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A. M. 3410.
A. M. 3410.
The penitent are marked,
to secure their safety. To indicale, likewise, that God was soon to forsake the temple, the shechinah, or glorious symbol of his presence, is seen to remove from the inner sanctuary to the threshold or door of the temple, 1–7. The prophet intercedes for his people ; but God, on account of the greatness of their sins, will not be entreated, 8-11.
E cried also in mine ears to the threshold of the house. Ol. XLVI. 3. with a loud voice, saying, And he called to the man clothed Ol. XLVI. 3. Tarquinii Prisci, Cause them that have charge with linen, which had the writer's Tarquinii Prisc R. Roman., 23.
R. Roman., 23. over the city to draw near, even inkhorn by his side; every man with his · destroying weapon in his 4 And the LORD said unto him, Go through hand.
the midst of the city, through the midst of 2 And, behold, six men came from the Jerusalem, and 8 set ha mark upon the foreway of the higher gate, which lieth toward heads of the men i that sigh and that cry for all the north, and every man oa slaughter weapon the abominations that be done in the midst in his hand ; d and one man among them was thereof. clothed with linen, with a writer's inkhorn 5 And to the others he said in k mine hear• by his side : and they went in, and stood be- ing, Go ye after him through the city, and side the brazen altar.
smite : ' let not your eye spare, neither have 3 And the glory of the God of Israel was ye pity : gone up from the cherub, whereupon he was, 6 m Slay - utterly old and young, both maids,
a Jer. xxii. 7.-Heb. which is turned. -c Heb. a weapon of
b Exod. xii. 7; Rev. vii. 3; ix. 4; xiii, 16, 17; XX. 4. i Psa.
k Heb his breaking in pieces. — Lev. xvi. 4; chap. x. 6,7; Rev. xv. cxix. 53, 136; Jer. xiii. 17; 2 Cor. xii
. 21 ; 2 Pet. ii. 8. 6. —Heb. upon his loins. See chap. iii. 23 ; viii. 4; X. 4, ears.-- Ver. 10; chap. v. 11.- -un 2 Chron, xxxvi. 17 18; xi. 22, 23. Heb. mark a mark.
n Heb. to destruction.
NOTES ON CHAP. IX.
Vishnoo, who of Siva, who of Bramah, &c. The oriVerse 1. Cause them that have charge over the city) ginal words, in ninni vehilhvilha lau, have been transBy those six men with destroying weapons the Chal- lated by the Vulgate, et signa thau, " and mark thou deans are represented, who had received commission tau on the foreheads,” &c. St. Jerome and many to destroy the city ; and when the north is mentioned others have thought that the letter tau was that which in such cases, Chaldea and the Chaldean armies are was ordered to be placed on the foreheads of those generally intended. There appears to have been six mourners; and Jerome says, that this Hebrew letter men with a sort of slaughter-bills, and one man with n tau was formerly written like a cross. So then the an inkhorn. These may represent the seven coun- people were to be signed with the sign of the cross! sellors of the eastern monarchs, who always saw the It is certain that on the ancient Samaritan coins, which king's face, and knew all the secrets of the govern- are yet extant, the letter tau is in the form +, which ment. One of them was that minister who had the is what we term St. Andrew's cross. The sense deoffice of reporting concerning criminals, who carried rived from this by many commentators is, that God, the book of death and the book of life into the presence having ordered those penitents to be marked with this of the king, where the names were entered of crimi- figure, which is the sign of the cross, intimated that nals who were destined to suffer, and of those who there is no redemption nor saving of life but by the were either considered as innocent or recommended to cross of Christ, and that this will avail none but the mercy; those of the former in the book of death, those real penitent. All this is true in itself, but it is not of the latter in the book of life. This person with the true in respect to this place. The Hebrew words siginkhorn might be termed, in our phrase, the recorder. nify literally, thou shalt make a mark, or sign a sign,
Verse 2. Stood beside the brazen altar.) To signify but give no intimation what that mark or sign was. that the people against whom they had their commis- It was intended here to be what the sprinkling of the sion were, for their crimes, to be sacrificed to the de- blood of the paschal lamb on the lintels and door-posts mands of Divine justice.
of the Israelites was, namely, a notice to the destroyVerse 3. And he called to the man] The person here ing. angel what house he should spare. As the whole who called was that who sat on the chariot of the Di- of this matter only passed in vision, we are bound to See chap. i. 26.
neither letter, nor any other kind of figure. The symVerse 4. Set a mark upon the foreheads of the men bolical action teaches us that God, in general judgments, that sigh) This is in allusion to the ancient every- will make a distinction between the innocent and the where-used custom of setting marks on servants and guilty, between the penitent and the hardened sinner. slaves, to distinguish them from others. It was also Verse 6. Begin at my sanctuary.] Let those who common for the worshippers of particular idols to have have sinned against most mercy, and most privileges, their idol's mark upon their foreheads, arms, &c. be the first victims of justice. Those who know their These are called sectarian marks to the present day Lord's will, and do it not, shall be beaten with many among the Hindoos and others in India. Hence by stripes. The unfaithful members of Christ's Church this mark we can easily know who is a follower of will be first visited and most punished. But let not
o Rev. ix. 4.
The idolaters are slain,
and the matter reported. 1. M. 3410. and little children, and women: 9 Then said he unto me, The
A. M. 3410. B. C. 594.
B. C. 594. Ol. XLVI. 3. but •come not near any man upon iniquity of the house of Israel Ol. XLVI. 3.
Anno Tarquinii Prisci, whom is the mark; and begin and Judah is exceeding great, Tarquinii Prisci, R. Roman.,
at my sanctuary. 4 Then they and the land is full of blood, R. Roman, 23. began at the ancient men which were before and the city full of perverseness : for they the house.
w The Lord hath forsaken the earth, and 7 And he said unto them, Defile the house, * the LORD seeth not. and fill the courts with the slain: go ye forth. 10 And as for me also, mine 8 eye shall not And they went forth, and slew in the city. spare, neither will. I have pity, but ? I will
8 And it came to pass, while they were recompense their way upon their head. slaying them, and I was left, that I fell upon 11 And, behold, the man clothed with linen, my face, and cried, and said, * Ah Lord God! which had the inkhorn by his side, reported wilt thou destroy all the residue of Israel in the matter, saying, I have done as thou hast thy pouring out of thy fury upon Jerusalem ? commanded me. –p Jer. xxv. 29; 1 Pet. iv. 17. - Chap. viii.
Heb. filled with. Or, wresting of judgment.- • Chap. 11, 12, 16. - Num. xiv. 5; xvi. 4, 22, 45; Josh. vii. 6. viii. 12. Psa. x. 11; Isa. xxix. 15. -y Chap. v. 11; vii. 4; • Chap. xi. 13.- 12 Kings xxi. 16; chap. viü. 17.
Chap. xi. 21.<a Heb. returned the word. those who belong to the synagogue of. Salan exult in more place in Israel ; he has quite abandoned it; he this ; for if judgment begin at the house of God, what neither sees nor cares, and he can be no longer the will the end be of them who obey not the Gospel ! object of worship to any man in Israel. This seems However, the truly penitent of all descriptions in such to be the meaning ; and God highly resents it, because cases shall be safe. The command of God is, “Set it was bringing him on a level with idols and provincial a mark on all them that sigh and cry;" and his com- deities, who had, according to supposition, regency only mand to the destroyers is, " Come not near any man in some one place. on whom is the mark."
Verse 10. Mine eye shall not spare] They say, Verse 7. Defile the house] A dreadful sentence, the Lord seeth not : this is false ; I have seen all their Let it be polluted, I will no more dwell in it; I now iniquities, and do see all their abominations; and I will utterly forsake it.
bring deserved judgment upon them, and then that eye Verse 8. Wilt thou destroy all the residue of Israel, which now sees will neither pity nor spare. in thy pouring out of thy fury upon Jerusalem ?] Verse 11. I have done as thou hast commanded me.) These destroyers had slain the seventy elders, the Angels and men must all give account of their conduct lwenty-five adorers of the sun, and the women that to God; for although he is every where, and his eye mourned for Tammuz; and on seeing slaughter sees all things, yet they must personally account for the prophet fell on his face, and began to make inter- all that they have done. I have done as thou hast comcession:
manded me. The penitents are all signed; the peniVerse 9. For they say, The Lord hath forsaken the tents are all safe. This is good news for them that earth] 77877 na eth haarets, “ this land.” He has no
The same august vision which appeared to the prophet at first, is repeated here ; and coals of fire are scal
tered over the city to intimate that it was to be burned. The symbol of the Divine presence is likewise represented as removing farther and farther from the temple, to signify that God's protection was about to be withdrawn from it, 1-22. It may not be improper to remark, that whatever is particularly intended by the cherubim, wheels, firmament, throne, fc., described in this and the first chapter, the prophet several times informs us, (chap. i. 28; üi. 25; viii. 4; X. 4, 18,) that his vision was a manifestation of similitude of the GLORY of Jehovah ; or, in other words, consisted of a set of hieroglyphics by which this glory was in some measure represented. It is also worlhy of observation, that the faces of the living creatures, of which we have an account in the fourth chapter of the Apocalypse, are precisely the same with those of Ezekiel's cherubim ; and we may readily collect, as Mr. Mede remarks, the quarter of the heavens in which each cherub was situated in reference to the other three, from the consideration that as Ezekiel saw the vision proceeding from the NORTH, (see chap. i. 4, 10,) the human face of the cherubim was towards him, or the south; on his right hand, or the east, was the face of a lion ; on his left hand, or the west, the face of an ox ; and towards the north, the face of an eagle.
The glory of the Lord
appears to the prophet.
A. M. 3410. B: 2.3909. THEN I looked, and, behold, voice of the Almighty God when
B. C. 594. OL. XLVI. 3. in the · firmament that was he speaketh.
Ol. XLVI. 3. Anno Tarquinii Prisci, above the head of the cherubims 6 And it came to pass, that Tarquinii Prisci,
R. Roman., 23. R. Roman., 23. there appeared over them as it when he had commanded the man were a sapphire stone, as the appearance of clothed with linen, saying, Take fire from bethe likeness of a throne.
tween the wheels, from between the cherubims; 2. b And he spake unto the man clothed with then he went in, and stood beside the wheels. linen, and said, Go in between the wheels, 7. And one cherub ? stretched forth his hand even under the cherub, and fill - thine hand from between the cherubims. unto the fire that with d coals of fire from between the che- was between the cherubims, and took thereof, rubims, and scatter them over the city. And and put it into the hands of him that was he went in my sight.
clothed with linen: who took it, and went out. 3 Now the cherubims stood on the right 8 m And there appeared in the cherubims, side of the house, when the man went in; and the form of a man's hand under their wings. the cloud filled the inner court.
9. n And when I looked, behold the four 4 ' Then the glory of the LORD s went up wheels by the cherubims, one wheel by one from the cherub, and stood over the threshold cherub, and another wheel by another cherub: of the house; and.h the house was filled with and the appearance of the wheels was as the the cloud, and the court was full of the colour of a . beryl stone. brightness of the Lord's glory.
10 And as for their appearances, they four 5 And the sound of the cherubims' wings had one likeness, as if a wheel had been in was heard even to the outer court, as the the midst of a wheel. Chap. i. 22, 26. 6 Chap. ix. 2, 3. - Heb, the hollow of - + 1 Kings viii. 10, 11 ; chap. xliii. 5.- Chap. i. 24. — * Psa. Chap. i. 13. See Rev. viii. 5.
xxix. 3, &c. Heb. sent forth.- -m Chap. i. 8; ver. 21. 18; chap. i. 28; ix. 3. - Heb. was lifted up.
Chap. i. 15. - Chap. i. 16.
eben Tarshish, “the stone of Tarshish.” The VulVerse 1. As it were a sapphire stone) See the gate translates it chrysolith ; Symmachus, the jacinct ; noté òn chap. i. 22, 26. The chariot, here mentioned the Septuagint, the carbuncle: In the parallel place, by the prophet, was precisely the sanié as that which chap. i. 16, it is our n'ya keeyn Tarshish, “ like the he saw at the river Chebar, as himself tells us, yer. eye of Tarshish;" i. e., the colour of tarshish, or the 15, of which see the description in chap. i.
stone so called, which the Vulgate translates 'visio maVerse 2. Coals of fire] These were to signify the ris, "like the sea,” i. e., azure. The beryl is a gem burning of the city by the Chaldeans. It seems that of a green colour, passing from one side into blue, on the space between the four wheels, which was all on the other side into yellow. The chrysolith is also green, fire, was that from which those coals were taken. what is called pistachio green ; but the chrysolith of
Verse 3. On the right side of the house] The right the ancients was our topaz, which is of a fine wine hand always marked the south among the Hebrews. yellow. The beryl, or chrysolith, is most likely what
Verse 4. The glory of the Lord went up] This is is here meant by tarshish. One name among the anrepeated from chap. ix. 3.
cients served for several kinds of gems that were nearly The house was filled with the cloud] This is a fact of the same colour.. The moderns go more by chemisimilar to what occurred frequently at the tabernacle cal characters than by colour. in the wilderness, and in the dedication of the temple Verse 10. A wheel had been in the midst of a wheel.] by Solomon. What is mentioned here was the Divine It is difficult to comprehend this description. It is shechinah, the symbolical representation of the majesty generally supposed to mean one wheel within another, of God.
cutting each other at right angles. This, in my opiVerse 6. As the voice of the Almighty God]. That nion, will not account for the motions attributed to these is, as thunder ; for this was called the voice of God. wheels ; nor oan I see how, on this supposition, they
Verse 8. The form of a man's hand under their could have any motion ; for if one was moved on its wings.], I am still of opinion that the hands and wings axis, the other must be dragged contrary to its axis. were not distinct. The arms were feathered like wings, I have conjectured it rather to mean a wheel within a and the hand terminated the arm; bùt as the long front wheel, or a wheel with two rims, working on the same feathers of the wings would extend much beyond the axis. See on chap. i. 16-18. It is however no matfingers, hence the hands would appear to be under the ter of faith; and the reader may judge as he thinks wings. See on chap. i. 8. The human hand might proper. For other matters relative to this chariot, be intended to show that God helps and punishes man wheels, cherubim, wings, &c., I must refer to the notes by man; and that, in the general operations of his pro- on the first chapter. And perhaps from the whole of vidence, he makes use of human agency.
this vision and its difficulties, he will see the propriety Verse 9. The colour of a beryl stone.] PUTA 7x 1 of the council of rabbins ordering Rabbi Ananias three
y Ver. 4.
A farther description
of the Divine chariot. A. M. 3410.
A. M. 3410. 11 pWhen they went, they| 17 "When they stood, these B. C. 594.
B. C. 594. Ol. XLVI. 3. went upon their four sides; they stood; and when they were lifted ol. XLVI. 3
Anno Tarquinii Prisci, turned not as they went, but to up, these lifted up themselves Tarquinii Prisci, R. Roman., 23. the place whither the head looked also: for the spirit of the living
R. Roman., 23. they followed it; they turned not as they went. creature was in them.
12 And their whole a body, and their backs, 18 Then the glory of the LORD ? departed and their hands, and their wings, and the from off the threshold of the house, and stood wheels, were full of eyes roundabout, even over the cherubims. the wheels that they four had.
19 And the cherubims lifted up their wings, 13 As for the wheels, it was cried unto and mounted up from the earth in my sight: them in my hearing, 0 wheel.
when they went out, the wheels also were 14 + And every one had four faces : the first beside them, and every one stood at the door face was the face of a cherub, and the second of the east gate of the LORD's house; and the face was the face of a man, and the third the glory of the God of Israel was over them above. face of a lion, and the fourth the face of an 20. • This is the living creature that I saw eagle.
under the God of Israel by the river of Che15 And the cherubims were lifted up. This bar; and I knew that they were the cherubims. is u the living creature that I saw by the river 21 Every one had four faces apiece, and of Chebar.
every one four wings; and the likeness of And when the cherubims went, the the hands of a man was under their wings. wheels went by them: and when the cherubims 22 And the likeness of their faces was the lifted up their wings to mount up from the same faces which I saw by the river of Chebar, earth, the same wheels also turned not from their appearances and themselves : 5 they went beside them.
every one straight forward. p Chap. i. 17.—4 Heb. flesh:- Chap. i. 18.
Or, they *Or, of life.
Hos. ix. 12.- Chap. xi. 22. were called in my hearing, wheel, or, galgal.- --Chap. i. 6, 10. Chap. i. 22; ver. 15. Chap. i. In -d Chap. i. 6; ver. 14. Chap. i. 5. Chap. i. 19.-- Chap. i. 12, 20, 21.
Chap. i. 8; ver. 8. Chap. 1. 10. % Chap. i. 12. hundred barrels of oil to light his lamp during the time never occurs as a verb; and its meaning cannot be preit would be necessary for him to employ in explaining cisely ascertained. Parkhurst thinks the 3 caph to be this one vision.
here the note of similitude ; and then translates > ke, Verse 13. As for the wheels, il was cried unto them “ like,” 27 rab or 317 rob, “the mighty one;" and, in -O wheel.] Never was there a more unfortunate and consequence, makes the cherubim an emblem of the unmeaning translation. The word bahan haggalgal, Holy Trinity. See his lengthy Dissertation under 372 may signify, simply, the roller, or a chariot, or roll on, in his Hebrew and English Lexicon. or the swift roller. And he clepide ilke wheelis bolis Verse 20. And I knew that they were the cherubims.) ble, or turninge about. Old MS. Bible. Any of This formation of the plural is quite improper. In these will do: “and as to the wheels," D'Dis lao- general, Hebrew nouns of the masculine gender end phannim, “ they were called in my hearing” baban hag-in d'im, in the plural; the s, therefore, shồuld never galgal, “ the chariot.” The gentleman who took for be added to such. Cherub is singular; cherubim is his text “.wheel!" and made God's decree of eter- plural. The s should be uniformly expunged. nal predestination out of it, must have borrowed some I have already referred to the end of this chapter of Rabbi Ananias's three hundred barrels of oil! But for farther information relative to this glorious chariot such working of God's word cannot be too severely of Jehovah; but I must say that I have met with noreprehonded.
thing on the subject that entirely satisfies myself. In As these wheels are supposed to represent Divine the preceding notes I have endeavoured to make the Providence, bringing about the designs of the Most literal meaning as plain as possible; and have occaHigh, how like is the above haban haggalgal, taken as sionally given some intimations relative to the general a verb, “roll on,” to those words of Virgil in his design of this sublime vision. My readers are already Pollio :
apprised that I do not like conjectures on Divine things ; Talia sæcla, suis dixerunt, currite, fusis,
many points, that had originally no other origin, are Concordes stabili fatorum numine Parcæ.
now incorporated with creeds of which it is deemed
sinful to doubt. “ The Fates, when they this happy web have spun,
Because some learned and pious men Shall bless the sacred clue, and bid it swiftly run." have written to prove that this symbolical compound
figure is a representation of the Holy Trinity ; thereVerse 14. The first-was the face of a cherub] In fore, the sentiment now passes current. Now this is chap. i. 10, this is called the “face of an ox;" here, not proved ; and I suppose never can be proved.
The the “face of a cherub:” hence, a cherub was in the continuator of the Historical Discourses of Saurin has likeness of an ox, at least, as to its head. 3nn3 kerub made some sensible remarks on the subject of this 450
A general exposition of
the Divine chariot. vision; and these I shall lay here before the intelligent granted, we shall have no difficulty to perceive the Teader. They deserve attention.
sense of this celebrated vision. We shall not follow
the order observed by Ezekiel, in the description of Táis intelligent writer observes : “For the right what he saw; he raises himself from the nearest to interpretation of this vision, the following rules should the most distant objects, going back from effects to be laid down :
their general cause. We will begin with the First . “The first rule is this :--An explanation, which ac- Cause which gives motion to all that happens, traces counts for all the parts contained in the vision, is much out the plan, and procures the execution, according to more probable than those which explain only one part. the rules of his ineffable wisdom, and agreeably to the
“ The second is this :-An explanation which is con- nature of those creatures which are the object of his formable to the present circumstances of the prophet, agenoy. Next, we will proceed to consider the effects and of the people to whom he is sent, as well as to the of this universal Providence, and the intelligent secondnature of the things which he is called upon to say to ary causes which he frequently employs in the adminthem, is incomparably more probable than those expla- | istration of the government of the universe. nations which go in quest of past or future events, «"Ezekiel saw à firmament which was above the which have no connexion with the immediate circum- heads of the animals; there was the resemblance of a stances of the prophet, nor with the end of his mission. throne like a sapphire stone; and over the resemblance These rules, which appear incontestable, being laid of the throne, there was, as it were, the resemblance down, we observe, that their opinion who think that of a man.' This vast transparent firmament represents God here draws out a plan of the government of his to us the heaven, the peculiar residence of the Lord providence, applied to the present state of the Jews, of the earth ; and where he hath established the throne accounts for all that Ezekiel saw; and that in a man- of his empire. This appearance of a man' was the ner which refers to the end of the prophet's mission, emblem of Providence or God; considered as taking and all that he had to say to this rebellious people. care of all the creatures whom he hath made. Man Why wish God to represent to his prophet the future is the symbol of intelligence. The mind of man, with state of the Christian Church, which was not to be respect to his knowledge and wisdom, is a weak sketch founded till after a series of time, rather than the state of that mind which knows, all things, and whose wisof the Jewish Church, and the chastisements which dom is unbounded. And yet, of all sublunary beings, hung over the heads that hardened people ?. The there is none that approaches so near to the Divine people having revolted from God, and persevering ob- nature as man. Under this emblem also it is that God, stinately in that revolt, notwithstanding the menaces considered as seeing all things, and directing all, would of the prophet, it was proper to show to Ezekiel, in be represented. This resemblance of man was seated order that he might declare it to the rebellious, that upon a throne, to show that God governs all things as Providence had its eyes open to all that had been done, Lord, and that without agitation and without labour. all that had hitherto happened, and that it had seized “ The shining metal, and the fire which surrounded upon the rod to smite. . The people imagined, but too him who sat on the throne, were the symbol of his much according to the errors of infidelity, that God glory and his judgments, which are poured upon the saw every thing with indifference and had given the wicked as a fire which nothing can withstand ; agreeworld up to chance. It was necessary, therefore, to ably to Isaiah, chap. xxxiii
. 14. divest them of these fatal prejudices; and to teach them " The Jews acknowledged that there was a Provithat the Supreme Being did not behold with the same dence which governs the whole universe with infinite eye order and disorder, contempt of his laws and sub- wisdom. The psalmist gives us a description of it, mission to his will ; and that all the revolutions of states equally just and pathetic, in Psa. civ. 27, &c. Chrisare directed by a superior intelligence, which cannot tians, no less than Jews, admit this important truth; be imposed upon.
The Jewish people imagined but and the Gospel establishes it no less strongly than the too much that the prophets exaggerated when they law. See Matt. vi. 26 ; X. 29, 30. To raise the mind threatened them with the severest chastisements. They of the prophet up to the first Mover of those events repeated with emphasis and complacency the promises which strike and admonish us in all the revolutions of God made to the patriarchs; that their posterity which happen to individuals, families; and states, God should not only be more numerous than the stars of shows him four wheels above the firmament, over which heaven, and the sand which covers the sea-shore ; but the emblem of Providence was placed on a throne. that it should subsist for ever and ever. God had de- These' wheels are a symbol of those perpetual revoluclared to Abraham, “I will establish my covenant be- tions, which are observed in the earth; and which, by tween me and thee, and thy seed after thee, in their turns, lift up and abase individuals and nations. They generations, for an everlasting covenant, to be a God are of a prodigious height, to show that man cannot unto thee and thy seed after thee,' Gen. xvii. 7. It fathem or know all that is great, wonderful, and astowas proper, therefore, to show this stiff-necked people nishing, in the ways of Providence. See Job xi. 7, that the threatenings of God and his promises were 8; Rom. xi. 33, 34; Isa. lv. 8, 9. These wheels not contradictory. That the people, conformable to move themselves every way, and are full of eyes in the promises given by God to the patriarchs, should not the vast circle of their felloes. This shows, that all be destroyed; but that, notwithstanding, they should which God does he effects without pain; and that the be severely chastised, to correct them for their propen-eye of his wisdom ordereth all events. The wheels sity to idolatry, and their scandalous irregularities. did not move of themselves; but they followed the im“ These suppositions, which are reasonable, being pulse of the four living creatures ; when the living