both away, then a universal cry was set up by all on board. their being, and ultimately rescued him and his forlorn I have heard this cry, and nothing more dismal can be companions from one of the worst of deaths, by hearimagined, when the ship by a violent tempest is driving ing the ship from the rocks by the agency of a treamong rocks on a lee shore. Then “All lost! cut mendous receding wave. My soul hath these things away the boat!” is more dreadful than the cry of fire still in remembrance, and therefore is 'humbled withat midnight.

Verse 30. Shall cry bitterly] All that were on the Verse 32. What city is like Tyrus] This, to the land, seeing this dreadful sight, a gallant ship perish-end of the chapter, is the lamentation. ing with all her men and goods, are represented as set- Verse 36. Shall hiss at thee) pow. shareku, sball ting up a dismal cry at this heart-rending sight. But shriek for thee. This powerfully expresses the senwhat must they have felt who were on board ? Read-sation made on the feelings of the spectators on the er, wert thou ever shipwrecked? Wert thou ever in shore when they saw the vessel swallowed up.

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in me.

A lamentation for

CHAP. XXVIII.

the king of Tyre.

CHAPTER XXVIII.

B. C. 588.

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The first part of this chapter relates to a king of Tyre, probably the same who is called in the Phænician

annals Ithobalus. He seems to have been a vain man, who affected Divine honours. The prophet treats his foolish pretensions with severe irony, and predicts his doom, 1-10, He then takes up a funeral dirge and lamentation over him, in which his former pomp and splendour are finely contrasted with his fall, in terms that seem frequently to allude to the fall of Lucifer from heaven, (Isa. xiv.,) í 1-19.

The overthrow of Sidon, the mother city of Tyré, is next announced, 20-23 ; and the chapter concludes with a promise to the Jews of deliverance from all their enemies, and particularly of their restoration from the Babylonish captivity, 24-26.

A. M. 34 6. B. 12.34THE word of the Lord came of thy wisdom, and they shall OL XLVHI. 1. again unto me, saying, defile thy brightness.

Ol. XLVIII. I. Tarquinii Prisci, 2 Son of man, say unto the 8 They shall bring thee down Tarquinii Prisci, R. Roman., 29. prince of Tyrus, Thus saith the to the pit

, and thou shalt die the R. Roman., 29. Lord God; Because thine heart is lifted up, deaths of them that are slain in the midst of and a thou hast said, I am a god, I sit in the the seas. seat of God, bin the midst of the seas; yet 9 Wilt thou yet i say before him that slayeth thou art a man, and not God, though thou thee, I am God; but thou shalt be a man, and set thine heart as the heart of God :

no God, in the hand of him that k slayeth thee. 3 Behold, e thou art wiser than Daniel; there 10 Thou shalt die the deaths of the unciris no secret that they can hide from thee: cumcised by the hand of strangers : for I have

4. With thy wisdom and with thine under- spoken it, saith the Lord God. standing thou hast gotten thee riches, and hast 11 Moreover the word of the Lord came gotten gold and silver into thy treasures : unto me, saying, 5 ‘By thy great wisdom and by thy traffic

12 Son of man,”

take

up

a lamentation upon hast thou increased thy riches, and thine heart the king of Tyrus, and say unto him, Thus is lifted up because of thy riches :

saith the Lord God; Thou sealest up the 6 Therefore thus saith the Lord God; Be- sum, full of wisdom, and perfect in beauty. cause thou hast set thine heart as the heart 13 Thou hast been in °Eden the garden of of God;

God; every precious stone was thy covering, 7 Behold, therefore I will bring strangers the Psardius, topaz, and the diamond, the beupon thee, h the terrible of the nations : and ryl, the onyx, and the jasper, the sapphire, they shall draw their swords against the beauty the 'emerald, and the carbuncle, and gold :

a Ver. 9. Chap. xxvii. 3, 4. Heb. heart.md [sa. xxxi. 3. · Ver. 2. * Or, woundeth. Chap. xxxi. 18; xxxi. 19, 21, • Zech. ix. 2.- Heb. By the gřeatness of thy wisdom. Psa. 25, 27. Chap. xxvii. 2. – Chap. xxvii. 3; ver. 3. LoCh. lxii. 10; Zech. ix. 3. Chap. xxx. 11; xxxi. 12; xxxii. 12. xxxi, 8, 9. . Or, ruby. -4 Or, chrysolite. Or, chrysoprase. NOTES ON CHAP. XXVIII.

Verse 9. Wilt thou yet say before him that slayeth Verse 2. Say unto the prince of Tyrus] But who thee) Wilt thou continue thy pride and arrogance was this prince of Tyrus? Some think Hiram ; some, when the sword is sheathed in thee, and still imagine Sin; somè, the devil; others, Ithobaal, with whom the that thou art self-sufficient and independent? chronology and circumstances best agree. Origen Verse 10. The deaths of the uncircumcised] · Two. thought the guardian angel of the city was intended. deaths, temporal and eternal. Ithobaal was taken and : I am a god] That is, I am absolute, independent, killed by Nebuchadnezzar. and accountable to none. He was a man of great Verse 12. Thou sealest up] This bas been transpride and arrogance.

lated, “ Thou drawest thy own likeness.” “ Thou Verse 3. Thou art wiser than Daniel] Daniel was formest a portrait of thyself; and hast represented thyat this time living, and was reputable for his great self the perfection of wisdom and beauty.” I believe wisdom. This is said ironically. See chap. xiv. 14; this to be the meaning of the place. xxvi. 1.

Verse 13. Thou hast been in Eden] This also is a Verse 5. By thy great wisdom) He attributed every strong irony. Thou art like Adam, when in his innothing to himself; he did not acknowledge a Divine pro-cence and excellence he was in the garden of Eden ! vidence. As he got all by himself, so he believed he Every precious stone was thy covering) For a decould keep all by himself, and had no need of any fo- scription of these stones see the note on Exod. reign help.

xxviü. 17. Verse 7. I will bring strangers upon thee) The Verse 14. Thou art the anointed cherub that covereth] - Chaldeans,

The irony is continued ; and here he is likened to the

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