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B. C. cir. 588.
cir, annum 29.
Great slaughter of the
inhabitants of Jerusalem A. M. cir. 3116. a wall of the daughter of Zion, shall the priest and the pro- B, C. cir: 588.
AM. 3416 y let tears run down like a river phet be slain in the sanctuary oi. XLVIII. 1. Tarquinii Prisci,
Tarquinii Prisci, R Roman., day and night: give thyself no of the Lord?.
R. Roman., rest; lèt not the apple of thine 21 The young and the old
cir. annum 29. eye cease.
lie on the ground in the streets : my vir19 Arise, ? cry out in the night: in the be- gins and my young men are fallen by the ginning of the watches pour out thine heart sword; thou hast slain thein in the day of like water. before the face of the LORD: lift thine
h thou hast killed, and not up thy hands toward him for the life of thy pitied. young children, that faint for hunger in the 22 Thou hast called as in a solemn day top of every street.
my terrors round about, so that in the day 20 Behold, O Lord, and consider to whom of the Lord's anger none escaped nor rethou hast done this. Shall the women eat mained : * those that I have swaddled and their fruit, and children of a span long? brought up hath mine enemy consumed.
Ver. 8. — Jer. xiv. 17; chap. i. 16.—2 Psa. cxix. 147. iv. 10; Ezek. v. 10. Or, swaddled with their hands.Psa. lxii. 8.- Ver. 11. Isa. li. 20; chap. iv. l; Nah. iv. 13, 16. 52 Chron. xxxvi. 17. Chap. iii. 43.iii. 10. - Lev. xxvi. 29; Deut. xxviii. 53 ; Jer. xix. 9; chap. xxxi. 13; Jer. vi. 25; xlvi. 5. —Hos. ix. 12, 13.
Ch. -i Psa.
y and night; sive
Zion? I answer, I do not know. It is certainly harsh day of thine anger; Thou hast killed, and not pitied.”
“O wall of the daughter of Zion, let tears run See chap. iv. 10: down like a river day and night.” Zion's ways may Verse 22. Thou hast called as in a solemn day) It lament, and her streets mourn; but how the walls can is by thy influence alone that so many enemies are be said to weep is not so easy to be understood, be called together at one time; and they have so hemmed cause there is no parallel for it. One of my most an- us in that none could escape, and none remained unslain cient MSS. omits the three words; and in it the text or uncaptivated, Perhaps the figure is the collecting stands thus : “ Their heart cried unto the Lord, Let of the people in Jerusalem on one of the solemn antears run down like a river day and night; give thy- nual festivals. God has called terrors together to feast self no rest," &c.
on Jerusalem, similar to the convocation of the people Let not the apple of thine eye cease.] r'y na bath from all parts of the land to one of those 'annual festiayin means either the pupil of the eye, or the tears. vals. The indiscriminate slaughter of young and old, Tears are the produce of the eye, and are here ele- priest- and prophet, all ranks and conditions, may be gantly termed the daughter of the eye. Let not thy illustrated by the following verses from Lucan, which tears cease. But with what propriety can we say to appear as if a translation of the nineteenth, twentieth, the apple or pupil of the eye, Do not cease ? Tears and twenty-first verses of this chapter :are most certainly meant.
Verse 19. Arise, cry out in the night] This seems Nobilitas cum plebe perit ; lateque vagatur to refer to Jerusalem besieged. . Ye who keep the Ensis, et a nullo revocatum est pectore ferrum. night watches, pour out your hearts before the Lord, Stat cruor in Templis ; multaque rubentia cæde instead of calling the time of night, &c.; or, when you Lubrica saxa madent. Nulli sua profuit ætas. call it, send up a fervent prayer to God for the safety Non senes extremum piguit vergentibus annis and relief of the place.
Præcipitasse diem ; nec primo in limine vitæ, Verse 20. Consider to whom thou hast done this.] Infanti miseri nascentia rumpere fata. Perhaps the best sense of this difficult verse is this :
Pharsal. lib. ii., 101. “ Thou art our Father, we are thy children ; wilt thou destroy thy own offspring ? Was it ever heard that a “ With what a slide devouring slaughter passed, mother devoured her own child, a helpless infant of a And swept promiscuous orders in her haste; span long ?” That it was foretold that there should O'er noble and plebeian ranged the sword, be such distress in the siege,—that mothers should be 'Nor pity nor remorse one pause afford! obliged to eat their own children, is evident enough The sliding streets with blood were clotted o'er, from Lev, xxvi. 29; Deut. xxviii. 53, 56, 57; but And sacred temples stood in pools of gore. the former view of the subject seems the most natural, The ruthless steel, impatient of delay, and is best supported by the context. The priest and Forbade the sire to linger out his day : the prophet are slain ; the young and old lie on the It struck the bending father to the earth, ground in the streets ; the virgins and young men are And cropped the wailing infant at its birth." fallen by the sword. “ Thou hast slain them in the
state of the Jews.
CHAPTER III. The prophet
, by enumerating his own severe trials, 1-20, and showing his trust in God, 21, encourages his people to the like resignation and trust in the Divine and never-failing mercy, 22-27. He vindicates the goodness of God in all his dispensations, and the unreasonableness of murmuring under them, 28–39. He recommends self-examination and repentance ; and then, from their experience of former deliverances
from God, encourages them to look for pardon for their sins, and retribution to their enemies, 40-66.. A. M. cir. 3416. AM the man that hath seen 9 He hath inclosed my ways
A.M. cir. 3416. I B. C. cir. 588.
B. C. cir. 588. Ol. XLVIII. I. affliction by the rod of his with hewn stone, he hath made OI. XLVIII. 1. Tarquinii Prisci,
Tarquinij Prisci, R. Roman., wrath. my paths crooked.
R. Roman., cir. annum 29.
2 He hath led me, and brought 10 He was unto me as a bear cir. annum 29. me into darkness, but not into light. lying in wait, and as a lion in secret places.
3 Surely against me is he turned; he turneth 11. He hath turned aside my ways, and his hand against me all the day,
& pulled me in pieces : 'he hath made me de 4 . My flesh and my skin hath he made old; solate. he hath b broken my bones.
12 He hath bent his bow, and hset me as a 5 He hath builded against me, and com- mark for the arrow. passed me with gall and travel.
-13 He hath caused the karrows of his 64° He hath set me in dark places, as they quiver to enter into my reins. that be dead of old.
14. I was a ! derision to all my people'; and 7 d He hath hedged me about, that I cannot m their
m their song all the day. get out: he hath made my chain heavy. 15 » He hath filled me with bitterness, he
8 Also when I cry and shout, he shutteth hath made me drunken with wormwood. out my prayer.
16 He hath also broken my teeth P with a Job xvi. 3. Psa. li. 8; Isa. xxxviii. 13; Jer. 1. 17. & Hos: vi. 1.- Job vii. 20; xvi. 12; Psa. xxxviii. 2. c Psa. Lxxxvii. 5, 6; cxliii. 3. d Job iii. 23; xix. 8; Hos. ii. 6. Job vi. 4. - Heb. sons. -Jer. xx. 7,-m Job xxx. 9; Psa. **Job xxx. 20; Psa. xxii. 2. Job x. 16; Isa. xxxviii. 13; Ixix. 12; ver.
Jer. ix. 15.- Lo Heb. bitternesses. Hos. v. 14; xiii. 7, 8.
p Prov. xx. 17. NOTES ON CHIAP. III.
man; where could the sons of Adam flee for succour?' Verse 1. I am the 'man that hath seen affliction] The caliph replied, "The children of Adam must flee Either the prophet speaks here of himself, or he is unto the Lord.'” This was the state of poor Jerusapersonating his miserable countrymen. This and other lem. It seemed as a butt for all God's arrows; and passages in this poem have been applied to Jesus each arrow of calamity entered into the soul, for God Christ's passion; but, in my opinion, without any foun- was the unerring marksman. dation.
Verse 13. The arrows of his quiver) • Inoun 22 Verse 2.. He hath_brought me into darkness] In beney ashpatho, “ The sons of his quiver.” The issue the sacred writings, darkness is often taken for cala- or effect; the subject, adjunct, or accident, or produce mity; light, for prosperity.
of a thing, is frequently denominated its son or child. Verse 5. He hath builded against me] Perhaps So arrows that issue from a quiver are here termed there is a reference here to the mounds and ramparts the sons of the quiver. raised by the Chaldeans in order to take the city. Verse 15. He hath filled me with bitterness) on
Verse 7. He hath hedged me about] This also may bimrorim, with bitternesses, bitter upon bitter. refer to the lines drawn round the city during the siege. He hath made me drunken with wormwood.] I have But these and similar expressions in the following drunk the cup of misery till I am intoxicated with it." verses may be merely metaphorical, to point out their Almost in all countries, and in all languages, billerstraitened, oppressed, and distressed state.
ness is a metaphor to express trouble and affliction. Verse 9. He hath inclosed my ways with hewn stone] The reason is, there is nothing more disagreeable to He has put insuperable obstacles in my way; and con- the taste than the one; and nothing more distressing founded all my projects of deliverance, and all my ex- to the mind than the other. An Arabic poet, Ampectations of prosperity.
ralkeis, one of the writers of the Moallakat, terms a Verse 12. He hath bent his bow, and set me as a
a mark for the arrow.) One might conjecture that the wormwood. following thought in the Toozek i Teemour was bor- Verse 16. He hath also broken my teeth with gravel rowed from this :
stones) What a figure to express disgust, pain, and “One addressed the caliph Aaly, and said, “If the the consequent incapacity of taking food for the supbeavens were a bow, and the earth the cord thereof; port of life ; a man, instead of bread, being obliged to if calamities were arrows, man the butt for those ar- eat small pebbles, till all his teeth are broken to pieces rows; and the holy blessed God the unerring marks- l by endeavouring to grind them. One can scarcely
a pounder of نائع حنظل man grievously aflicted
God's fatherly compassion
for the distressed penitents. 4 M. cir. 3416. gravel stones, he hath Icovered 24 The Lord is my ? portion, A M. cir: 3416. 01. XLVIII. I. me with ashes.
saith my soul : therefore will I O. XLVIII. 1. Tarquinii Prisci,
Tarquinii Prisci, R. Roman., 17 And thou hast removed my hope in him.
R. Roman., cir. annum 29. soul far off from peace : I forgat 25. The LORD is good unto
cir. annum 29. i prosperity.
them that wait for him, to the soul that 18 . And I said, My strength and my hope seekeih him. is perished from the Lord:
26 It is good that a man should both hope 19 · Remembering mine affliction and my band quietly wait for the salvation of the Lord. misery, the wormwood and the gall.
27 ° It is good for a man that he bear the 20 My soul hath them still in remembrance, yoke in his youth. and is » humbled in me.
28 d He sitteth alone and keepeth silence, 21 This I wrecall to my mind, therefore have because he hath borne it upon him. I hope.
29 • He putteth his mouth in the dust; if 22. It is of the Lord's mercies that we are so be there may be hope., not consumed, because his compassions fail not. 30 'He giveth his cheek to him that smiteth
23 They are new Yevery morning : great is him : he is filled full with reproach. thy faithfulness.
31 For the Lord will not cast off for ever: Or, rolled me in the ashes.- -- Heb. good.
Psa. xxxi. 22. a Psa. cxxx. 6 ; Isa. xxx. 18; Mic. vii 7.- Psa. xxxvii. 1 Or, Ronember. Jer. ix, 15.- Heb. bowed.- -w Heb. 7. - Psa. xc. 12; cxix. 71.- Jer, xv. 17; chap. ii. make to return to my heart. ---* Mal. iii. 6.— -y Isa. xxxiii, 2. 10. - e Job xlii. 6.- - Isa. 1. 6; Matt. v. 39. Psa. < Psa. xvi. 5; lxxiii. 26; cxix. 57; Jer. x. 16. read this description without feeling the toothache. be preserved in the night, if the Watchman of Israel The next figure is not less expressive.
ever slumbered or slept ? He hath covered me with ashes.] 083 5.nl. Verse 24. The Lord is my portion] See on Psa. hichphishani beepher, “ he hath plunged me into the cxix. 57. dust.” To be thrown into a mass or bed of perfect Verse 26. It is good that a man should both hope] dusi, where the eyes are blinded by it, the ears stop- Hope is essentially necessary to faith; he that hopes ped, and the mouth and lungs filled at the very first not, cannot believe ; if there be no erpectation, there attempt to respire after having been thrown into it can be no confidence. When a man hopes for salvation, what a horrible idea of suffocation and drowning! he should not only wait for it, but use every means One can scarcely read this without feeling a suppres- that may lead to it; for hope cannot live, if there be sjon of breath, or a stricture upon the fungs! Did ever no exercise. If hope become impatient, faith will be man paint sorrow like this man?
impossible : for who can believe for his salvation when Verse 17. Thou hast removed my soul] Prosperity his mind is agitated ?' He must therefore quietly wait. is at such an utter distance from me, that it is impos- He must expect, and yet be dumb, as the words imply; sible I should ever reach it; and as to happiness, I ever feeling his utter unworthiness; and, without murhave forgotten whether I have ever tasted of it. muring, struggle into life.
Verse 18. And my hope] That first, that last sup- Verse 27. That he bear the yoke in his youth.) port of the miserable—it is gone! it is perished! The Early habits, when good, are invaluable. Early dissovereign God alone can revive it.
cipline is equally so. He who has not got under wholeVerse 20. My soul—is humbled in me.] It is evi- some restraint in youth will never make a useful man, dent that in the preceding verses there is a bitterness a good man, nor a happy man. of complaint against the bitterness of adversity, that is · Verse 28. He silteth alono] He has learned that nenot becoming to man when under the chastising hand cessary lesson of independence, that shows him how he of God; and, while indulging this feeling, all hope fled. is to serve himself ; to give no trouble to others; and Here we find a different feeling ;, he humbles himself keep his troubles, as far as possible, in his own bosom. under the mighty hand of God, and then his hope re- Verse 29. He putteth his mouth in the dust] Lives vives, ver. 21.
in a state of deep humility. Verse 22. It is of the Lord's mercies that we are not If so be there may be hope.) Because there is room consumed). Being thus humbled, and seeing himself for hope. and his sinfulness in a proper point of view, he finds Verse 30. He giveth his cheek to him that şmiteth] that God, instead of dealing with him in judgment, He has that love that is not provoked. He is not has dealt with him in mercy; and that though the af- quarrelsome, nor apt to resent injuries; he suffers long fliction was excessive, yet it was less than his iniquity and is kind. Or, it may be rendered," let him give deserved. If, indeed, any sinner be kept out of hell, his cheek.” it is because God's compassion faileth not.
He is filled full with reproach] Though all this tåke Verse 23. They are new every morning] Day and place, yet let his “trust be in God, who will not cast night proclaim the mercy and compassion of God. off for ever.” God will take his part, and bring him Who could exist throughout the day, if there were not safely through all hardships. a continual superintending Providence? Who could | Verse 31. The Lord] 278 Adonai ; but one of my
A. M. cir. 3116.
R. Roman, cir. annum 29.
The doleful complaint
of the coptive Jews.
. 3416. O1. XLVIII. I. yet will he have compassion ac- ways, and turn again to the-01 XLVIII. 1.
41 Let us lift up our heart
42 · We have transgressed and have rebelled 34 To crush under his feet all the prisoners thou hast not pardoned. of the earth,
43 Thou hast covered with anger, and per 35 To turn aside the right of a man before secuted us : u thou hast slain, thou hast not the face of k the Most High,
pitied. 36 To subvert a man in his cause, the LORD 44 Thou hast covered thyself with a cloud, approveth not.
" that our prayer should not pass through. 37 Who is he that saith, and it cometh to 45. Thou hast made us as the w offscouring pass, when the LORD commanded it not? and refuse in the midst of the people.
38 Out of the mouth of the Most High pro- 46 - All our enemies have opened their ceedeth not evil and good ?
mouths against us. 39 p Wherefore doth a living man I complain, 47 y Fear and a snare is come upon us, Fa man for the punishment of his sins? z desolation and destruction.
h Ezek. xxxiii. ll; Heb. xii. 10.- - Heb. from his heart. 4 Or, murmur. Mic. vii. 9.Psa. Lxxxvi. 4.- Dan. * Or, a superior.-- Hab. i. 13.--. Or, seeth not. - Psa. xxxii. 9. ix. 5. Chap. ii. 17, 21.--- Ver. 8.--"1 Cor. iv. 13. Job ii. 10; Isa. xlv. 7; Amos iii. 6. - Prov. xix. 3.
* Chap. ii. 16. y Isa. xxiv. 17; Jer. xlvül. 43.- Isa. li. 19.
ancient MSS. has 71117 Yehovah. The above verse is High; that is, in a court of justice, where God is ever
Verse 36. To subvert a man in his cause] To pre-
The Lord approveth not.) Instead of 378 Adonai, Verse 34. To crush under his feet] He can neither seventeen MSS., of Kennicott's, and one ancient of gain credit nor pleasure in trampling upon those who my own, have 717 Yehovah. Approveth not, 78783 are already bound, and in suffering ; such he knows to. lo raah, doth not see, turns away his face from it, abbe the state of man here below. From which it most hors it., . assuredly follows, that God never afflicts us but for our Verse 39. Wherefore doth a living man complain) good, nor chaštises but that we may be partakers of He who has his life still lent to him has small cause his holiness.
of complaint. How great soever his affliction may All the prisoners of the earth) By the prisoners of be, he is still alive ; therefore, he may seek and find the earth, or land, Dr. Blayney understands those in- mercy unto eternal life. Of this, death would deprive solvent debtors who were put in prison, and there obliged him; therefore let not a living man complain. to work out the debt. Yet this is mercy in compari- Verse 40. Let us search] How are we to get the son with those who put them in prison, and keep them pardon of our sins? The prophet tells us : 1. Let us there, when they know that it is impossible, from examine ourselves. 2. “Let us turn again to the Lord." the state of the laws, to lessen the debt by their con- 3. “Let us lift up our heart;" let us make fervent finement.
prayer and supplication for mercy. 4. “Let us lift up In verses 34, 35, and 36, certain acts of tyranny, our hand;" let us solemnly promise to be his, and bind malice, and injustice are specified, which men often in- ourselves in a covenant to be the Lord's only : so much dulge themselves in the practice of towards one an- lifting up the hand to God implies. . Or, let us put our other, but which the Divine goodness is far from coun- heart on our hand, and offer it to God; so some have tenancing or approving by any similar conduct.- translated this clause. 5. “We have transgressed;" Blayney.
let our confession of sin be fervent and sincere. 6. Verse 35. To turn aside the right of a man] To And to us who profess Christianity it may be added, make a man lose his right, because one of the higher Believe on the Lord Jesus Christ as having died for orders opposes him. Dr. Blayney thinks that in:by thee; and thou shalt not perish, but have everlasting elyon, instead of being referred to God, should be con- life. Verses 46, 47, 48, beginning with D-phe, should, sidered as pointing out one of the chief of the people. as to the order of the alphabet, follow 49, 50, 51, I do not see that we gain any thing by this. The evil which begin with y ain, which in its grammatical pofact is, turning aside the right of a man; and the ag- sition precedes the former. gravation of it is, doing it before the face of the Most Verse 47. Fear and a snare] See on Jer. xlviii. 43.
B. C. cir. 588.
Ol. XLVIII. ).
cir. annum 29.
pleads with God. A. M. cir. 3416.
48 a Mine eye runneth down called upon thee : thou saidst, 4. M. cir. 3416. 01. XLVIII. 1. with rivers of water for the de- Fear not. Tarquinii Prisci,
Tarquinii Prisci, R. Roman., struction of the daughter of my 58 O Lord, thou hast o pleaded people.
the causes of my soul; P thou 'cir. annum 29. 49 Mine eye trickleth down, and ceaseth hast redeemed my life.. not, without any intermission.
-59 O Lord, thou hast seen my wrong: 50 Till the LORD • look down, and behold judge thou my cause.
. from heaven.
60 Thou hast seen all their vengeance and 51 Mine éye affecteth d mine heart because all their 'imaginations against me. of all the daughters of my city.
61 Thou hast heard their reproach, O LORD, 52 Mine enemies chased me sore, like a and all their imaginations against me; bird, f without cause.
.62 The lips of those that rose up against 53 They have cut off my life 5 in the dun- me, and their device against me all the day. geon, and he cast a stone upon me.
63 Behold their sitting down, and their 54 Waters flowed over mine head; then. rising up; t I am their music. * I said, I am cut off.
64 Render unto them a recompense, o 55 ? I called upon thy name, O LORD, out Lord, according to the work of their hands. of the low dungeon.
65 Give them sorrow of heart, thy curse 56 m Thou hast heard my voice : hide not unto them. thine ear at my breathing, at my cry.
66 Persecute and destroy them in anger 57 Thou “drewest near in the day that I w from under the heavens of the Lord.
a Jer. iv. 19; ix. l; xiv, 17; chap. ii. 11.- - Psa. lxxvii. 2; m Psa. iii. 4; vi. 8; xviii. 6; lxvi. 19; cxvi. 1. - James iv. chap. i. 16. Isa. Ixiii. 15. - Heb. my soul.-- Or, more 8. Psa. xxxv. 1 ; Jer. li. 36. -p Psa. lxxi. 23. - Psa. ix. than all. Psa. xxxv. 7, 19; lxix. 4; cix. 3; cxix. 161. 4; xxxv. 23.-- Jer. xi. 19. Psa. cxxxix. 2. - Ver. 14. Jer. xxxvii. 16; Xxxviii. 6, 9, 10.- -h Dan. vi. 17.- i Psa, u Psa. xxviii. 4;. see Jer. xi. 20; 2 Tim. iv. 14.- Or, Ixix. 2; cxxiv. 4, 5.-k Psa. xxxi. 22 ; Isa. xxxvii. 10, 11;'obstinacy of heart.
-w Deut. xxv. 19; Jer. x. 11. - Psa. ver. 18. Psa. cxxx); Jonah ii. 2.
Verse 48. Mine eye runneth down] I weep inces- fate. This is the consequence of their hardening their santly.
hearts from thy fear. Blayney translates, “ Thou wilt Verse 51: Mine eye affecteth mine heart] What I give with a hearty concordance thy curse unto them.” see I feel. · I see nothing but misery'; and I feel, in That is, Thou wilt give it to tủem freely, and without consequence, nothing but pain. There have been va- reserve; intimating that God felt no longer any bowels rious translations of the original : but they all amount of compassion for them. Formerly he inflicted punto this.
ishments with reluctance, while there was any hope of The daughters of my city.) The villages about amendment: būt, in the instance before us, the case Jerusalem.
was so hopeless, that God acts according to the simple Verse 52. Mine enemies chased me] From this to principle of vindictive justice. The prophet therethe end of the chapter the prophet speaks of his own fore considers them on the utmost verge of final personal sufferings, and especially of those which he reprobation : another plunge, and they are lost endured in the dungeon. See Jer. xxxviii. 6, &c.
for ever. Verse 56. Hide not thine ear al my breathing) He Verse 66. Persecute and destroy them] Thou wilt dared not even to complain, nor to cry, nor to pray pursue them with destruction. These are all declaraaloud : he was obliged to whisper his prayer to God. tory, not imprecatory. It was only a breathing.
From under the heavens of the Lord.) This verse Verse 57. Fear not.) , How powerful is this word seems to allude to the Chaldaic prediction, in Jer. x. when spoken by the Spirit of the Lord to a disconso- 11. By their conduct they will bring on themselves · late heart. To every mourner we may say, on the au- the curse denounced against their enemies. thority of God, Fear not! God will plead, thy cause, The Septuagint and Vulgate seem to have read and redeem thy soul.
“From under heaven, O Jehovah :” and the Syriac Verse 60. Thou hast seen—all their imaginations] reads, “ Thý heavens, 0 Jehovah!” None of these Every thing is open to the eye of God. Distressed makes any material change in the meaning of the soul! though thou knowest not what thy enemies medi- words. tate against thee ; yet he who loves thee does, and will It has already been noticed in the introduction, that infallibly defeat all their plots, and save thee. this chapter contains a triple acrostic, three lines always
Verse 65. Give them sorrow of heart] They shall beginning with the same letter; so that the Hebrew have a callous heart, covered with obstinacy, and thy alphabet is thrice repeated in this chapter, twenty-two mecration. The former is their state, the latter their multiplied by three being equal to sixty-siz.