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The spiritual origin


of the apostate Israelites A. M. 3410. which I have given to the fire ye shall know that I am the LORD,

A. M. 3410 B. C. 594.

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OI. XLVI. 3. for fuel, so will I give the inhabi- when I set my face against 01. XLVI. 3

Tarquinii Prisci, tants of Jerusalem.


Tarquinii Prisci, R. Roman., 23.

7 And I will set my face 8 And I will make the land R. Roman., 23. against them : . they shall go out from one desolate, because they have 8 committed a fire, and another fire shall devour them; f and trespass, saith the Lord God. Lev. xvii. 10; chap. xiv. 8. - Isa. xxiv. 18.—1 Chap. vi,7; vii. 4; xi. 10; xx. 38, 42, 44.—Heb. trespassed a trespass.

The design of this parable is to abate the pride of will be impossible. It will be to them according to the Jews; to show them that, in their best estate, they the proverb : had nothing but what they had received, and therefore

Incidit in Scyllam, cupiens vitare Charybdim. deserved nothing; and now, having fallen from all righteousness, they can have no expectation of any

“Out of the scald, into the flame.” thing but judgment unmixed with mercy.

Verse 8. They have committed a trespass] They Verse 7. They shall go out from one fire, and ano- have prevaricated; they are the worst of sinners, and ther fire shall devour them] If they escape the sword, shall have the heaviest of punishments. Can men supthey shall perish by the famine ; if they escape the pose that it is possible to hide even their dark hearts famine, they shall be led away captives. To escape from God?

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In this chapter the mercy of God to Jerusalem, (or the Jewish Church and nation,) is set forth by the em

blem of a person that should take up an exposed infant, bring her up with great tenderness, and afterwards
marry her, 1-14.

She is then upbraided with her monstrous ingratitude in departing from the worship
of God, and polluting herself with the idolatries of the nations around her, under the figure of a woman
that proves false to a tender and indulgent husband, 15-52. But, notwithstanding these her heinous pro-
vocations, God promises, after she should suffer due correction, to restore her again to his favour, 53–63.
The mode of describing apostasy from the true religion to the worship of idols under the emblem of adul-
tery, (a figure very frequent in the sacred canon,) is pursued with great force, and at considerable length,
both in this and the twenty-third chapter ; and is ercellently calculated to excite in the Church of God the
highest detestation of all false worship.
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A. M. 3410.
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A GAIN the word of the Lord 3 And say, Thus saith the Lord

B. C. 594.
OL. XLVI. 3. came unto me, saying, God unto Jerusalem; Thy - birth OI. XLVI. 3.

2 Son of man, Tarquinii Prisci,

* cause Je- and thy nativity is of the land Tarquinii Prisci, R. Roman., 23. rusalem to know her abomi- of Canaan ; d thy father was an

R. Roman., 23. nations,

Amorite, and thy mother a Hittite. a Chap. xx. 4; xxii. 2; xxxii. 7, 8, 9.

b Heb. cutting out, or habitation. —Chap. xxi. 30.- d Ver. 45. NOTES ON CHAP. XVI.

that you sprung from him : ye are rather Canaanites Verse 2. Cause Jerusalem to know her abomina- than Israelites. The Canaanites were accursed ; so tions] And such a revelation of impurity never was

are ye. seen before or since. Surely the state of the Jews, Thy father was an Amorite, and thy mother a Hitbefore the Babylonish captivity, was the most profli- tite.] These tribes were the most famous, and progate and corrupt of all the nations of the earth. This bably the most corrupt, of all the Canaanites.

So chapter contains God's manifesto against this most Isaiah calls the princes of Judah rulers of Sodom, abominable people ; and although there are many me- chap. i. 10 ; and John the Baptist calls the Pharisees taphors here, yet all is not metaphorical. Where there a generation or brood of vipers, Matt. iii. 7. There is was so much idolatry, there must have been adulte a fine specimen of this kind of catachresis in Dido's ries, fornications, prostitutions, and lewdness of every invective against Æneas :description. The description of the prophet is suffi

Nec tibi Diva parens, generis nec Dardanus auctor, ciently clear, except where there is a reference to ancient and obsolete customs. What a description of

Perfide; sed duris genuit te cautibus horrens crimes ! The sixth satire of Juvenal is its counter

Caucasus, Hyrcanæque admorunt ubera tigres.

Æn. lib. iv. 365. part.

General remarks are all that a commentator is justified in bestowing on this very long, very circum- “ False as thou art, and more than false, forsworn; stantial, and caustic invective. For its key, see on Not sprung from noble blood, nor goddess bom : the thirteenth and sixty-third verses.

But hewn from hardened entrails of a rock, Verse 3. Thy birth and thy nativity is of the land And rough Hyrcanian tigers gave thee suck." of Canaan] It would dishonour Abraham to say


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The wretched and exposed

CHAP. XVI. infant taken up and educated. A. M. 3410.

4 And as for thy nativity, .in | 8 Now when I passed by thee, OL. XLVI. 3. the day thou wast born, thy navel and looked upon thee, behold, thyol. XLVI. 3. Tarquinii Prisci, was not cut, neither wast thou time was the time of love; and Tarquinii Prisci, R. Roman, 23. washed in water fto supple thee ; I spread my skirt over thee, and R. Roman., 23. thou wast not salted at all, nor swaddled at all. covered thy nakedness: yea, I sware unto

5 None eye pitied thee, to do any of these thee, and entered into a covenant with thee, unto thee, to have compassion upon thee; saith the Lord God, and thou becamest mine. but thou wast cast out in the open field, to 9 Then washed I thee with water; yea, I the loathing of thy person, in the day that throughly washed away thy n blood from thee thou wast born.

and I anointed thee with oil. 6 And when I passed by thee, and saw thee 10 I clothed thee also with broidered work 8 polluted in thine own blood, I said 'unto and shod thee with badgers' skin, and I thee when thou wast in thy blood, Live; yea, girded thee about with fine linen, and I covered I said unto thee when thou wast in thy blood, thee with silk. Live.

11 I decked thee also with ornaments, and 7 h I have i caused thee to multiply as the I put bracelets upon thy hands, Pand a chain bud of the field, and thou hast increased and on thy neck. waxen great, and thou art come to k excellent 12 And I put a jewel on thy a forehead, and ornaments : thy breasts are fashioned, and ear-rings in thine ears, and a beautiful crown thine hair is grown, whereas thou wast naked upon thine head. and bare.

13 Thus wast thou decked with gold and • Hos. ii. 3. - Or, when I looked upon thee. Or, trodden 1 Ruth iii. 9. -m Exod. xix. 5; Jer. i. 2. Heb. bloods. under foot. * Exod. i. 7.—Heb. made thee a million.—Heb. Gen. xxiv. 22, 47. — Prov. i. 9. - Heb. nose; see Isa. ornament of ornaments.

iri. 21. This is strong: but the invective of the prophet Verse 6. I said-Live] I received the exposed exceeds it far. It is the essence of degradation to its child from the death that awaited it, while in such a subject; and shows the Jews to be as base and con- state as rendered it at once an object of horror, and temptible as they were abominable and disgusting. also of compassion. Verse 4. As for thy nativity, fc.] This verse re

-Modo primos fers to what is ordinarily done for every infant on its

Edere vagitus, et adhuc a matre rubentem. birth. The umbilical cord, by which it received all its nourishment while in the womb, eing onger Verse 8. Was the time of love) Thou wast marnecessary, is cut at a certain distance from the abdo- riageable. men : on this part a knot is tied, which firmly uniting I spread my skirt over thee] I espoused thee. This the sides of the tubes, they coalesce, and incarnate was one of their initiatory marriage ceremonies. See bgether. The extra part of the cord on the outside Ruth iii. 9. of the ligature, being cut off from the circulation by I-entered into a covenant with thee] Married which it was originally fed, soon drops off, and the thee. Espousing preceded marriage. part where the ligature was is called the navel. In Verse 10. I clothed thee also with broidered work] many places, when this was done, the infant was Cloth on which various figures, in various colours, plunged into cold water; in all cases washed, and were wrought by the needle. sometimes with a mixture of salt and water, in order With badgers' skin] See Exod. xxv. 5. The same to give a greater firmness to the skin, and constringe kind of skin with which the tabernacle was covered.

The last process was swathing the body, Fine linen) ova beshesh, with cotton. I have seen to support mechanically the tender muscles till they cloth of this kind enveloping the finest mummies. should acquire sufficient strength to support the body. I covered thee with silk.) 'vo meshi.

Very proBut among savages this latter process is either wholly bably the produce of the silk-worm. neglected, or done very slightly : and the less it is Verse 12. I put a jewel on thy forehead] 7oN Sy done, the better for the infant; as this kind of unna- al appech, upon thy nose. This is one of the most tural compression greatly impedes the circulation of common ornaments among ladies in the east. Eurothe blood, the pulsation of the heart, and the due in- pean translators, not knowing what to make of a ring flation of the lungs; respiration, in many cases, being in the nose, have rendered it, a jewel on thy forehead rendered oppressive by the tightness of these ban- or mouth, (though they have sometimes a piece of gold dages.

or jewel fastened to the centre of their forehead.) I Verse 5. Thou wast cast out in the open field] This have already spoken of this Asiatic custom, so often is an allusion to the custom of some heathen and bar- referred to in the sacred writings : see Gen. xxiv. 22, barous nations, who exposed those children in the open 42; Exod. xxxii. 2 ; Job xlii. 11 ; Prov. xi. 22 ; Isa. fields to be devoured by wild beasts who had any kind iii. 21 ; Hos. ii. 13. of deformity, or whom they could not support.

Verse 13. Thus wast thou decked, fc.) The Tar

the pores.

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The ingratitude and


wickedness of the infant A. M. 3410.

A. M. 3410. silver; and thy raiment was of thee, and madest to thyself imaB. C. 594.

B. C. 594.
Ol. XLVI. 3. fine linen, and silk, and broidered ges * of men, and didst commit 01. XLVI. 3.

Tarquinii Prisci, work; "thou didst eat fine flour, whoredom with them,

Tarquinii Prisci,
R. Roman., 23. and honey, and. oil : and thou

18 And tookest thy broidered R. Roman., 23. wast exceeding beautiful, and thou didst pros- garments, and coveredst them: and thou hast per into a kingdom.

set mine oil and mine incense before them. 14 And + thy renown went forth among the 19 My meat also which I gave thee, fine heathen for thy beauty : for it was perfect flour, and oil, and honey, wherewith I fed through my comeliness, which I had put thee, thou hast even set it before them for a upon thee, saith the Lord God.

sweet savour: and thus it was, saith the Lord 15 u But thou didst trust in thine own beauty, God. and playedst the harlot because of thy re- 20 a Moreover thou hast taken thy sons and nown, and pouredst out thy fornications on thy daughters, whom thou hast borne unto me, every one that passed by; his it was. and these hast thou sacrificed unto them b to

16 w And of thy garments thou didst take, and be devoured. Is this of thy whoredoms a
deckedst thy high places with divers colours, small matter,
and playedst the harlot thereupon : the like 21 That thou hast slain my children, and
things shall not come, neither shall it be so. delivered them to cause them to pass through

17 Thou hast also taken thy fair jewels of the fire for them?
my gold and of my silver, which I had given 22 And in all thine abominations and thy

Deut. xxxii. 13, 14.- Psa. xlviii. 2. - Lam. ü. 15. w 2 Kings xxiii. 7; chap. vii. 20; Hos. ï. 8.—Heb. of.
• See Deut. xxxii. 15; Jer. vii. 4; Mic. iii. 11. - -* Isa. i. 21; male. Hos. ii. 8.- Heb. a savour of rest. 2 Kings xvi.
lvii. 8; Jer. ii. 20; iii. 2, 6, 20; chap. xxiii. 3, 8, 11, 12; Hos. 3; Psa. cvi. 37, 38; Isa. lvii. 5; Jer. vii. 31; xxxii. 35; chap
i. 2.

xx. 26; xxiii. 37.- _b Heb. to devour. gum understands all this of the tabernacle service, the the same may be said of the language by which such book of the law, the sacerdotal vestments, &c.

states and circumstances of life are described. Had Thou didst prosper into a kingdom.] Here the Ezekiel spoken in such language as would have been figure explains itself: by this wretched infant, the low called chaste and unexceptionable among us, it would estate of the Jewish nation in its origin is pointed have appeared to his auditors as a strange dialect, and out; by the growing up of this child into woman's would have lost at least one half of its power and efestate, the increase and multiplication of the people ; fect. Let this be the prophet's apology for the appaby her being decked out and ornamented, her taber-rent indelicacy of his metaphors; and mine, for not nacle service, and religious ordinances ; by her betroth- entering into any particular discussion concerning them. ing and consequent marriage, the covenant which God See also on ver. 63. made with the Jews ; by her fornication and adulte- Verse 15. Thou didst - trust in thine own beauty] ries, their apostasy from God, and the establishment Riches, strength, alliances, &c.; never considering of idolatrous worship, with all its abominable rites ; by that all they possessed came from God; therefore it her fornication and whoredoms with the Egyptians and was his comeliness which he had put upon them. WitAssyrians, the sinful alliances which the Jews made ness their original abject state, and the degree of emiwith those nations, and the incorporation of their ido- nence to which they had arrived afterwards through latrous worship with that of Jehovah; by her lovers the protecting power of God. being brought against her, and stripping her naked, Verse 17. And madest to thyself images of men) the delivery of the Jews into the hands of the Egyp-iphs tsalmey zachar, male images. Priapi are here tians, Assyrians, and Chaldeans, who stripped them meant, which were carried about in the ceremonies of of all their excellencies, and at last carried them into Osiris, Bacchus, and Adonis ; and were something like captivity.

the lingam among the Hindoos. Herodotus, lib. ü, This is the key to the whole of this long chapter c. 48, 49, gives us an account of these male images: of metaphors; and the reader will do well to forget Πηχυαια αγαλματα νευρoσπασσα, τα περιφoρεουσι the figures, and look at the facts. The language and | κατα κωμας ται γυναικες, νευον το αιδοιον, ου πολλα igures may in many places appear to us exception- τεω ελασσον εον του αλλου σωματος. This was done able: but these are quite in conformity to those times at the worship of Bacchus in Egypt : and they who and places, and to every reader and hearer would wish to see more may consult Herodotus as above. appear perfectly appropriate, nor would engender either In this phallic worship the women were principally a thought or passion of an irregular or improper kind. concerned. Custom sanctions the mode, and prevents the abuse. Verse 18. Hast set mine oil and mine incense before Among naked savages irregular passions and propensi-them.] It appears that they had made use of the holy ties are not known to predominate above those in civi- vestments, and the different kinds of offerings which lized life. And why? Because such sights are cus- belonged to the Lord, to honour their idols, tomary, and therefore in themselves innocent. And Verse 21. To cause them to pass through the fire]

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lewd way.

The ingratitude and


punishment of the infant. A. M. 3410. whoredoms thou hast not re-work of an imperious whorish

B. C. 594.
Ol. XLVI. 3. membered the days of thy youth, woman;

01. XLVI.3. Tarquinii Prisci,

when thou wast naked and bare, 31 • In that Pthou buildest thine Tarquinii Prisci, R. Roman., 23. and wast polluted in thy blood. eminent place in the head of every

R. Roman., 23 And it came to pass after all thy wicked- way, and makest thine high place in every ness, (wo, wo unto thee! saith the Lord God;) street; and hast not been as a harlot, in that

24 That e thou hast also built unto thee an ihou scornest hire ; feminent place, and 8 hast made thee a high 32 But as a wife that committeth adultery, place in every street.

which taketh strangers instead of her husband ! 25 Thou hast built thy high place hat every 33 They give gifts to all whores : but a thou head of the way, and hast made thy beauty to givest thy gifts to all thy lovers, and hirest be abhorred, and hast opened thy feet to them, that they may come unto thee on every every one that passed by, and multiplied thy side for thy whoredom. whoredoms.

34 And the contrary is in thee from other 26 Thou hast also committed fornication women in thy whoredoms, whereas none folwith i the Egyptians thy neighbours, great of loweth thee to commit whoredoms : and in flesh; and hast increased thy whoredoms, to that thou givest a reward, and no reward is provoke me to anger.

given unto thee, therefore thou art contrary.. 27 Behold, therefore, I have stretched out 35 Wherefore, Oharlot, hear the word of my hand over thee, and have diminished thine the LORD: ordinary food, and delivered thee unto the 36 Thus saith the Lord God; Because thy will of them that hate thee, k the 1 daughters filthiness was poured out, and thy nakedness of the Philistines, which are ashamed of thy discovered through thy whoredoms with thy

lovers, and with all the idols of thy abomi28 m Thou hast played the whore also with nations, and by : the blood of thy children, the Assyrians, because thou wast unsatiable; which thou didst give unto them; yea, thou hast played the harlot with them, 37 Behold, therefore + I will gather all thy and yet couldest not be satisfied.

lovers, with whom thou hast taken pleasure, 29 Thou hast moreover multiplied thy forni- and all them that thou hast loved, with all them cation in the land of Canaan "unto Chaldea; that thou hast hated; I will even gather them and yet thou wast not satisfied herewith. round about against thee, and will discover

30 How weak is thine heart, saith the Lord thy nakedness unto them, that they may see God, seeing thou doest all these things, the all thy nakedness. Jer. ii. 2; ver. 43, 60; Hos. xi. l.

m 2 Kings xvi. 7, 10; 2 Chron. xxviii. 23 ; Jer. ii. 18, 36. Or, brothel house.- Isa. lvii. 5, 7; Jer. ii. Chap. xxiii. 11, &c.- r. in thy daughters is thine, &c. 20 ; 11. 2. Prov. ix. 14.-i Chap. vii. 10, 14; xx. 7, 8; P Ver. 24, 39.—- Isa. xxx. 3; Hos. viii. 9. Heb. bribest. xxiii. 19, 20, 21.-2 Chron. xxvii. 18, 19; ver. 57.- Or, Ver. 20; Jer. ii. 34. - Jer. xiii. 22, 26; Lam. i. 8; chap.

xxiii. 9, 10, 22, 29; Hos. ii. 10.; viii. 10; Nah. iii. 5. Bp. Newcome quotes a very apposite passage from into our language I know not. Our modern word Dionysius Halicarnass. Ant. Rom. lib. i., s. 88, p. 72, brothel is a corruption of it. Diodati translates, Tu and marg. p. 75, Edit. Hudson : Mera de SOUTO, #ug- hai edificato un bordello, “ Thou hast built a brothel.” καίας προ των σκηνων γενεσθαι κελευσας, εξαγει τον λεων Houses of this kind were of a very ancient date. σας φλογας υπερθρωσκοντα, της οσιωσεως των μιασματων Verse 26. Great of flesh] The most extensive Švexa. “And after this, having ordered that fires should idolaters. Bene vasatis-longa mensura incognita be made before the tents, he brings out the people to nervi. Juv. Sat. ix. 34. This is the allusion. leap over the flames, for the purifying of their pollu- Verse 27. Have diminished thine ordinary] TPM tions.” This example shows that we are not always chukkech means here the household provision made to take passing through the fire for being entirely con- for a wife--food, clothing, and money. sumed by it. Among the Israelites this appears to Verse 36. Thy filthiness was poured out] have been used as a rite of consecration.

nechushtech. As this word signifies a sort of metal, Verse 24. Thou hast also built unto thee an eminent (brass,) it is generally supposed to mean money. They place] Ji gab, a stew or brothel ; Vulg. lupanar ; had given money literally to these heathen nations to Septuag. oxnua ropvoxov. So my old Ms. Bible, procure their friendship and assistance; but the word a bordel house. “ Thou hast builded thy stewes and also means verdigris, the poisonous rust of copper or bordell houses in every place."-Coverdale's Bible, brass. It is properly translated in our version filthi1535. Bordel is an Italian word ; how it got so early Iness, poisonous filth. Does it not refer to that vene

-d Ver. 4, 5, 6.

e Ver. 31.




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B. C. 594,



The crime and punishment


of the Jewish Church. A. M. 3410. 38 And I will judge thee, "as shall use this proverb against

A. M. 3410.

B. C. 594.
Ol. XLVI. 3. women that break wedlock and thee, saying, As is the mother, OL. XLVI. 3.
Tarquinii Prisci,
w shed blood are judged ; and I so is her daughter.

Tarquinii Prisci, R. Roman., 23. will give thee blood in fury and 45 Thou art thy mother's daugh- R. Roman., 23. jealousy.

ter, that loathed her husband and her children ; 39 And I will also give thee into their hand, and thou art the sister of thy sisters, which and they shall throw down * thine eminent loathed their husbands and their children: place, and shall break down thy high places : your mother was a Hittite, and your father y they shall strip thee also of thy clothes, and an Amorite. shall take a thy fair jewels, and leave thee 46 And thine elder sister is Samaria, she naked and bare.

and her daughters that dwell at thy left hand: 40 They shall also bring up a company and kthy 'younger sister, that dwellethi at ihy against thee, "and they shall stone thee with right hand, is Sodom and her daughters. stones, and thrust the through with their 47 Yet hast thou not walked after their swords.

ways, nor done after their abominations : but 41 And they shall • burn thine houses with as if that were a very little thing, * thou wast fire, and d execute judgments upon thee in the corrupted more than they in all thy ways. sight of many women : and I will cause thee 48 As I live, saith the Lord God, Sodom to cease from playing the harlot, and thou thy sister hath not done, she nor her daughters, also shalt give no hire any more.

as thou hast done, thou and thy daughters.
42 So fwill I make my fury toward thee to 49 Behold, this was the iniquity of thy
rest, and my jealousy shall depart from thee, sister Sodom, pride, P fulness of bread, and
and I will be quiet, and will be no more angry. abundance of idleness, was in her and in her

43 Because thou hast not remembered the daughters, neither did she strengthen the hand
days of thy youth, but hast fretted me in all of the poor and needy.
these things; behold, therefore, I also will 50 And they were laughty, and a committed
recompense thy way upon thine head, saith abomination before me: - therefore I took
the Lord God: and thou shalt not commit them away, as I saw good.
this lewdness above all thine abominations. 51 Neither hath Samaria committed half of
44 Behold, every one that useth proverbs thy sins; but thou hast multiplied thine abo-

u Heb. with judgments of:- - Lev. xx. 10; Deut. xxii. 22; Chap. v. 13. -& Ver. 22; Psa. Ixxviii. 42.- Chap. ix.
chap. xxiii. 45. -w Gen. ix. 6; Exod. xxi. 12; see ver, 20, 36. 10, 11, 21; xxii. 31. Ver. 3.- Deat. xxxii. 32; Isa 'j. 10.
- Ver. 24, 31. -3 Chap. xxiii. 26 ; Hos. ii. 3.

_m Or, that was loathed as a small thing. ments of thine ornament.- Chap. xxiii. 10, 47. -b John viii. 5, + 2 Kings xxi. 9; chap. v. 6, 7; ver. 48, 51.—Matt. x. 15; xi.

- Deut. xiii. 16; 2 Kings xxv. 9; Jer. xxxix. 8; lii. 13. 24. — Gen. xii. 10.- -9 Gen. xiii. 13; xvui, 30; xix. 5. Chap. v. 8; xxiii. 10, 48. Chap. xxiii. 27. real virus which is engendered by promiscuous con- breeding, so is the practice. A silken purse cannot be nexions ?

made out of a swine's ear. What is bred in the bone Verse 39. They shall strip thee also of thy clothes seldom comes out of the flesh. All such proverbs thy fair jewels) Alluding to a lot common enough to show the necessity of early holy precepts, supported prostitutes, their maintainers in the end stripping them by suitable example. of all they had given them.

Verse 46. Thine elder sister is Samaria, she and Verse 42. I will be quiet, and will be no more an- her daughters that dwell at thy left] It is supposed gry.) I will completely abandon thee; have nothing that the prophet by Sodom in this place means the Ismore to do with thee; think no more of thee. When raelites that dwelt beyond Jordan, in the land of the God in judgment ceases to reprehend, this is the se- Moabites and Ammonites ; or rather of the Moabites verest judgment.

and Ammonites themselves. Literally, Sodom could Verse 43. Thou hast not remembered the days of not be called the younger sister of Jerusalem, as it esthy youth] Thy former low beginning, when God isted before Jerusalem had a name. In looking east made thee a people, who wast no people. He who from Jerusalem, Samaria was on the left, and Sodom maintains not a proper recollection of past mercies is on the right hand ; that is, the first was on the north, not likely to abide steadfast in the faith. Ingratitude the second on the south of Jerusalem. to God is the commencement, if not the parent, of Verse 49. This was the iniquity of thy sister Sodom] many crimes.

If we are to take this place literally, Sodom was guilty Verse 44. As is the mother, so is her daughter.] of other crimes besides that for which she appears to ona nord keimmah bittah, As the mother, her daugh- have been especially punished ; in addition to her onter.” As is the cause, so is the effect. As is the natural crime, she is charged with pride, luxury, idle466

( 30*)

- Heb. instrue

I Heb. lesser than thou.


Gen. xix. 24.

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