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The sinner shall perish;


the righteous shall be safe. A. M. 3410.

9 Hath walked in my statutes, the house of Israel, hath not deOL. XLVI. 3. and hath kept my judgments, to filed his neighbour's wife, Tarquinii Prisci, deal truly; he is just, he shall

16 Neither hath oppressed any, Tarquinii Prisci, R. Roman., 23.

R. Roman., 23. surely m live, saith the Lord God. " hath not withholden the pledge, 10 If he beget à son that is a "robber, oa neither hath spoiled by violence, but hath given shedder of blood, and P that doeth the like to his bread to the hungry, and hath covered the any one of these things,

naked with a garment, 11 And that doeth not any of those duties, 17 That hath taken off his hand from the but even hath eaten upon the mountains, and poor, that hath not received usury nor indefiled his neighbour's wife,

crease, hath executed my judgments, hath 12 Hath oppressed the poor and needy, hath walked in my statutes; he shall not die for the spoiled by violence, hath not restored the iniquity of his father, he shall surely live. pledge, and hath lifted up his eyes to the idols, 18 As for his father, because he cruelly hath 4 committed abomination,

oppressed, spoiled his brother by violence, and 13 Hath given forth upon usury, and hath did that which is not good among his people, taken increase : shall he then live ? he shall lo, even "he shall die in his iniquity. not live: he hath done all these abominations; 19 Yet say ye, Why? w doth not the son bear he shall surely die; 'his blood shall be upon the iniquity of the father? When the son him.

hath done that which is lawful and right, and 14 Now, lo, if he beget a son, that seeth all hath kept all my statutes, and hath done them, his father's sins which he hath done, and he shall surely live. considereth, and doeth not such like,

20. * The soul that sinneth, it shall die. 15 That hath not eaten upon the mountains, The son shall not bear the iniquity of the neither hath lifted up his eyes to the idols of father, neither shall the father bear the iniquity

Chap. xx. 11; Amos v. 4.0 Or, breaker up of a house. t Vér. 6, &c.- Heb. hath not pledged the pledge, or taken to © Gen. ix. 6; Exod. xxi. 12; Num. xxxv. 31. —P Or, that doeth pledge.- Chap. iii. 18. w Exod. xx. 5; Deut. v.9; 2 Kings 10 his brother besides any of these.-—-1 Chap. viii, 6, 17.—Lev. xxiii. xxiv. 3, 4.- Ver. 4.-y Deut. xxiv. 16; xx. 9, 11, 12, 13, 16, 27; chap. iii. 18; xxxii. 4; Acts xviii. 6. 2 Kings xiv. 6;. 2 Chronicles xxv. 4; Jeremiah xxxi. s Heb. bloods.


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29, 30.

to bite; usury is properly so termed, because it bites man; he has given to all their due ; he has abstained into and devours the principal. Usury signifies, with from every appearance of evil, and done that which us, exacting unlawful interest for money; and taking was lawful and right in the sight of God. the advantage of a man's necessities to advance him He shall surely live] He has lived to me, and he cash on exorbitant profit. This bites the receiver in shall live with me. his property, and the lender in his salvation.

Verse 10. If he beget a son] Who is the reverse 11. Neither hath taken any increase] In lending has of the above righteous character, according to the thirnot required more than was lent; and has not taken teen articles already specified and explained. that product of the cash lent, which was more than the Verse 13. Shall he then live?] Because his father value for its use. This may be a part of the tenth was a righteous man, shall the father's holiness be itarticle.

puted to him? No! 12. That hath withdrawn his hand from iniquity] He shall surely die ; his blood shall be upon him.] Never associates with those who act contrary to jus- He shall suffer for his own crimes. tice and equity; his hand or influence being never found Verse 14. Now, lo, if he beget a son that seeth all among evil workers.

his father's sinsand considereth] Lays to heart the 13. Hath executed true judgment between man and evil of his father's life, and the dreadful consequences man] Being neither swayed by prejudice, fear, nor of a life of rebellion against God. favour.

And doeth not such like) Is quite a different man These thirteen points concern his social and civil in moral feeling and character; and acts up to the relations.

thirteen points already laid down, Verse 9. Hath walked in my statutes) Not only Verse 17. He shall not die for the iniquity of his acknowledging them to be right, but acting according father) · He shall no more be affected by his father's to them. Especially in every thing that relates to my crimes, than his father was benefited by his grandworship, changing nothing, neglecting nothing. father's righteousness.

And hath kept my judgments, to deal truly] Has Verse 20. The soul that sinneth, it shall die.) attended to my Divine direction, both with respect to Hitherto we have had to do with the simple cases of things forbidden, and things commanded. These con- the righteous and the wicked; of him who lived and cern men in their religious conduct.

died a holy man, and of him who lived and died a He is just] xin poor tsaddik hy. He is a righteous wicked man. But there are two cases behind : 1. That

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Of the righteous man that

CHAP. XVIII. falls from his righteousness. A. M. 3410.

of the son: z the righteousness of trespassed, and in his sin that he B. C. 594. 01. XLVI. 3. the righteous shall be upon him, hath sinned, in them shall he die. Tarquinii Prisci, a and the wickedness of the wick- 25 -Yet ye say, & The way of Tarquinii Prisci, R. Roman., 23. ed shall be upon


the Lord is not equal. Hear R. Roman., 23. 21 But if the wicked will turn from all his now, O house of Israel ; Is not my way equal ? sins that he hath committed, and keep all my are not your ways unequal ? statutes, and do that which is lawful and right, 26 - When a righteous man turneth away he shall surely live, he shall not die.

from his righteousness, and committeth ini22 © All his transgressions that he hath com- quity, and dieth in them; for his iniquity that mitted, they shall not be mentioned unto him: he hath done shall be die. in his righteousness that he hath done he 27 Again, i when the wicked man turneth shall live.

away from his wickedness that he hath com23 a Have I any pleasure at all that the mitted, and doeth that which is lawful and wicked should die ? saith the Lord God: and right, he shall save his soul alive. not that he should return from his ways,

and 28 Because he considereth, and turneth live?

away from all his transgressions that he hath 24 But when the righteous turneth away committed, he shall surely live, he shall not die. from his righteousness, and committeth iniquity, 29 Yet saith the house of Israel, The way and doeth according to all the abominations of the Lord is not equal. O house of Israel, that the wicked-man doeth, shall he live? are not my ways equal ? are not your ways All his righteousness that he hath done shall unequal ? not be mentioned : in his trespass that he hath 30 m Therefore I will judge, you, O house of

*Isa. ii. 10, 11.- Rom. i.9.Ver. 27 ;-chap. xxxiii. 12,- è Chap. iii. 20; xxxiii. 12, 13, 18.-- -r2 Pet. ii. 20.-Ver. 19. Chap. xxxin. 16. Ver. 32; chap. xxxiii. 11; 1 Tim. 29; chap. xxxiii. 17, 20.- Lb Ver. 24 i Ver. 21. - Ver. 14. ü. 4; 2 Pet. iii. 9.

1. Ver. 25.- Chap. vi. 3; xxxiii. 20. of the wicked man, who repents and turns to God. nonentity. There is no righteousness or holiness but 2. That of the righteous man, who backslides, and does what himself infuses into the soul of man, and as to not return to God by repentance. On both these cases self-righteousness, i. e., a man's supposing himself to God decides thus :

be righteous when he has not the life of God in his Verse 21. But if the wicked will turn from all his soul, it is the delusion of a dark and hardened heari ; sins) And afterwards walk according to the character therefore it is the real righteous principle and righteous of the righteous already specified; shall he find mercy, practice that God speaks of here. And he tells us, that and be for ever saved? Yes,

a man may so turn away from this," and so “commit Verse 22. All his transgressions] Shall be so 'com- iniquity,” and “ act as the wicked man,” that his rightpletely forgiven by God's mercy, that they shall not cousness shall be no more mentioned to his account, than be even mentioned to him ; and if he live and die in this the sins of the penitent backslider should be mentioned recovered state, he shall live with God to all eternity. to his condemnation ; and “ in the sin that he,” this And why? Hear the reason :-

once righteous man, "hath sinned, and in the trespass Verse 23. Have I any pleasure at all that the wicked that he hath trespassed, in them shall he die.” 0, how should die?) No! That is foreign to him whose name awful a termination of a life once distinguished for is love, and whose nature is mercy. On the contrary righteousness and true holiness! So then, God himself he "wills that he should return from his evił ways and informs us that a righteous man may, not only fall live."

foully, but fall finally. But to such righteous persons And if God can have no pleasure in the death of the the devil will ever preach; “ Ye shall not surely die ; wicked, he cannot have made a decree to abandon him ye shall be as God.” Touch, taste, and handle ; ye canto the evil of his nature, and then damn him for what not ultimately fall. Thus we find, by the manner of he could not avoid : for as God can do nothing with treating these two cases, that God's way is equal, ver. which he is not pleased, so he can decree nothing with 25; just, merciful, and impartial. And to prove this, which he is not pleased. But he is “not pleased with he sums up his conduct in the above cases, in the folthe death of a sinner ;" therefore he cannot have made lowing verses, 26, 27, 28, 29. And then, that the a decree to bring him to this death.

“wicked may not die in his sins," and that the “ backVerse 24. When the righteous turneth away from slider may return and find mercy,” he thus exhorts :his righteousness] Here is the second case.

Verse 30. Repent, and turn yourselves from all man who was once holy and pure, fall away so as to your transgressions] There is still life; still a God perish everlastingly? Yes. For God says, “ If he turn that has no pleasure in the death of a sinner, one who away from his righteousness;" not his self-righteous- is ever ready to give his Holy Spirit to all them that ness, the gloss of theologians : for God never speaks ask him; therefore" repent and turn, so iniquity shall of turning away from that, for, in his eyes, that is a not be your rúin.".

Can a

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Can ye

God has no pleasure in


the death of the wicked. Israel, every one according to make you a 9 new heart and a

A. M. 3410. B. C. 594. OI. XLVI. 3. his ways, saith the Lord God. new spirit : for why will ye die, Ol. XLVI. 3. Tarquinii Prisci, "Repent, and turn yourselves O house of Israel ?

Tarquinii Prisci, R. Roman., 23. from all your transgressions ; so

32 For I have no pleasure in R. Roman., 22 iniquity shall not be your ruin.

the death of him that dieth, saith the Lord 31 P Cast


your transgres- God:

wherefore turn yourselves, and sions, whereby ye have transgressed ; and live ye. u Mati. iii. 2; Rev. ii. 5.40 Or, others. p Eph. iv. 22, 23. Lam. iii. 33; ver. 23; chap. xxxiii. 11; 2 Pet. iii. 9. OT, 7 Jer. xxxii. 39; chap. xi. 19; xxxvi. 26.

others. Verse 31. Cast away] With a holy violence, dash Dieto know what the worm is that never dieth, and away every transgression and incentive to it.

what that fire is which is never quenched! Why will Make you a new heart] Call upon God for it, and he


die ? will give it : for as sure as you earnestly call on God Verse 32. For I have no pleasure] God repeats through Christ to save you, so surely you shall be what he had so solemnly declared before. saved; and the effect will so speedily follow, that God doubt his sincerity ? his ability ? his willingness ? the is pleased to attribute that in some sort to yourselves, efficacy of the blood of his covenant ? which is done by his grace alone ; because ye earnestly Wherefore turn yourselves, and live ye.] Reader, call upon him for it, come in the right way to receive now give God thy heart. it, and are determined never to rest till you have it. Though every man comes into the world with a

For why will ye die) Why should you go to hell fallen naturea soul infected with sin, yet no man is while the kingdom of God is open to receive you ? damned on that account. He who refuses that grace Why should you be the devil's slaves, when ye may be which pardons sin and heals infected nature, who perChrist's freemen? WHY WILL YE DIE ? Every word mits the evil principle to break out into transgression, is emphatic, Why-show God or man one reason. and continues and dies in his iniquity and sin, and will Will-obstinacy alone,-a determination not to be not come unto Christ that he may have life; he, and saved, or a voluntary listlessness about salvation,

,--can he only, goes to perdition. Nor will the righteousness prevent you. Ye-children of so many mercies, fed of a parent or relation help his sinful soul : no man can and supported by a kind God all your life ; ye, who have more grace than is necessary to save himself ; are redeemed by the blood of Jesus Christ; ye, who , and none can have that, - who does not receive it have made many promises to give up yourselves to through Christ Jesus. It is the mercy of God in God; ye, who have been dedicated to the ever-blessed Christ which renders the salvation of a sinner possible; Trinity, and promised to renounce the devil and all his and it is that mercy alone which can heal the backworks, the pomps and vanities of this wicked world, slider. The atoning blood blots out all that is past; and all the sinful lusts of the flesh; why will ye die ? the same blood cleanses from all unrighteousness. Die !--what is this ? · A separation from God and the Who believes so as to apply for this redemption ? glory of his power for ever! Die !--forfeiting all the Who properly thanks God for having provided such a purposes for which your immortal souls were made! Saviour ?


This chapter contains two beautiful examples of the parabolic kind of writing ; the one lamenting the sad

catastrophe of Jehoahaz- and Jehoiakim, 1-9, and the other describing the desolation and captivity of the whole people, 10–14. In the first parable, the lioness is Jerusalem. The first of the young lions is Jehoahaz, deposed by the king of Egypt; and the second lion is Jehoiakim, whose rebellion drew on himself the vengeance of the king of Babylon. In the second parable the vine is the Jewish nation, which long prospered, its land being fertile, its princes powerful, and its people flourishing'; but the judgments of God, in consequence of their guilt, had now destroyed a great part of the people, and doomed the rest to captivity. A. M. 3410. B. C. 594.

MOREOVER take thou up A lioness: she lay down among Ol. XLVI. 3. a lamentation for the princes lions, she nourished her whelps 01. XLVI. 3. Tarquinii Prisci, of Israel,

among young lions.

Tarquinä Prisci, R. Roman., 23. 2 And say, What is thy mother? 3. And she brought up one of R. Roman., 23

a Chap. xxvi. 17; xxvii. 2. NOTES ON CHAP. XIX.

Compose a funeral dirge. Show the melancholy fate Verse 1. Moreover take thou up a lamentation] De- of the kings who proceeded from Josiah. The proclare what is the great subject of sorrow in Israel. phet deplores the misfortune of Jehoahaz and Jehola

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The parable of the


lioness and her whelps. A. M. 3410. her whelps : bit became a young 8 h Then the nations set against

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B. C. 594. 01. XLVI. 3. lion, and it learned to catch the him on every side from the Ol. XLVI. 3. Tarquinii Prisci, prey ; it devoured men. provinces, and spread their net Tarquinii Priser, R. Roman., 23. 4 The nations also heard of him; over him: i he was taken in

R. Roman., 23. he was taken in their pit, and they brought their pit. him with chains unto the land of Egypt. 9 k And they put him in ward 'in chains,

5 Now when she saw that she had waited, and brought him to the king of Babylon : and her hope was lost, then she took another they brought him into holds, that his voice of her whelps, and made him a young lion. should no more be heard


m the mountains 6 e And he went up and down among the of Israel. lions, he became a young lion, and learned 10 Thy mother is n like a vine in thy blood, to catch the prey, and devoured men. planted by the waters : she was P fruitful and

7 And he knew & their desolate palaces, and full of branches by reason of many waters. he laid waste their cities; and the land was 11 And she had strong rods for the sceptres desolate, and the fulness thereof, by the noise of them that bare rule, and her 4 stature was of his roaring.

exalted among the thick branches, and she o Ver. 6: 2 Kings xxiii. 31, 32.—2 Kings xxiii. 33 ; 2 Chron. k 2 Chron. xxxvi. 6; Jer. xxii. 18.- Or, in hooks. Xxxvi. 4; Jer. xxij. 11, 12. -d 2 Kings xxiii. 34. Jer. xxiii. vi. 2. - Chap. xvii. 6.- Or, in thy quietness, or in thy 13-17. Ver. 3. -8 Or, their widows.- ab 2 Kings xxiv. 2. likeness. Deut. vii. 7, 8, 9. — So chap. xxxi. 3; Dan. iVer. 4.

iv. Il. kim, under the figure of two lion whelps, which were atrous as any of the surrounding nations.

He reigned taken by hunters, and confined in cages. Next he eleven years, a monster of iniquity, 2 Kings xxiii. shows the desolation of Jerusalem under Zedekiah, 30, &c. which he compares to a beautiful vine pulled up by the Verse 8. The nations set against him] The Chalroots, withered, and at last-burned. , Calmet justly ob- deans, Syrians, Moabites, and Ammonites, and the king serves, that the style of this song is beautiful, and the of Babylon--king of many nations. allegory well supported throughout.

He was taken] The city was taken by NebuchadVerse 2. What is thy mother? A lioness) Judea nezzar; and Jehoiakim was taken prisoner, and sent may here be the mother; the lioness, Jerusalem. Her in chains to Babylon. lying down among lions, her having confederacy with Verse 9. That his voice should no more be heard) the neighbouring kings ; for lion here means king. He continued in prison many years, till the reign of

Verse 3. She brought up one of her whelps] Jeho- Evil-merodach, who set him at liberty, but never sufahaz, son of Josiah, whose father was 'conquered and fered him to return to the mountains of Israel. slain by Pharaoh-necho, king of Egypt.

unhappy fate of these princes, mentioned ver. 4, 8, 9, It learned to catch the prey] His reign was a reign is a just subject of lamentation.”—Newcome. of oppression and cruelty. He made his subjects his Verse 10. Thy mother (Jerusalem) is like a vine in prey, and devoured their substance.

thy blood] Of this expression I know not what to Verse 4. The nations also heard of him] The king make. Some think the meaning is, “ A vine planted of Egypt, whose subjects were of divers nations, by the waters to produce the blood of the grape.” See marched against Jerusalem, took Jehoahaz prisoner, Deut. xxxii. 14. Others, for 1972 bedamecha, in thy and brought him to Egypt. Thus

blood, would read ;1973 berimmon, in or at a pomeHe was laken in their pit] Here is an allusion to granate ; like a vine planted by or beside a pomethose lrap-pits digged in forests, into which the wild granate-tree, by which it was to be supported. “And beasts fall, when the huntsmen, surr nding a given so the Septuagint and Arabic appear to have read. portion of the forest, drive the beasts in ; by degrees Calmet reads 1377 carmecha, thy vineyard, instead of narrowing the inclosure, till the animals come to the 1993 bedamecha, in thy blood. Here is no change but place where the pits are, which, being lightly covered a 1 resh for a 7 daleth. This reading is supported by over with branches and turf, are not perceived, and the one of Kennicott's and one of De Rossi's MSS. : “ Thy beasts tread on them and fall in. Jehoahaz reigned mother is like a vine in thy vineyard, planted by the only three months before he was dethroned by the king. 'waters.” Though this is rather an unusual construcof Egypt, against whom it is apparent some craft was tion, yet it seems the best emendation. Of the textual used, here signified by the pit, into which he fell. reading no sense can be made. There is a corruption

Verse 5. When she saw that she had waited] Being somewhere. very weak, the Jews found that they could not resist Full of branches). Many princes. See next verse. with any hope of success.; so the king of Egypt was Verse 11. She had strong rods] Zedekiah, and his permitted to do as he pleased.

many sons. She took another of her whelps] Jehoiakim. Her stature was exalted] Zedekiah grew proud of And made him a young lion.) King of Judea. his numerous offspring and prosperity; and although

Verse 6. And he went up and down among the lions] he copied the example of Jehoiakim, yet he thought He became a perfect heathen, and made Judea as idol- he might safely rebel against the king of Babylon.

« The

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The elders of Israel


consult the prophet. A. M. 3410.

A. M. 3410. appeared in her height with the ness, in a dry and thirsty B. C. 594.

B. C. 594. OI. XLVI. 3. multitude of her branches. ground.

Ol. XLVI. 3. Anno

Anno Tarquinii Prisci,

12 But she was plucked up in 14 s And fire is gone out of Tarquinii Prisci, R. Roman., 23.

R. Roman., 23. fury, she was cast down to the a rod of her branches, which ground, and the cast wind dried up her fruit : hath devoured her fruit, so that she hath her strong rods were broken and withered; the no strong rod to be a sceptre to rule. This fire consumed them.

is a lamentation, and shall be for a lamen13 And now she is planted in the wilder- tation. Chap. xvii. 10; Hos. xiii. 15.

. Judg. ix. 15; 2 Kings xxiv. 20; chap. xvii. 18. - Lam. iv. 20 Verse 12. But she was plucked up in fury] Jeru- Hath devoured her fruit] Hath assassinated salem ; taken after a violent and most destructive siege ; Gedaliah, slain many people, and carried off others Nebuchadnezzar being violently enraged against Zede- into the country of the Ammonites. But he was kiah for breaking his oath to him.

pursued by Jonathan, the son of Kareah, who slew She was cast down to the ground] Jerusalem was many of his adherents, and delivered much of the totally ruined, by being burned to the ground. people.

Her strong rods were broken] The children of She hath no' stròng rod] None of the bloodZedekiah were slain before his eyes, and after that his royal of Judah left. And from that time not one own eyes pulled out.; and he was laden with chains, of her own royal race ever sat upon the throne of and carried into Babylon.

Israel. Verse 13. And now she is planted in the wilderness) This is a lamentation] This is a most lamentable In the land of Chaldea, whither the people have been business. carried captives; and which, compared with their own And shall be for a lamentation.] These predictions land, was to them a dreary wilderness.

shall be so punctually fulfilled, and the catastrophe shall Verse 14. Fire is gone out] A vindictive and mar- be so complete, that it shall ever remain as a lamentaderous disposition has taken hold

tion; as this state of Jerusalem shall never be restored. Of a rod of her branches] Ishmael, son of Netha- Even to the present day this, to a Jew, is a subject of niah, who was of the blood-royal of Judah, mourning.

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A deputation of the elders of Israel, as usual, in their distress, came to request. Ezekiel to ask counsel of

God, 1. In reply to this, God commands the prophet to put them in mind of their rebellion and idolalry:
In Egypt, 2-9, in the wilderness, 10–27, and in Canaan, 28–32. Notwithstanding which the Lord most
graciously promises to restore them to their own land, after they should be purged from their dross, 33–44.
The five last verses of this chapter ought to begin the next, as they are connected with the subject of that
chapter, being a prophecy against Jerusalem, which lay to the south of Chaldea, where the prophet then
was, and which here and elsewhere is represented under the emblem of a forest doomed to be destroyed by
fire, 45–49.
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AND it came to pass in the 3 Son of man, speak unto the A. M. 3411.
Ol. XLVI. 4. seventh year, in the fifth elders of Israel, and say unto OL XLVI. 4.
Tarquinii Prisci, month, the tenth day of the month, them, Thus saith the Lord GOD; Tarquinii Prisci,
R. Roman., 24. that a certain of the elders of Is- Are ye come to inquire of me? R. Roman, 24.
rael came to inquire of the LORD, and sat be- As I live, saith the Lord God, b I will not be

inquired of by you.
2 Then came the word of the Lord unto 4 Wilt thou judge them, son of man, wilt
me, saying,

thou judge them?, cause them to know a Chap. viü. 1; xiv. 1.- Ver. 31; chap. xiv. 3. -c Or, plead for them. -d Chap. xxii. 2; xxiii. 36.—Chap. xvi. 2. NOTES ON CHAP. XX.

God cornmands the prophet to treat them. It seems
Verse 1. In the seventh year] of the captivity of to have been such a deputation of elders as those men-
Jeconiah, (see chap. vii. 1,) and the seventh of the tioned chap. viii. 1 and xiv. 1.
reign of Zedekiah.

Verse 3. I will not be inquired of by you.) I will
The fifth month, the tenth day. That is, according not hear you. I will have nothing to do with you.
to Abp. Usher, Monday, August 27, A. M. 3411. Verse 4. Will thou judge them] If thou wilt enter

Certain of the elders of Israel] What these came into any discussion with them, show them the abomito inquire about is not known. They were doubtless nation of their fathers. The whole chapter is a conhypocrites and deceivers, from the manner in which 'secutive history of the unfaithfulness, ingratitude, re

fore me.

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