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B. C. 595.

A. M. 3409.

B. C. 595. Ol. XLVI. 2.



Farther types of


Jerusalem's affliction.
A. M. 3409.

13 And the LORD said, Even thee cow's dung for man's dung,
Ol. XLVI. 2. thus i shall the children of Israel and thou shalt prepare thy bread
Tarquinii Prisci, eat their defiled bread
among the therewith.

Tarquinii Prisci,
R. Roman., 22. Gentiles, whither I will drive them. 16 Moreover he said unto me,

R. Roman., 22. 14 Then said I, k Ah Lord God! behold, Son of man, behold, I will break the " staff of my soul hath not been polluted : for from my bread in Jerusalem: and they shall • eat bread youth up even till now have I not eaten of by weight, and with care; and they shall p drink

that which dieth of itself, or is törn in pieces; water by measure, and with astonishment : neither came there mabominable flesh into my 17 That they may want bread and water, mouth.

and be astonied one with another, and a con15 Then he said unto me, Lo, I have given sume away for their iniquity.

i Hos. ix. 3. * Acts x. 14. - Exod. xxii. 31 ; Lev. xi. 40; cv. 16; Isa. iii. l; chap. v. 16; xiv. 13.- Ver. 10; chap. xii xvii. 15. un Deut. xiv. 3 ; Isa. Ixv. 4.- Lev. xxvi.-26; Psa. 19.- -p Ver. Il. - Lev. xxvi. 39; chap. xxiv. 23.


the horror and much of the disgust. This was re- on the ninth of the fourth month, the famine prevailed
quired to show the extreme degree of wretchedness to in the city; and THERE WAS NO BRead for the people
which they should be exposed; for, not being able to of the land.” “All this was accurately foretold, and as
leave the city to collect the dried excrements of beasts, accurately fulfilled.
the inhabitants during the siege would be obliged, lite- Abp. Newcome on ver. 6 observes : “ This number
rally, to use dried human ordure for fuel. The very of years will take us back, with sufficient exactness,
circumstances show that this was the plain fact of the from the year in which Jerusalem was sacked by Ne-

However, we find that the prophet was re- buchadnezzar to the first year of Jeroboam's reign, lieved from using this kind of fuel, for cows' dung was when national idolatry began in Israel. The period substituted at his request. See ver. 15.

of days seems to predict the duration of the siege by Verse 14. My soul hath not been polluted] There the Babylonians, ver. 9, deducting from the year five is a remarkable similarity between this expostulation months and twenty-nine days, mentioned 2 Kings xxv. of the prophet and that of St. Peter, Acts x. 14. 1-4, the time during which the Chaldeans were on

Verse 16. I will break the staff of bread] They their expedition against the Egyptians; see Jer. shall be besieged till all the bread is consumed, till the xxxvii. 5." This amounts nearly to the same as that famine becomes absolute; see 2 Kings xxv. 3 : “And I mentioned above.


In this chapter the prophet shows, under the type of hair, the judgments which God was about to execute on

the inhabitants of Jerusalem by famine, sword, and dispersion, 1-4. The type or allegory is then dropped, and God is introduced declaring in plain terms the vengeance that was coming on the whole nation which had proved so unworthy of those mercies with which they had hitherto been distinguished, 5–17. B.C. Cor. 594. AND thou, son of man, take siege are fulfilled: and thou shalt 4. M. cir. 3110.

B. C. cir. 594. OL. XLVI. 3. thee a sharp knife, take thee take a third part, and smite about OI. XLVI. 3. Tarquinii Prisci,

Tarquinii Prisci, R. Roman., a barber's razor, and cause it to it with a knife : and a third part R. Roman., cir. annum 23.

cir. annum 23. pass upon thine head and upon thou shalt scatter in the wind; thy beard : then take thee balances to weigh, and I will draw out a sword after them. and divide the hair.

3 - Thou shalt also take thereof a few in 2 b Thou shalt burn with fire a third part in number, and bind them in thy skirts. the midst of the city, when d the days of the 4 Then take of them again, and cast them a See Lev. xxi. 5; Isa. vii. 20; chap. xliv. 20.Ver. 12. e Jer. xl. 6; lii. 16.—Heb. wings.- - Jer. xli. 1, 2, &c.; « Chap. iv. 1. -d Chap. iv. 8, 9.

xliv, 14. NOTES ON CHAP. V.

out the coming evils. 1. The prophet represents the Verses 1-4. Take thee a sharp knife) Among the Jewish nation. 2. His hair, the people. 3. The raIsraelites, and indeed among most ancient nations, there zor, the Chaldeans. 4. The cutting the beard and were very few edge-tools. The sword was the chief; hair, the calamities, sorrows, and disgrace coming upon and this was used as a knife, a razor, &c., according the people. Cutting off the hair was a sign of mournto its different length and sharpness. It is likely that ing; see on Jer. xlv. 5 ; xlviii. 37; and also a sign only one kind of instrument is here intended; a knife of great disgrace; see 2 Sam. x. 4.

5. He is oror short sword, to be employed as a razor.

dered to divide the hair, ver. 2, into three equal parts, Here is a new emblem produced, in order to mark to intimate the different degrees and kinds of punish

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cir. annum 23.

about you;

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Dreadful straits

in the siege. A. M. cir. 3410. into the midst of the fire, and burn hold, I, even I, am against thee, A.Md.cor. 340.10. B. C. cir. 594.

01. XLVI. 3. them in the fire; for thereof and will execute judginents in the 01. XLVI.3. Tarquinii Prisci,

Tarquinii Prisci, R. Roman., shall a fire come forth into all midst of thee in the sight of the R. Roman.,

cir. annum 23. the house of Israel.

nations, 5 Thus saith the Lord God; This is Je- 9 And I will do in thee that which I have rusalem : I have set it in the midst of the not done, and whereunto I will not do any more nations and countries that are round about her, the like, because of all thine abominations.

6 And she hath changed my judgments into 10 Therefore the fathers *shall eat the sons wickedness more than the nations, and my in the midst of thee, and the sons shall eat statutes more than the countries that are round their fathers; and I will execụte judgmenis about her: for they have refused my judgments in thee, and the whole remnant of thee will I and my statutes, they have not walked in them. scatter into all the winds,

7 Therefore thus saith the Lord God; Be- 11 Wherefore, as I live, saith the Lord cause ye multiplied more than the nations God; Surely, because thou hast m defiled my that are round about you, and have not sanctuary with all thy - detestable things, and walked in my statutes, neither have kept my with all thine abominations, therefore will I judgments, - neither have done according to also diminish thee ; neither shall mine eye the judgments of the nations that are round spare, neither will I have any pity.

12 PA third part of thee shall die with the 8 Therefore thus saith the Lord God; Be- pestilence, and with famine shall they be con

b Jer. ii. 10, 11; chap. xvi. 47. Lam. iv. 6; Dan. ix. 12; Aros nii. 2.- Lev. xxvi. 29; Deut. xxviii. 53; 2 Kings vi.

m 2 Chron. xxxvi. 14; chap. vii. 20; viii. 5, &c.; xxiii. 38. 29; Jer. xix. 9; Lam. ii. 20; iv. 10; Bar. ii. 3. — Ver. 12;

- Chap. xi. 21.0 Chap. vii. 4, 9; viii. 18; ix. 10. —p See Lev. xxvi. 33; Deul. xxviii. 64; chap. xii. 14; Zech. ii. 6.

ver. 2; Jer. xv. 2; xxi. 9 ; chap. vi. 12. ment which should fall upon the people. 6. The ba- show that even this literal sense is tolerably correct. lances, ver. 1, were to represent the Divine justice, and But the point which is the centre of the greatest porthe exactness with which God's judgments should be tion of land that can be exhibited on one hemisphere distributed among the offenders. 7. This hair, divided is the capital of the British empire. See my Sermon into three parts, is to be disposed of thus : 1. A third on the universal spread of the Gospel. part is to be burnt in the midst of the city, to show that Verse 6. She hath changed my judgments] God so many should perish by famine and pestilence during shows the reason why he deals with Jerusalem in greater the siege. 2. Another third part he was to cut in small severity than with the surrounding nations; because portions about the city, (that figure which he had pour- she was more wicked than they. Bad and idolatrous trayed upon the brick,) to signify those who should per- as they were, they had a greater degree of morality ish in different sorties, and in defending the walls. 3. among them than the Jews had. Having fallen from And the remaining third part he was to scatter in the the true God, they became more abominable than others wind, to point out those who should be driven into cap- in proportion to the height, eminence, and glory from tivity. And, 4. The sword following them was in which they had fallen This is the common case of tended to show that their lives should be at the will of backsliders ; they frequently, in their fall, become tentheir captors, and that many of them should perish by fold more the children of wrath than they were before. the sword in their dispersions. 5. The few hairs which Verse 9. I will do in thee that which I have not he was to take in his skirts, ver. 3, was intended to re- done] The destruction of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezpresent those few Je

nat should be left in the land zar was one of the greatest calamities that ever fell on under Gedaliah, after the taking of the city. 6. The any nation or place before ; and that by the Romans throwing a part of these last into the fire, ver. 4, was under Titus exceeded all that has taken place since. intended to show the miseries that these suffered in These two sackages of that city have no parallel in Judea, in Egypl, and finally in their being also carried the history of mankind. away into Babylon on the conquest of Egypt by Ne- Verse 10. The fathers shall eat the sons] Though buchadnezzar. See these transactions particularly we have not this fact so particularly stated in history, pointed out in the notes on Jeremiah, chapters xl., xli., yet we cannot doubt of it, considering the extremities xlii. Some think that this prophecy may refer to the to which they were reduced during the siege. The persecution of the Jews by Antiochus Epiphanes. same is referred to by Jeremiah, Lam. iv. 10. Even

Verse 5. This is Jerusalem : I have set it in the the women, who were remarkable for kindness and humidst of the nations] I have made this city the most manity, boiled their own children, and ate them during eminent and the most illustrious in the world. Some the siege. think that these words refer to its geographical situa- Will I scatter into all the winds.) Disperse you, by tion, as being equally in the centre of the habitable captivity, among all the nations of the earth. world. But any point on a globe is its centre, no mat- Verse 12. A third part of thee] See the note on ter where laid down; and it would not be difficult to l ver. 1-4.

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B. C. cir. 594.
OI. XLVI. 3.

B. C. cir. 594.
OI. XLVI. 3.

Farther judgments


against Jerusalem. 1. M. cir . 3410. sumed in the midst of thee : and an instruction and an astonish- A. M. cir. 3410.

a third part shall fall by the ment unto the nations that are Tarquinii Prisci,

Tarquinii Prisci, R. Roman.,

sword round about thee; and I round about thee, when I shall R. Roman., cir annum 23.

will scatter a third part into all execute judgments in thee in cir. annum 23. the winds, and I will draw out a sword anger and in fury and in y furious rebukes. I after them.

the LORD have spoken it. 13 Thus shall mine anger be accomplished, .16 When I shall 2 send upon them the evil and I will cause my fury to rest upon them, arrows of famine, which shall be for their "and I will be comforted: and they shall destruction, and which I will send to destroy know that I the Lord have spoken it in my you: and I will increase the famine upon you, zeal, when I have accomplished my sury in and will break your & staff of bread. them.

17 So will I send upon you famine and bevil 14 Moreover w I will make thee waste, and beasts, and they shall bereave thee; and a reproach among the nations that are round pestilence and blood shall pass through thee; about thee, in the sight of all that pass by. and I will bring the sword upon thee.

I the 15 So it shall be a reproach and a taunt, Lord have spoken it.

Jer. ix. 16; ver. 2, 10; chap. vi. 8. Lev. xxvi. 33; ver. 37; 1 Kings ix. 7; Psa. lxxix. 4; Jer. xxiv. 9; Lam. ii. 15. 2; chap. xii. 14.- Lam. iv. 11; chap. vi. 12; vii. 8. —: Ch. Chap. xxv. 17. -- Deut. xxxii. 23, 24.-Lev. xxvi. 26 ; xxi. 17. u Deut. xxxii. 36; Isa. i. 24.- Chap. xxxvi. 6; chap. iv. 16; xiv. 13. - Lev. xxvi. 22; Deut. xxxii. 24; chap. Xxxviii. 19. - Lev. xxvi. 31, 32 ; Neh. ii. 17. * Deut. xxvIII. xiv. 21 ; xxxiii. 27; xxxiv. 25.— Chap. xxxviii. 22.


Verse 13. I will cause my fury to rest] , My Verse 17. So will I send upon you famine and evis displeasure, and the evidences of it, shall not be beasts, and they shall bereave thee] Wild beasts altransient ; they shall be permanent upon you, and ways multiply in depopulated countries. In England, among you. And is not this dreadfully true to the wolves abounded when the country was thinly peopled; present day?

it is now full of inhabitants, and there is not one wolf Verse 16. The evil arrows of famine) Famine and in the land. Nebuchadnezzar and his Chaldeans may pestilence are represented as poisoned arrows, inflict- be called here evil beasts. He is often compared to a ing death wherever they wound. The ancients repre- lion, Jer. iv. 7; Dan. vii. 14; on account of the ray. sented them in the same way.

ages made by him and his Chaldean armies,


B. C. cir. 594,

cir. annum 23.

cir. annum 23.

In this chapter, which forms a distinct section, the prophet denounces the judgments of God against the Jews

for their idolatry, 1-7.; but tells them that a remnant shall be saved, and brought to a sense of their sins by their severe afflictions, 8–14. B. C.cir391. AND the word of the Lord the rivers, and to the valleys; 4. M. cir. 3410.

OI. XLVI. 3. came unto me, saying, Behold, I, even I, will bring a Ol. XLVI. 3. Tarquinii Prisci,

Tarquinii Prisci, R. Ronan., 2 Son of man, a set thy face sword upon you, and I will R. Roman.,

toward the mountains of Israel, destroy your high places. and prophesy against them,

4 And your altars shall be desolate, and 3 And say, Ye mountains of Israel, hear the your d images shall be broken : and e I will word of the Lord God; Thus saith the Lord cast down your

slain men before


idols. God to the mountains, and to the hills,' to 5 And I will í lay the dead carcasses of the * Chap. xx. 46; xxi. 2; xxv. 2: Chap. xxxvi. 1.- Lev. Or, sun images; and so ver. 6. Le Lev. xxvi. 30.-Heb. xxvi. 30.


The mountains may be addressed here particularly, Verse 2. Set thy face toward the mountains of Is- because it was on them the chief scenes of idolatry rael] This is a new prophecy, and was most probably were exhibited. given after the four hundred and thirty days of his ly- Verse 4. Your images shall be broken] Literally, ing on his left and right side were accomplished. By your sun images; representations of the sun, which Israel here, Judea is simply meant; not the len tribes, they worshipped. See the margin. who had long before been carried into captivity. Eze- Verse 5. Will scatter your bones round about your kiel' uses this term in reference to the Jews only. altars.) This was literally fulfilled by the Chaldeans.

B. C. cir. 594.

B. C. cir. 594.

The desolations that shall


take place in the land. 4. M. cir. 3410. children of Israel before their and that I have not said in vain A.M. cir. 3410.

Ol. XLVI. 3. idols; and I will scatter your that I would do this evil unto them. 01. XLVI. 3.
Tarquinii Prisci,
R. Roman.,

Tarquinii Prisci, bones round about altars.


11 Thus saith the Lord GOD; R. Roman., cir. annum 23.

cir, annum 23. 6 In all your dwelling-places. Smite mwith thine hand, and the cities shall be laid waste, and the high stamp with thy foot, and say, Alas for all the places shall be desolate ; that your altars may evil abominations of the house of Israel! for be laid waste and made desolate, and your idols they shall fall by the sword, by the famine, may be broken and cease, and your images and by the pestilence. may be cut down, and your works may be 12 He that is far off shall die of the pestiabolished.

lence; and he that is near shall fall by the 7 And the slain shall fall in the midst of you, sword; and he that remaineth and is besieged and 8 ye shall know that I am the Lord. shall die by the famine : • thus will I accom

8 Yet will I leave a remnant, that ye may plish my fury upon them. have some that shall escape the sword among 13 Then P shall ye know that I am the the nations, when ye shall be scattered through LORD, when their slain men shall be among the countries.

their idols round about their altars, 4 upon 9 And they that escape of you shall remember every high hill, ' in all the tops of the mounme among the nations whither they shall be tains, and under every green tree, and under carried captives, because I am broken with every thick oak, the place where they did their whorish heart, which hath departed from offer sweet savour to all their idols. me, and k with their eyes, which go a whoring 14 So will I * stretch out my hand upon after their idols : and 1 they shall loathe them- them, and make the land desolate, yea, " more selves for the evils which they have committed desolate than the wilderness toward Diblath, in all their abominations.

in all their habitations : and they shall know 10 And they shall know that I am the Lord, that I am the Lord.

& Ver. 13; chap. vii. 4,9; xi. 10, 12; xii. 15.- h Jer. xliv. Chap, xxi. 14. Chap. v. 12.- Chap. v. 13. -- Ver. 28; chap. v. 2, 12 ; xii. 16; xiv. 22. Psa. lxxviii. 40; Isa. 7. - Jer. ii. 20. Hos. iv, 13. Isa. Ivii. 5. vii. 13; xlii. 24; Ixui. 10. Lk Num, xv. 39; chap. xx. 7, 24. 25. -u Or, desolate from the wilderness.-Num. xxi. 46; 1 Lev. xxvi. 39; Job xlii. 6; chap. XX. 43; xxxvi. 31.

Jer. xlvii. 22. According to Baruch, chap. ii. 24, 25, they opened the they were typical and commanded, were proper in the sepulchres of the principal people, and threw the bones prophet : in such persons as the above they would be about on every side.

evidences of insanity. Such extravagant acts are no Verse 9. They that escape of you shall remember part of God's worship. me] Those that escape the sword, the pestilence, and Verse 14. And make the land-more desolate than the famine, and shall be led into captivity, shall plainly the wilderness toward Diblath] Diblath or Diblathayin see that it is God who has done this; and shall humble is situated in the land of Moab. It is mentioned Num. themselves on account of their abominations, leave xxxiii. 46, Almon-Diblathaim; and in Jer. xlviii. 22, their idolatry, and worship me alone. And this Beth-Diblathaim. It was a part of that horrible wil. they have done from the Babylonish captivity to the derness mentioned by Moses, Deut. viii. 15, " wherein present day.

were fiery serpents, and scorpions, and drought." The Verse 11. Smite with thine hand, and stamp with precise reason why it is mentioned here is not very thy foot] Show the utmost marks of thy astonishment evident. Some think it is the same as Riblah, where and indignation, and dread of the evils that are coming Nebuchadnezzar slew the princes of Israel, and put upon them. Some have contended for the propriety out Zedekiah's eyes; the principal difference lying beof clapping and stamping in public worship from these tween the T daleth and the 7 resh, which in MSS. is words! It is scarcely a breach of charity to think often scarcely discernible ; and hence vast multitudes that such persons are themselves incapable either of of various readings. Five, probably six, of Kenniattending on or conducting the worship of God. To cott's MSS. have no ban riblathah, as likewise two of be consistent, they should copy the prophet in his other my oldest MSS. ; though in the margin of one a later typical actions as well as these ; and then we shall hear hand directs the word to be read nbod bedaleth, with of their lying on their left side for three hundred and daleth. But all the Versions read the word with a D. ninety days, and on their right side for forty days; This may appear a matter of little importance, but we shaving their heads, burning their hair, baking their should take pains to recover even one lost letter of the bread with dung, &c. Now all these things, because I word of God.


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_ Isa. v.

Israel's desolation


is at the door.


B. C. cir. 594.

R. Roman.,

cir, annum 23.

This chapter, which also forms a distinct prophecy, foretells the dreadful destruction of the land of Israel,

of Judah, (for after the captivity of the ten tribes these terms are often used indiscriminately for the Jews in general,) on account of the heinous sins of its inhabitants, 1-15; and the great distress of the small 'remnant that should escape, 16-19. The temple itself, which they had polluted with idolatry, is devoted to destruction, 20-22 ; and the prophet is directed to make a chain, as a type of that captivity, in which both king and people should be led in bonds to Babylon, 23–27. The whole chapter abounds in bold and

beautiful figures, flowing in an easy and forcible language. A. M. cir. 3410. B. c. cir. 594. MOREOVER the word of the

5 Thus saith the Lord God; An A. M. cir. 3410. OI. XLVI.3. Lord came unto mé, saying, evil, an only evil, behold, is come. Ol. XLVI. 3. Tarquinii Prisci,

Tarquinii Prisci, 2 Also, thou son of man, thus 6 An end is come, the end is R. Roman., cir, annum 23.

saith the Lord God unto the land come : it watcheth for thee; of Israel ; An end, the end is come upon the behold, it is come. four corners of the land.

7 & The morning is come unto thee, O thou 3 Now is the end come upon thee, and I that dwellest in the land : h the time is come, will send mine anger upon thee, and will the day of trouble is near, and not the i soundjudge thee according to thy ways, and will ing again of the mountains. recompense upon thee all thine abominations. 8 Now will I shortly k pour out my fury

4 And d mine eye shall not spare thee, nei- upon thee, and accomplish mine anger upon ther will I have pity: but I will recompense thee : 'and I will judge thee according to thy thy ways upon thee, and thine abominations ways, and will recompense thee for all thine shall be in the midst of thee : e and ye shall abominations. know that I am the LORD.

9 Andmine eye shall not spare, neither will • Ver. 3, 6; Amos viii. 2 ; Matt. xxiv. 6, 13, 14. -b Ver. 8, ? Heb. awaketh against thee .- Ver. 10, Ver. 12; Zeph. 9.—Heb. give.- Ver. 9; chap. v. 11; viii. 18; ix. 10. i. 14, 15. Or, echo. Chap. XX. 8, 21.- Ver. 3. • Ver. 27; chap. vi. 7; xii. 20.

m Ver. 4. NOTES. ON CHAP. VII.

sword, the pestilence, the famine, and the captivity. Verse 2. An end, the end is come] Instead of 1'p Many MSS. read anx achar, after. So evil cometh Ypoz xs kets ba hakkets, one MS. of Kennicott's, one after evil; one instantly succeeds another. of De Rossi's, and one of my own,


Verse 6. An end is come, the end is come : it watchkets ba, ba hakkets, “The end cometh, come is the eth for thee) This is similar to the second verse ; but end." This reading is supported by all the ancient there is a paronomasia, or play upon letters and words, Versions, and is undoubtedly genuine. The end COMETH: which is worthy of note. 744 rpo ypa J X YP the termination of the Jewish state is coming, and while kets ba, ba hakkets, hekits elayich. hyp katsah signifie's I am speaking, it is come. The destruction is at the to make an end or extremity, by cutting off something, door. The later hand, who put the vowel points to the and yp' yakats signifies to awake from sleep: hence ancient MS. that has the above reading, did not put yp kits, the summer, as the earth and its productions the points to the first xa ba, but struck his pen gently seem then to awake from the sleep of winter. The across it, and by a mark in the margin intimated that end or final destruction is here personified; and repreit should be blotted out. All my ancient MSS. were sented as an executioner who has arisen early from his without the points originally; but they have been added sleep, and is waiting for his orders to execute judgment by modern hands, with a different ink; and they have upon these offenders.' Hence it is saidin multitudes of instances corrected, or rather changed, Verse 7. The morning is come unto thee] Every important readings, to make them quadrate with the note of time is used in order to show the certainty of

But the original reading, in almost every the thing. The morning that the executioner has case, is discernible.

watched for is come; the time of that morning, in The end is come upon the four corners of the land.] which it should take place, and the day to which that This is not a partial calamity; it shall cover and sweep time, precise hour of that morning, belongs, in which the whole land. The cup of your iniquity is full, and judgment shall be executed. All, all is come. my forbearing is at an end. This whole chapter is And not the sounding again of the mountuins.) The poetical.

hostile troops are advancing! Ye hear a sound, a tuVerse 4. Thine abominations shall be in the midst multuous noise ; do not suppose that this proceeds from of thee] They shall ever stare thee in the face, up- festivals upon the mountains ; from the joy of harvestbraid thee with thy ingratitude and disobedience, and men, or the treaders of the wine-press. It is the noise be witnesses against thee.

of those by whom ye and your country are to fall. Verse 5. An evil, an only evil] The great, the 07 777 859 velo hed harim, and not the reverberation sovereign, the last exterminating evil, is come : the i of sound, or reflected sound, or re-echoing from the



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