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The apostasy and punishment
of the priests and people.
B. C. cir. 588.
cir. annum 29.
cir. annum 29.
The present deplorable state of the nation is now contrasted with its ancient prosperity, 1-12; and the
unhappy change ascribed, in a great degree, to the profligacy of the priests and prophets, 13-16. The national calamities are tenderly lamented, 17-20, The ruin of the Edomites also, who had insulted the Jews in their distress, is ironically predicted, 21. See Psa. cxxxvü. 7, and Obadiah 10-12.
The chapter closes with a gracious promise of deliverance from the Babylonish captivity, 22. ABAC cir: 3:26. How is the gold become dim!! to the roof of his mouth for 4. M. cit 3416. OI. XLVII. 1. how is the most fine gold thirst: fthe young children ask 01. XLVIII. 1. Tarquinii Prisci,
Tarquinii Prisci, R. Roman.,.' changed ! the stones of the sanc- bread, and no man breaketh it
R. Roman., tuary are poured out a in the top unto them. of every street.
5 They that did feed delicately are desolate 2 The precious sons of Zion, comparable to in the streets: they that were brought up in fine gold, how are they esteemed bas earthen scarlet 5 embrace dunghills.' pitchers, the work of the hands of the potter! 6 For the punishment of the iniquity of
3 Even the sea monsters draw out the the daughter of my people is greater than the breast, they give' suck to their young ones : punishment of the sin of Sodom, that was the daughter of my people is become cruel, i overthrown as in a moment, and no hands like the ostriches in the wilderness.
stayed on her. 4 The tongue of the sucking child cleaveth 7 Her Nazarites were purer than snow, they Chap. ii. 19.-_b Isa. xxx. 14;: Jer. xix. 11; 2 Cor. iv. 7. Psa. xxii. 15.— See chap. ii. 11, 12. Job xxiv. 8 c Or, sea calves. ~ Job xxxix. 14, 16.
Or, iniquity. - Gen. xix. 25.
NOTES ON CHAP. IV.
Verse-5. Embrace dunghills. Lie on straw or rubVerse 1. How is the gold become dim] The pro- bish, instead of the costly carpets and sofas on which phet. contrasts, in various affecting instances, the they formerly stretched themselves. wretched circumstances of the Jewish nation, with the Verse 6. For the punishment] He thinks the punflourishing state of their affairs in former times. Here ishment of Jerusalem far greater than that of Sodom. they are compared to gold, 2071 zahab, native gold from That was destroyed in a moment, while all her inhabthe-mine, which, contrary to its nature, is become dim, itants were in health and strength; Jerusalem fell by is iarnished; and even the fine, the sterling gold, and the most lingering calamities ; her men partly destroyed kethem, that which was stamped to make it current, is by the sword, and partly by the famine. changed or adulterated, so as to be no longer passable. Instead of no hands stayed on her, Blayney transThis might be applied to the temple, but particularly to lates, “ Nor were hands weakened in her.” Perhaps the fallen priests and apostate prophets.
the meaning is, “Sodom was destroyed in a moment ; The stones of the sanctuary] vyp 338 abney ko- without any human labour.” It was a judgment from desh, the holy stones ; the Jewish godly men, who were God himself: so the sacred text : “The Lord rained even then the living stones of which God built, his down fire and brimstone from the Lord out of heaven." Church.
See. Gen. xix. 24. Verse 2. The precious sons of Zion] The Jewish Verse 7. Her Nazarites were purer than snow) priests and Jewish believers.
703 nazir does not always signify a person separated Comparable to fine gold). Who were of the puré under a religious vow ; it sometimes denotes what is standard of holiness; holy, because God who called chief or eminent. It is applied to Joseph, Gen. xlix. them is holy; but now esteemed no better than earthen 26. Blayney therefore translates here, her NOBLES. pitchers- vessels of dishonour in comparison of what they once were.
“Her nobles were purer than snow, they were whiter
than milk; Verse 3. Even the sea monsters draw out the breast] The whales give suck to their young ones.
They were ruddier on the bone than rubies; their 1'30 tannin, signifies all large and cruel creatures,
veining was the sapphires." whether aquatic or terrestrial ; and need not here be on which he remarks :—" In the first line the whiterestrained to the former sort. My Old MS. Bible trans- ness of their skin is described ; and in the second, their lates curiously : Bot and the cruel · bestis that ben fesh;" and as hid gazar signifies to divide and interclepid Lampa, and thei nakeden ther teris, gebe ther sect, as the blue veins do on the surface of the body, whelpis souken.
these are without doubt intended. Like the ostriches in the wilderness.) For her care- Milk will most certainly well apply to the whiteness lessness about her eggs, and her inattention to her of the skin ; the beautiful ruby to the ruddiness of the young, the ostrich is proverbial.
flesh; and the sapphire, in its clear transcendent purVerse 4. The tongue of the sucking child] See the ple, to the veins in a fine complexion. The reverse note on chap. ii. 12.
of this state, as described in the following verse, needs
cir. annum 29.
The apostasy and punishment
of the prophets and priests. A. M. cir. 3416. were whiter than milk, they were
13 * For the sins of her pro- B. C. cir
A. M. cir. 3416. B. C. cir. 588. OI. XLVIII. 1. more ruddy in body than rubies, phets, and the iniquities of her 01. XLVIII. 1. Tarquinii Prisci,
R. Roman., their polishing was of sap- priests, that have shed the Tarquinii Prisci, cir. annum 29. phire :
blood of the just in the midst 8 Their visage is k blacker " than a coal ; of her, they are not known in the streets : m their 14 They have wandered as blind men in the skin cleaveth to their bones; it is withered, it streets, they have polluted themselves with is become like a stick.
blood, that men could not touch their 9. They that be slain with the sword are garments. better than they that be slain with hunger : 15 They cried unto them, Depart ye; it is for these "pine away, stricken through for 2 unclean; depart, depart, touch not: when want of the fruits of the field.
they fled away and wandered, they said 10. • The hands of the P pitiful women have among the heathen, They shall no more sosodden their own children: they were their journ there. ? meat in the destruction of the daughter of 16 The 4 anger of the Lord hath divided my people
them; he will no more regard them: b they 11 The Lord hath accomplished his fury; respected not the persons of the priests, they * he hath poured out his fierce anger, and favoured not the elders. s hath kindled a fire in Zion, and it hath de-. 17 As for us, our eyes as yet failed for voured the foundations thereof.
our vain help: in our watching we have 12 The 'kings of the earth, and all the watched for a nation that could not save us. inhabitants of the world, would not have be- 18 . They hunt our steps, that we cannot go lieved that the adversary and the enemy should in our streets : our end is near, our days are have entered into the gates of Jerusalem. fulfilled; for è our end is come.
Heb: darker than blackness. Chap. v. 10; Joel ii. 6; Nah. u Matt. xxiii. 31, 37. Jer. ii. 34.- Or, in that they could ii. 10.—m Psa. cii. 5.-n Heb. flow ou.---- Chap. ii. 20. not but touch, Num. xix. 16.—y Or, ye polluted.-Lev. plsa. xlix. 15.—_ Deut. xxvii. 57; 2 Kings vi. 29.
Or, face. Chap. v. 12. 62 Kings xxiv. 7; Deut. xxxü. 22; Jer. xxi. 14.- Jer. v. 31; vi. Isa. xx.5; xxx. 6, 7; Jer. xxxvii. 7'; Ezek. xxix. 16. _d 2 Kings 13; xiv. 14; xxu. 11, 21; Ezek. xxii. 26, 28; Zeph. iii. 4. XXV. 4, 5. Ezek. vii. 2, 3, 6; Amos viii. 2. no explanation. The face was a dismal dark brown, massacred, to the bitter pains of eternal death!- 0 earth, the flesh gone, the skin shrivelled, and apparently wrap- cover not thou their blood ! ped round the bones.
Verse 14. They have wandered as blind men in the Verse 10. The hands of the pitiful women have sod-streets] Rather, “They ran frantic through the streets, den their own children] See on chap. ij. 20. But they were stained with blood.” This was in their prehere there is a reference to mothers eating their own tended zeal for their cause. · Bishop Bonner, who was children; and this was done, not by mothers cruel and at the head of those sanguinary executions in England, brutal, but by nrjont D'vi nashim rachmaniyoth, the was accustomed to buffet the poor Protestants, when on compassionate, the tender-hearted mothers. From these. their examinations they were too powerful for him in horrible scenes it is well to pass with as hasty a step argument as possible. Verse 12. The kings of the earth] Jerusalem was
“ He proved his doctrine orthodox, so well fortified, both by nature and art, that it appeared
By apostolic blows and knocks." as a miracle that it should be taken at all.
Just as his elder brethren, the false priests and prophets Verse 13. For the sins of her prophets, and the ini- of Jerusalem. quities of her priests] These most wretched beings, Verse 15. When they fled away] These priests and under the pretence of zeal for the true religion, perse- prophets were so bad, that the very heathen did not like cuted the genuine prophets, priests, and people of God, to permit them to sojourn among them. The prophet and caused their blood to be shed in the midst of the now-resumes the history of the siege. city, in the most open and public manner; exactly as Verse 17. We have watched for a nation] Viz., the the murderous priests, and blood-thirsty preachers, un- Egyptians, who were their pretended allies, but were der the reign of bloody Queen Mary, did in England. neither able nor willing to help them against the However, the profligate priests and idolatrous prophets Chaldeans. in Jerusalem, only shed the blood of the saints of God Verse 18. We cannot go in our streets] Supposed there : but the sanguinary papists, in the above reign, to refer to the darts and other missiles cast from the burnt the blood here, for they burnt the people alive ; mounds which they had raised on the outside of the and at the same time, in their worse than Molochean walls, by which those who walked in the streets cruelty, consigned, with all the fervour peculiar to their were grievously annoyed, and could not shield themthen ruthless Church, the souls of those whom they thus selves.
- Jer. xiii. 45.
The earnest prayer of
the distressed Israelites. A. M. cir. 3416.
19 Our persecutors are 'swifter Edom, that dwellest in the land A. M. cir. 3416. B. C. cir. 588.
B. C. cir. 588. Ol. XLVIII. 1. than the eagles of the heaven : of Uz; k the cup also shall pass ol. XLVIII. 1, Tak uirom Prisci, they pursued us upon the moun- through unto thee : thou shalt be
R. Roman., cír. ammum 29.
tains, they laid wait for us in the drunken, and shalt make thyself cir. annum 29. wilderness.
naked. 20 The 8 breath of our nostrils, the anointed 22 The m punishment of thine iniquity is of the Lord, was taken in their pits, of whom accomplished, O. daughter of Zion; he will we said, Under his shadow we shall live among no more carry thee away into captivity : he the heathen.
will visit thine iniquity, O daughter of Edom; 21 Rejoice and be glad, o daughter of- he will • discover thy sins.
Deut. xxviii. 49; Jer. iv. 13.-Gen. 1. 7; chap. ii. 9. Jer. xxv. 15, 16, 21; Obad. 10.—Isa. xl. 2.- Or, h Jer. lii. .9; Ezek. xii. 13 ; xix. 4, 8. — Like Eccles. Thine iniquity. Psa. cxxxvii. 7.- Or, carry thee captive
for thy sins. Verse 19. They pursued us upon the mountains] enough of thy own. They had joined themselves to They hunted down the poor Jews like wild beasts in the Chaideans, (see Psa. cxxxvii. 7,) and therefore they every part of the country by their marauding parties, should share in the desolations of Babylon. whilst the great army besieged Jerusalem. But this may. Verse 22., The punishment of thine iniquity is acapply to the pursuit of Zedekiah. See what follows. complished, o daughter of Zion). On the contrary :
Verse 20. The breath of our nostrils, the anointed Rejoice, O Jerusalem, for thy captivity will soon end; of the Lord] That is, Zedekiah the king, who was thy sufferings are nearly completed; thou shalt soon as the life of the city, was taken in his flight by the return to thy own land: but he will visit thy iniquity, Chaldeans, and his eyes were put-out; so that he was O Edom, he will discover thy sins. When sin is parwholly unfit to perform any function of government; doned, it is said to be covered : here, God says he will though they had fondly hoped that if they surrendered not cover the sins of Edom-he will not pardon them; and should be led captives, yet they should be permit- they shall drink the cup of wrath. ted to live under their own laws and king in the land The promise in thiş last verse may refer to Jerusaof their bondage.
lem under the Gospel. When they receive Christ cruVerse 21. Rejoice and be glad, o daughter of Edom] cified, they shall be gathered from all nations, become A strong irony.
one with the Church among the Gentiles, be one flock The cup also shall pass through unto thee] Thou under one and the same Shepherd, and shall be carried who hast triumphed in our disasters shalt shortly have I no more into captivity.
This chapter is, as it were, an epiphonema or conclusion to the four preceding, representing the nation as
groaning under their calamities, and humbly' supplicating the Divine favour, 1-22. B.c.cir. Sac. REMEMBER, O Lord, what| 3 We are orphans and father. 4. M. cir
. 3416. Ol. XLVIII. 1. is come upon us.: consider, less, our mothers are as widows. 01. XLVIII. 1. Tarquinii Prisci,
Tarquinii Prisci, R. Roman.,
and behold our reproach: 4 We have drunken our water R. Roman., cir. annum 29.
2 ° Our inheritance is turned to for money; our wood d is sold cir. annum 29. strangers, our houses to aliens.
unto us. a Psa: lxxxix. 50, 51.-b Chap. ii. 15; Psa. lxxix. 4.
< Psa. lxxix. 1.
_d Heb. cometh for price. NOTES ON CHAP. V.
solemn prayer of all the people, stating their past and Verse 1. Remember, O Lord] In the Vulgate, Sy-, present sufferings, and praying for God's mercy. riac, and Arabic, this is headed, “ The prayer of Jere- Behold our reproach.) y'an hebita. But many MSS. miah.” In my old MS. Bible : Here bigynneth the of Kennicott's, and the oldest of my own, add the 17 orison of Jerempe the prophete.
he paragogic, 10'3n hebitah, “Look down earnestly Though this chapter consists of exactly twenty-two with commiseration;" for paragogic letters always inverses, the number of letters in the Hebrew alphabet, crease the sense. yet the acrostic form is no longer observed. Perhaps Verse 2. Our inheritance is turned to strangers] any thing so technical was not thought proper when in The greater part of the Jews were either slain or caragony and distress (under a sense of God's displeasure ried away captive; and even those who were left unon account of sin) they prostrated themselves before der Gedaliah were not free, for they were vassals to him to ask for mercy. Be this as it may, no attempt the Chaldeans. appears to have been made to throw these verses into Verse 4. We have drunken our water for money] I the form of the preceding chapters. It is properly a suppose the meaning of this is, that every thing was
They confess their sin,
and pray for mercy. A. M. cir. 3416. B. C. cir. 588. 5 • Our ' necks are under per-| 12 Princes are hanged up by A. M. cir. 3416.
B. C. cir. 588. 01. XLVIII. 1. secution : we labour, and have their hand : P the faces of elders OI. XLVIII. 1. Tarquinii Prisci,
Tarquinii Prisci, R. Roman, no rest. were not honoured.
R. Roman., cir. annum 29.
cir. annum 29. 6 8 We have given the hand 13 They took the young men b to the Egyptians, and to the Assyrians, to be a to grind, and the children fell under the satisfied with bread.
wood, 7 i Our fathers have sinned, and kare not ; 14 The elders have ceased from the gate, and we have borne their iniquities.
the young men from their music. 8 i Servants have ruled over us : there is 15 The joy of our heart is ceased; our none that doth deliver us out of their hand. dance is turned into mourning.
9 We gat our bread with the peril of our 16 The crown is fallen from our head : lives because of the sword of the wilderness. wo unto us, that we have sinned!
10 Our m skin was black like an oven be- 17 For this t our heart is faint ; " for these cause of the n terrible famine,
things our eyes are dim. 11 They ravished the women in Zion, and 18 Because of the mountain of Zion, which the maids in the cities of Judah.
is desolate, the foxes walk upon it. Deut. xxviü. 48 ; Jer. xxviii. 14. - - Heb. On our necks are we n Or, terrors or storms. Isa. xiii. 16; Zech. xiv. 2.
—p Isa. persecuted.
-Gen, xxiv. 2; Jer. 1. 15. Hos, xii. 1. -i Jer. xlvii. 6; chap. iv. 16. -9 Judg. xvi. 21.- Job xix. 9; Psa. xui. 29; Ezek. xvi. 2.- k Gen. xlii. 13; Zech. i. 5. I Neh. lxxxix. 39.- Heb. The crown of our head is fallen.
t Chap. v. 15. Job xxx. 30; Psa. cxix. 83; chap. iv. 8.
i. 22. — Psa. vi. 7; chap. ii. II. taxed by the Chaldeans, and that they kept the man- lives] They could not go into the wilderness to feed agement in their own hands, so that wood and water their cattle, or to get the necessaries of life, without were both'sold, the people not being permitted to help being harassed and plundered by marauding parties, and themselves. . They were now so lowly reduced by ser- by these were often exposed to the peril of their lives. vitude, that they were obliged to pay dearly for those This was predicted by Moses, Deut. xxviij. 31. things which formerly were common and of no price. Verse 10. Our skin was black--because of the terriA poor Hindoo in the country never buys fire-wood, ble famine.] Because of the searching winds that but when he comes to the city he is obliged to purchase burnt up every green thing, destroying vegetation, and his fuel, and considers it as a matter of great hardship. in consequence producing a famine.
Verse 5. Our necks are under persecution] We feel Verse 11. They ravished the women in Zion, and the yoke of our bondage; we are driven to our work the maids in the cities of Judah.) The evil mentioned like the bullock, which has a yoke upon his neck. here was predicted by Moses, Deut. xxviii. 30, 32, and
Verse 6. We have given the hand to the Egyptians] by Jeremiah, chap. vi. 12. We have sought alliances both with the Egyptians and Verse 12. Princes are hanged up by their hand] It the Assyrians, and made covenants with them in order is very probable that this was a species of punishment. to get the necessaries of life. Or, wherever we are They were suspended from hooks in the wall by their now driven, we are obliged to submit to the people of hands till they died through torture and exhaustion. the countries in order to the preservation of our lives. The body of Saul was fastened to the wall of Beth
Verse 7. Our fathers have sinned, and are not] Na- shan, probably in the same way; but his head had altions, as such, cannot be punished in the other world; ready been taken off. They were hung in this way therefore national judgments are to be looked for only that they might be devoured by the fowls of the air. in this life. The punishment which the Jewish nation It was a custom with the Persians after they had slain, had been meriting for a series of years came now upon strangled, or beheaded their enemies, to hang their bothem, because they copied and increased the sins of dies upon poles, or empale them. In this way they their fathers, and the cup of their iniquity was full. treated Histiæus of Miletum, and Leonidas of LaceThus the children might be said to bear the sins of dæmon. See Herodot. lib. vi. c. 30, lib. vii. c. 238. the fathers, that is, in temporal punishment, for in no Verse 13. They took the young men to grind] This other way does God visit these upon the children. See was the work of female slavės. See the note on Isa." Ezek. xvïï. 1, &c.
xlvii. 2. Verse 8. Servants have ruled over us] To be sub- Verse 14. The elders have ceased from the gate] ject to such is the most painful and dishonourable There is now no more justice administered to the peobondage
ple; they are under military law, or disposed of in Quid domini faciant, audent cum talia fures ?
every sense according to the caprice of their masters. Virg. Ecl. iii. 16.
Verse 16. The crown is fallen from our head] At
feasts, marriages, &c., they used to crown themselves “ Since slaves so insolent are grown,
with garlands of flowers; all-festivity of this kind was What may not masters do ?”
now at an end. Or it may refer to their having lost all Perhaps he here alludes to the Chaldean soldiers, whose sovereignty, being made slaves. will the wretched Jews were obliged to obey.
Verse 18. The foxes walk upon it.] Foxes are Verse 9 We gat our bread with the peril of our | very numerous in Palestine, see on Judges xv. 4. It
B. C. cir. 588.
'The desolate state of Judea.. - LAMENTATIONS.
A prayer for restoration, A. M. cir. 3416. 19 Thou, O LORD, remain- 21 ? Turn thou us unto thee, A. M. cir. 3416. Ol. XLVIII. I. est for ever; w thy throne from O Lord, and we shall be turned; 01. XLVIII. 1. Tarquinii Prisci,
Tarquinii Prisci, R. Roman., generation to generation. renew our days as of old.
R. Roman., cir. annum 29.
cir. annum 29. 20 * Wherefore dost thou forget 22 « But thou hast utterly reus for ever, and forsake us y so long time? jected us ; thou art very wroth against us.
Psa. ix. 7; x. 16; xxix. 10; xc. 2; cii. 12, 26, 27; cxlv. 13; y Heb. for length of days ?- 2 Psa. lxxx, 3, 7, 19; Jer. xxxi. Hab. i. 12. -w Psa. xlv. 6. -* Psa. xiii. 1.
18. Or, For wilt thou utterly reject us ?
was usual among the Hebrews to consider all deşo- In one of my oldest MSS., the twenty-first verse is lated land to be the resort of wild beasts; which is, in repeated at the conclusion of the twenty-second verse. fact, the case every where when the inhabitants are In another, yet older, there is only the first word of it, removed from a country.
13'vn hashibenu, Convert us ! Verse 19. Thou, O Lord, remainest for ever] Thou Having given in the preceding preface and notes sufferest no change. Thou didst once love us; O let what I judge necessary to explain the principal diffithat love be renewed towards us !
culties in this very fine and affecting poem, very fitly Verse 21. Renew our days as of old.] Restore us termed The LAMENTATIONS, as it justly stands at the to our former state. Let us regain our eountry, our head of every composition of the kind, I shall add but temple, and all the Divine offices of our religion ; but, a few words, and these shall be by way of recapitumore especially, thy favour.
lation chiefly. Verse 22. But thou hast utterly rejected us] ' It ap- The Hebrews were accustomed to make lamenta. pears as if thou hadst sealed our final reprobation, be- tions or mourning songs upon the death of great men, cause thou showest against us exceeding great wrath. princes, and heroes, who had distinguished themselves But convert us, O Lord, unto thee, and we shall be con- in arms ; and upon any occasion of public miseries verted. We are now greatly humbled, feel oür sin, and calamities. Calmet thinks they had collections of and see our folly : once more restore us, and we shall these sorts of Lamentations : and refers in proof to never again forsake thee! He heard the prayer; and 2 Chron. xxxv. 25 : “And Jeremiah lamented for at the end of seventy years they were restored to their Josiah ; and all the singing men and the singing woown land.
men spake of Josiah in their lamentations, to this day; This last verse is well rendered in the first printed and made them an ordinance in Israel : and, behold, edition of our Bible, 1535 :-htenue our daies as in they are written in the Lamentations." olde týme, for thou hast now banished us longe From this verse it is evident, that Jeremiah had pnough, and bene sore displeased at us.
composed a funeral elegy on Josiah : but, from the My Old MS. Bible is not less nervous :-Newe complexion of this Book, it is most evident that it was, thou our dais as fro the begynnung: bot castand not composed on the death of Josiah, but upon the deaweie thou hast put us out: thou wrathedist ugein solations of Jerusalem, &c., as has already been noted. us hugely,
His lamentation for Josiah is therefore lost. It ap. i Dr. Blayney translates, “ For surely thou hast cast pears also, that on particular occasions, perhaps annias off altogether :” and adds, “'y ki ought certainly to versaries, these lamentations were sung by men and be rendered as causal'; God's having rejected his peo- women singers, who performed their several parts; ple, and expressed great indignation against them, being for these were all alternate or responsive songs. And the cause and ground of the preceding application, in it is very likely, that this book was sung in the same which they pray to be restored to his favour, and the way; the men commencing with x aleph, the women enjoyment of their ancient privileges.”
responding with a beth, and so on. Several of this Pareau thinks no good sense can be made of this sort of songs are still extant. We have those which place unless we translate interrogatively, as in Jer. David composed on the death of his son Absalom, and xiv. 19,
on the death of his friend Jonathan. And we have “ Hast thou utterly rejected Judah?
those made by Isaiah, Jeremiah, and Ezekiel, on the Hath thy soul loathed Sion?".
desolation of Egypt, Tyre, Sidon, and Babylon. See
Isa. xiv, 4,5 ; xv. ; xvi. ; Jer. vii. 29; ix. 10 ; xlviii. On this ground he translates here,
32; Ezek. xix. 1 ; xxviii. 11 ; xxxij. 2 ; Jer. ix, 17. An enim prorsus nos rejecisses ?
Besides these, we have fragments of others in differNobis iratus esses usque adeo ?
ent places, and references to some, which are now “ Hast thou indeed utterly cast us off?
finally lost. Wilt thou be angry with us for ever ?"
In the two first chapters of this book, the prophet
describes, principally, the calamities of the siege of Wilt thou extend thy wrath against us so as to show Jerusalem. us no more mercy ? This agrees well with the state In the third, he deplores the persecutions which he and feelings of the complainants.
himself had suffered; though he may in this be perMASORETIC-Notes.
sonifying the city and state ; many of his own suffer
ings being illustrative of the calamities that fell geneNumber of verses in this Book, 154. rally upon the city and people at large. Middle verse, chap. iii. 34.
The fourth chapter is employed chiefly on the rain