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The corrupt practices of
Aholah and Aholibah. in their sins, and pretended to have oracles of peace | already mentioned; because of the false worship so and safety when I had not spoken to them.
generally practised; because of the false prophets toleVerse 29. The people) Al that have power or au- rated ; because of the unholy and profane priesthood ; thority have abused it; dered and oppressed the poor, because of the oppressive princes; because of the unthe needy, and the stranger.
faithful and deceiving prophets; because of the oppresVerse 30. I sought for a man] I saw that there sions of petty officers; and because of the total corrupwas a grievous breach made in the moral state and tion of manners in all ranks, places, offices, &c. ;. feeling of the people, and I sought for a man that Have I poured out mine indignation—consumed would stand in the gåp; that would faithfully exhort, them with the fire of my wrath] Considering the above, reprove, and counsel, with all long-suffering and doc- has there not been sufficient reason why I should abantrine. But none was to be found !
don such a people, and pour out upon them such a de. Verse 31. Therefore] Because of the profligacies structive storm of calamities ?
B. C. cir. 593.
cir. annum 24.
The idolatries of Samaria and Jerusalem are represented in this chapter by the bad practices of two common
harlots, for which God denounces severe judgments against them, 1-49. See the sixteenth chapter, where the same metaphor is enlarged upon as here, it being the prophet's view to excite the utmost detestation of
the crime against which he inveighs. A. M. cir. 3411. THE word of the Lord came | Thus were their names ; Samaria 6.c. cirr
. 393.. OI. XLVI. 4. again unto me, saying, is e Aholah, and Jerusalem Aho- Ol. XLVI, 4. Tarquinii Prisci,
Tarquinii Prisci, R. Roman., 2 Şon of man, there were a'two libah.
R. Roman., women, the daughters of one 5 And Aholah played the harlot cir. annum 24. mother :
when she was mine ; and she doted on her 3 And they committed whoredoms in Egypt; lovers, on the Assyrians her neighbours, they committed whoredoms in their youth 6 Which were clothed with blue, captains there were their breasts pressed, and there and rulers, all of them desirable young men, they bruised the teats of their virginity. horsemen riding upon horses.
4 And the names of them were Aholah the ng Thus she h committed her whoredoms with elder, and Aholibah her sister: and d they them, with all them that were i the chosen men were mine, and they bare sons and daughters. of Assyria, and with all on whom she doted;
a Jer. ii. 7, 8, 10; chap. xvi. 46.- -b Lev. xvii. 7, Josh. xxiv. That is, My tabernacle in her ; 1 Kings viii. 29.- - 2 Kings 14; chap. xx. &- Chap. xvi. 22. d Chap. xvi. 8, 20. xv. 19; xvi. 7; xvii. 3; Hos. viii. 9. h Heb. bestowed her e That is, His lent, or tabernacle.
them. Heb, the choice of the children of Ashur,
NOTES ON CHAP. XXIII.
between idolatry and prostitution, and the circumstances Verse 2. Son of man, there were two women) All of the latter illustrate the peculiarities of the former. the Hebrews were derived from one source, Abraham In such cases, perhaps, the matter alone was given to and Sarah ; and, till the schism under Rehoboam, form- the prophet, and he was left to use his own language, ed but one people :, but as these ten tribes and a half and amplify as he saw good. Ezekiel was among the separated from Judah and Benjamin, they became two Jews what Juvenal was among the Romans, rough distinct people under different kings ; called the king- reprover of the ost abominable vices. They both dom of Judah, and the kingdom of Israel. They are spoke of things as they found them; stripped vice nacalled here, because of their consanguinity, two sisters. ked, and scourged it publicly. The original is still The elder, Samaria, (for there was the seat of govern- more rough than the translation; and surely there is ment for the kingdom of Israel,) was called hos aho- no need of a comment to explain imagery that is but lah, “ a tent.” The younger, Judah, was called 13:50s too generally understood. I have said enough on chap. aholibah," tent is in her," because the temple of xvi., and to that I must refer the reader. It is true God was in Jerusalem, the seat of the government of that there are a few things here in the shade that might the kingdom of Judah.
be illustrated by anatomy; and it would not be difficult Verse 5. And Aholah played the harlot) Without | to do it : but they are not necessary to salvation, and entering into detail here, or following the figures, they I shall not take off the covering. They were sufficiently both became idolatrous, and received the impure rites understood by those for whose use they were originally of the Egyptians, Assyrians, and Chaldeans; of which designed. connexion the prophet speaks here as he did in chap. Verse 6. Clothed with blue] The purple dye was xvi., which see.
highly valued among the ancients, and at first was 'only In this chapter there are many of what we would used by kings; at last it was used among the military, call indelicate expressions, because a parallel is run particularly by officers of high rank in the country.
The wickedness and punishment
of Aholah and Aholibah. A. M. cir. 3411. with all their idols she defiled | 17 And the Babylonians came A cor 341 Ol. XLVI. 4. herself.
to her into the bed of love, and they 01. XLVI. 4. Tarquinii Prisci, R. Roman.,
Tarquinii Prisci, 8 Neither left she her whore- defiled her with their whoredom, R. Roman, cir. annum 24.
doms brought * from Egypt: for and she was polluted with them, cir. annum 24. in her youth they lay with her, and they and-s her mind was y alienated from them. bruised the breasts of her virginity, and poured 18 So she discovered her whoredoms, and their whoredom upon her.
discovered her nakedness: then ? my mind 9 Wherefore I have delivered her into the was alienated from her, like-as my mind was hand' of her lovers, into the hand of the As- alienated from her sister. syrians, upon whom she doted.
19 Yet she multiplied her whoredoms in 10 These m discovered her nakedness : they calling to remembrance the days of her youth, took her sons and her daughters, and slew her wherein she had played the harlot in the land with the sword : and she became » famous of Egypt. among women : for they had executed judg- 20 For she doted upon their paramours, ment upon her.
b whose flesh is as the flesh of asses, and 11 And when her sister Aholibah saw this, whose issue is like the issue of horses. Pshe I was more corrupt in her inordinate love 21 Thus thou calledst to remembrance the than she, and in her whoredoms " more than lewdness of thy youth, in bruising thy teats her sister in her whoredoms.
by the Egyptians for the paps of thy youth. 12 She doted upon the s Assyrians her neigh- 22 Therefore, 0 Aholibah, thus saith the bours, captains and rulers clothed most gor- Lord God; · Behold, I will raise up thy lovers geously, horsemen riding upon horses, all of against thee, from whom thy mind is alienthem desirable young men.
ated, and I will bring them against thee on 13 Then I saw that she was defiled, that every they took both one way,
23 The Babylonians, and all the Chaldeans, 14 And that she increased her whoredoms : Pekod, and Shoa, and Koa, and all the As. for when she saw men pourtrayed upon the syrians with them : • all of them desirable wall, the images of the Chaldeans pourtrayed young men, captains, and rulers, great lords with vermilion,
and renowned, all of them riding upon horses. 15 Girded with girdles upon their loins, ex- 24 And they shall come against thee with ceeding in dyed attire upon their heads, all of chariots, wagons, and wheels, and with an them princes to look to, after the manner of assembly of people, which shall set against the Babylonians of Chaldea, the land of their thee buckler and shield and helmet round nativity :
about : and I will set judgment before them, 16 And as soon as she saw them with her and they shall judge thee according to their cyes, she doted upon them, and sent messen- judgments. gers unto them into Chaldea.
25 And I will set my jealousy against thee, 12 Kings xvii. 3, 4, 5, 6, 23; xviii. 9, 10, li. 1 Ver. 6, 23.- -u 2 Kings xxiv. l; chap. xvi. 29.—Heb. m Chap. xvi. 37, 41.-n Heb. a name. — Jer. iii. 8. —p Jer. at the sight of her eyes. Heb. children of Babel.
Ver. 22, mi. 11; chap. xvi. 47, 51.
—Heb. she corrupted her inordinate 28.-y Heb. loosed, or disjointed.
- Heb. more than the whoredoms of her sis. Chap. xvi. 26. Chap. xvi. 37 ; ver. 28. - Jer. I. 21. • 2 Kings xvi. 7, 10; 2 Chron. xxviii. 16–23; chap. xvi. 28. Ver. 12. Verse 14. Men pourtrayed upon the wall] See on appellatives-rulers, mighty men, and tyrants. Others, chap. viii. 10.
following the literal import of the words, have transVerse 20. She doled upon their paramours) onvabo lated, visiting, shouting, and retreating. Others have pillagsheyhem, their harlots or concubines. Anciently applied them to the habits of the Chaldean soldiers, harlot meant in our language either the male or female Pekod signifying the muster or review of armjes; Shoa, prostitute.
the magnificence of their uniform and arms; and Hoa, Whose flesh-is as the flesh of asses] See on chap. the marks or embroidery of the clothes of the captains xvi. 25.
and generals. Grotius thought that they might be Verse 23. Pekod, and Shoa, and Koa] vipiyio tipo. names of contiguous nations : Pekod, the Baotriars ; These names have been thought to designate certain Shoa, a people of Armenia ; and Koa, the Medes. I people bordering on the Chaldeans ; but no geographer have nothing to add that would satisfy myself, of be has ever been able to find them out.
edifying to my readers. In our old translations these names were considered Verse 25. Shall take away thy nose) A punishmens
* Ver. 3.
-Jer. vi. 8.
love more than, &c. fer.
OL. XLVI. 4. Tarquinii Prisci,
Tarquinii Prisci, R. Roman., nose and thine ears; and thy 34 Thou shalt 4 even drink it R. Roman.. cir, annum 24.
remnant shall fall by the sword : and suck it out, and thou shalt cir. annum 24. they shall take thy sons and thy daughters; break the sherds thereof, and pluck off thine and thy residue shall be devoured by the fire. own breasts : for I have spoken it, saith - the
26 ' They shall also strip thee out of thy Lord God. clothes, and take-away thy fair jewels. 35 Therefore thus saith the Lord God; Be
27 Thus b will I make thy lewdness to cease cause thou 'hast forgotten me, and cast me from thee, and i thy whoredom brought from behind thy back, therefore bear thou also thy the land of Egypt: so that thou shalt not lift lewdness and thy whoredoms. up thine eyes unto them, nor remember 36 The Lord said moreover unto me; Son Egypt any more.
of man, wilt thou judge « Aholah and Aho. 28 For thus saith the Lord God'; Behold, libah ? yea, declare unto them their abomiI will deliver thee into the hand of them "whom nations ; thau hatest into the hand of them from whom 37 That they have committed adultery, and thy mind is alienated :
w blood is in their hands, and with their idols 29 And they shall deal with thee hatefully, have they committed adultery, and have also and shall take away all thy labour, and - shall caused their sons, * whom they bare unto me, leave thee naked and bare : and the nakedness to pass for them through the fire, to devour them. of thy whoredoms shall be discovered, both 38 Moreover this they have done unto me thy lewdness and thy whoredoms.
they have defiled my sanctuary in the same 30 I will do these things unto thee, because day, and y have profaned my Sabbaths. thou hast " gone a whoring after the heathen, 39 For when they had slain their children and because thou art polluted with their idols. to their idols, then they came the same day
31 Thou hast walked in the way of thy into my sanctuary to profane it; and, lo, thus sister; therefore will I give her cup into have they done in the midst of mine house. thine hand.
40 And furthermore, that ye have sent for 32 Thus saith the Lord God; Thou shalt men * to come from far, bunto whom a messen drink of thy sister's cup deep and large : P thou ger was sent; and, lo, they came ; for whom shalt be laughed to scorn and had in derision; thou didst o wash thyself, d paintedst thy eyes, it containeth much.
and deckedst thyself with ornaments. 33 Thou shalt be filled with drunkenness and 41 And satest upon a • stately bed, and a sorrow, with the cup of astonishment and de- table prepared before it, whereupon thou Chap. xvi. 39. Heb, instruments of thy decking. - Ch. Or, plead for.
Chap. xvi. 38; ver. 45. xvi. 41, xxi. 15.
k Chap. xvi. 37. Ver. Chap. xvi. 20, 21, 36, 45; xx. 26, 31. —y Chap. xxii. 8. 17.—Chap. xvi. 39; ver. 26.-Chap. vi. 9. — Jer. xxv. 22 Kings xxi. 4. Heb. coming:- - Isa. lvii. 9. -c Ruth }5, &c. - Chap. xxii. 4; 5.—Psa. lxxv. &; Isa. li. 17. 11. 3.- -d 2 Kings ix. 30; Jer. iv. 30.- Heb. honourable.
Jer. ii. 32; ui. 21; xii. 25; chap. xxii. 12.-1 Kings xiv. "Esth. i. 6; Isa. lvii. 7; Amos ii. 8; vi. 4.- - Prov, vii. 17; 9; Neb. ix. 26. Chap. xx. 4; xxii. 2.
chap. xvi. 18, 19; Hos. ii, 8. frequent among the Persians and Chaldeans, as ancient Tunc vero rupique sinus, et pectora planxi. authors tell. Adulteries were punished in this way;
Ovid's Ep. 5. and to this Martial refers :
Verse 38. They have defiled my sanctuary] By Quis tibi persuasit nares abscindere mecho? placing idols there.
Verse 40. Thou didst wash thyself, paintedst thy * Who has counselled thee to cut off the adulterer's
eyes, and deckedst thyself with ornaments.] This is
exactly the way in which a loose female in Bengal Women were thus treated in Egypt. See Calmet. adorns herself to receive guests. She first bathes,
Verse 26. They shall also strip thee) See on chap. then rubs black paint around her eyes, and then xvi. 39.
covers her body with ornaments. —Ward's Customs. Verse 32. Thou shalt drink of thy sister's cup] Verse 41, And, satest upon a stately bed] Hast Thou shalt be ruined and desolated as Samaria was. raised a stately altar to thy idols ; probably alluding to
Verse 34. Thou shalt-pluck off thine own breasts] that which Ahaz ordered to be made, after the similiThou shalt tear them; a frequent action in extreme tude of that which he saw at Damascus. The bed here sorrow and desolation, Weeping, tearing the bosom, is in allusion to the sofas on which the ancients were and beating the breasts.
accustomed to recline at their meals; or to the couches
- Isa. lvii, 1
Ver. 3, 19.
B. C. cir. 593.
B. C. cir. 593.
Threatenings denounced against EZEKIEL
Aholah and Aholiba! A: M. cir
. 3411. hast set. mine incense and mine after the manner of women that A. M. eir. 3411. Ol. XLVI. 4." oil,
shed blood; because they are Tarquinii Prisci,
Tarquinii Prisci, R. Roman., 42 And a voice of a multitude adulteresses, and m blood is in R. Roman., cir. annum 24.
cir. annuin 24. being at ease was with her: and their hands, with the men h of the common sort were
ere 46 For thus saith the Lord God; "I will brought Sabeans from the wilderness, which bring up a company upon them, and will give put bracelets upon their hands, and beautiful them to be removed and spoiled. crowns upon their heads.
47 p And the company shall stone them with ..43 Then said I unto her that was old in stones, and 4 despatch them with their swords ; adulteries, Will they nowy commit k whoredoms they shall slay their sons and their daughters, with her, and she with them?
and burn up their houses with fire. 44 Yet they went in unto her, as they go in 48. Thus will I cause lewdness to cease out unto a woman that playeth the harlot: so of the land, that all women may be taught went they in unto Aholah and unto Aholibah, not to do after your lewdness.. the lewd women.
49 And they shall recompense your lewdness 45 And the righteous men, they shall judge upon you, and ye shall u bear the sins of your them after the manner of adulteresses, and idols: 'and ye shall know that I am the Lord God.
Heb. of the multitude of men. Or, drunkards. Heb. 9 Or, single them out.—12 Chron. xxxvi. 17, 19, chap. xxiv. her whoredome. Chap. xvi. 38. Ver. 37. Chap. xvi. Chap. xxii. 15; ver. 27. Deut. xii. 11; 2 Pet. ii. 6. 40. Heb. for a removing and spoil. -p Chap. xvi. 41.
u Ver. 35. Chap. xx. 38, 42, 44 ; xxv. 5. on which they place Asiatic brides, with incense pots Verse 47. Shall stone them with stones) As and sweetmeats on a table before them.
they did adulteresses under the law. See Lev. Verse 42. And a voice of a multitude] This seems to xx.
10, Deut. xxii. 22, compared with John be an account of an idolatrous festival, where a riotous viii. 3. multitude was assembled, and fellows of the baser sort, Verse 48. Thus will I cause lewdness to cease] with bracelets on their arms and chaplets on their heads, Idolatry; and from that time to the present day the performed the religious rites.
Jews never relapsed into idolatry. Verse 45. And the righteous men] op'ns D'VJ Verse 49. Ye shall bear the sins of your idols] The anashim tsaddikim.' The Chaldeans, thus called be punishment due to your adultery; your apostasy from cause they are appointed by God to execute judgment God, and setting up idolatry in the land. on these criminals.
The prophet now informs those of the captivity of the very day on which Nebuchadnezzar was to lay siege.
to Jerusalem, (compare Jer. lii. 4,) and describes the fate of that city and its inhabitants by a very apt similitude, 1-14. As another sign of the greatness of those calamities, the prophet is forbidden to '
mourn for his wife, of whom he is to be deprived ; intimating thereby that the sufferings of the Jews should be so astonishing as to surpass all expressions of grief ; and that private sorrow, however affectionate and tender the' object, ought to be absorbed in the public calamities, 15-18. · The prophet, having farther expressed his prediction in plain terms, intimates that he was to speak to them no more till they should have the news of these prophecies having been fulfilled, 19–27. A. M. 3414.
A. M, 3414. B. C. 590. AGAIN in the ninth year, in day, even of this same day: the
B. C. 590. Ol. XLVII. 3. the tenth month, in the tenth king of Babylon set himself OL XLVU. 3. Tarquinii Prisci, day of the month, the a word of against Jerusalem b this same Tarquinii Prisci, R. Roman., 27. the Lord came unto me, saying, day.
R. Roman., 27. 2 Son of man, write thee the name of the 3 . And utter a parable unto the rebellious a Chap. xxiii. l. _b2 Kings xxv. 1; Jer. xxxix. 1; lii. 4.
cChap. xvii. 12. NOTES ON CHAP. XXIV.
Verse 3. Set on pot) · The pot was Jerusalem ; Verse 1. The ninth year] This prophecy was given the flesh, the inhabitants in general; every good piece, in the ninth year of Zedekiah, about Thursday, the the thigh and the shoulder, King Zedekiah and his thirtieth of January, A. M. 3414; the very day in family; the bones, the soldiers; and the setting on the which the king of Babylon commenced the siege of pot, the commencement of the siege. The prophet Jerusalem.
was then in Mesopotamia ; and he was told particularly
A. M. 3414.
B. C. 590. OI. XLVII. 3.
to a boiling pot.
coals thereof, that the brass of it R. Roman., 27. 4 Gather the pieces thereof into it, even may be hot, and may burn, and that the every good piece, the thigh, and the shoulder ; filthiness of it may be molten in it, that the fill it with the choice bones.
scum of it may be consumed. 5 Take the choice of the flock, and e burn 12 She hath wearied herself with lies, and also the bones under it, and make it boil well, her great scum went not forth out of her: her and let them seethe the bones of it therein. scum shall be in the fire.
6 Wherefore thus saith the Lord God; Wo 13 In thy filthiness is lewdness; because I to f the bloody city, to the pot whose scum is have purged thee, and thou wast not purged, therein, and whose scum is not gone out of thou shalt not be purged from thy filthiness it! bring it out piece by piece; let no 8 lot any more, m till I have caused my fury to rest fall upon it.
7 For her blood is in the midst of her; she 14 n I the Lord have spoken it: it shall come set it upon the top of a rock; "she poured it to pass, and I will do it; I will not go back; not upon the ground, to cover it with dust; neither will I spare, neither will I repent;
8 That it might cause fury to come up to according to thy ways, and according to thy take vengeance; I have set her blood upon doings, shall they judge thee, saith the Lord
top of a rock, that it should not be covered. God. 9 Therefore thus saith the Lord God; \ Wo 15 Also the word of the Lord came unto to the bloody city! I will even make the pile me, saying,
16 Son of man, behold, I take away from 10 Heap on wood, kindle the fire, consume thee the desire of thine
with a stroke :
for fire great.
See Jer. i. 13; chap. xi. 3. Or, heap.- - Chap. xxii. 3; h Lev. xvii. 13; Deut. xii. 16, 24. Matt. vii. 2. -* Ver. xxiii. 37; ver. 9.- 6 See 2 Sam. viii. 2; Joel iii. 3 ; Obad. 11;1.6; Nah. iii. 1; Hab. ii. 12. — Chap. xxii. 15.--- Chap. v. Nah. ii. 10.
13; viii. 18; xvi. 42.- 1 Sam. xv. 29.- Chap. v. 11.
to mark the day, &c., that it might be seen how pre- poured none upon the ground to cover it with dust, in cisely the spirit of prophecy had shown the very day horror of that moral evil that required the blood of an in which the siege took place. Under the same image innocent creature to be shed, in order to the atonement of a boiling pot, Jeremiah had represented the siege of the offender's guilt. To "cover the blood of the of Jerusalem, chap. i. 13. · Ezekiel was a priest ; the victim," was a command of the law, Lev. xvii. 13; action of boiling pots was familiar to him, as these Deut. xii. 24. things were much in use in the temple service.
Verse 8. That it might cause fury} This very Verse 5. Make it boil well] Let it boil over, that blood shall be against them, as the blood of Abel was its own scum may augment the fire, that the bones against Cain. the soldiers, may be seethed therein. Let its conten- Verse 10. Heap on wood) Let the siege be severe, the tions, divided counsels, and disunion be the means of carnage great, and the ruin and catastrophe complete. increasing its miseries. 'nninna rattach rethacheyha, Verse 13. In thy filthiness is lewdness) noi zimlet it bubble its bubbling ; something like that of the mah, a word that denominates the worst kinds of impoet
purity; adultery, incest, &c., and the purpose; wish, “ Bubble, bubble, toil and trouble :
design, and ardent desire to do these things. Hers Fire burn, and cauldron bubble."
were not accidental sins, they were abominations by
design; and they were the worse in her, because God Very like the noise made by ebullition, when a pot had cleansed her, had separated the Israelites from idolof thick broth, “sleek and slab,” is set over a fierce atry and idolatrous nations, and by his institutions refire. Such was that here represented, in which all the moved from them all idolatrous incentives.
But they flesh, the fal, and the bones were to be boiled, and formed alliances with the heathen, and adopted all their generally dissolved together.
abominations; therefore God would not spare them. Verse 6. Let no lot fall upon it.]
Pull out the flesh See ver. 14. indiscriminately ; let no piece be chosen for king or Verse 16. Behold, I take away from thee the desire priest ; thus showing that all should be involved in one of thine eyes] Here is an intimation that the stroke indiscriminate ruin.
he was to suffer was to be above all grief; that it would Verse 7. For her blood is in the midst of her] She be so great as to prevent the relief of tears. gloried in her idol sacrifices ; she offered them upon a Curæ leves loquuntur, graviores silent, rock, where the blood should remain evident; and she is a well-accredited maxim in such cases. Superficial