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A. M. 3409.
A. M. 3409.
B. C. 595. OI. XLVI. 2,
The fearful destruction
of Babylon foretold. 32 And that the passages are I will plead thy cause, and take ol. XLVI. 2. stopped, and the reeds they have vengeance for thee; " and I will Tarquinii Prisci, burned with fire, and the men dry up her sea, and make her Tarquinii Prisci, R. Roman., 22. of war are affrighted.
R. Roman., 22.
springs dry. 33 For thus saith the LORD of hosts, the 37 And Babylon shall become heaps, a God of Israel; The daughter of Babylon is dwelling-place for dragons, Wan astonishment, like a threshing-floor, mit is time to thresh and a hissing, without an inhabitant. her : yet a little while, and the time of her 38 They shall roar together like lions : they harvest shall come.
shall * yell as lions' whelps. 34 Nebuchadrezzar · the king of Babylon 39 In their heat I will make their feasts, and hath P devoured me, he hath crushed me, he "I will make them drunken, that they may hath made me an empty vessel, he hath rejoice, and sleep a perpetual sleep, and not swallowed me up like a dragon, he hath filled wake, saith the Lord. his belly with my delicates, he hath cast me out. 40 I will bring them down like lambs to the
35 · The violence done to me and to my slaughter, like rams with he-goats. * Alesh be upon Babylon, shall the s inhabitant 41 How is a Sheshach taken ! and how is of Zion say: and my blood upon the inhabi- the praise of the whole earth surprised! how tants of Chaldea, shall Jerusalem say. is Babylon become an astonishment among 36 Therefore thus saith the LORD; Behold, the nations !
Chap. 1. 38. Isa. xxi. 10; Mic. iv. 13; Annos i, 3. r Or, remainder. Heb. inhabitress.
Chap. I. 34. m Isa. xli. 15; Hab. iij. 12.- - Or, in the time that he thresheth | 1. 38. - - Isa. xiii. 22; chap. I. 39; Rev. xvui. 2.her.- Isa. xvii. 5, &c.; Hos. vi. 11; Joel ii, 13; Rev. xiv. XXV. 9, 18.-- Or, shake themselves. -y Ver. 57. 15, 18.—_p Chap, l. 17. - Heb. My violence.
*)sa. xiii. 19; chap. xlix. 25; Dan. iv. 30.
- Ch Chap, Cip.
related, so now messengers, one after another, were Verse 33. The daughter of Babylon is like a threshdespatched to give the king information of what was ing floor) The threshing wheel is gone over her ; she done; viz., that the city was taken at one end. Hero is trodden under foot. dotus tells us that the extreme parts of the city were Verse 34. Nebuchadrezzar-hath devoured me) taken, before those of the centre knew any thing of the These are the words of Judea ; he has taken away all invasion. Herodot. lib. i. c. 191.
Verse 32. That the passages are stopped] Either He hath cast me out.] He shall vomit all up ; i. e., the bridges or slips for boats, by which the inhabitants they shall be regained. *passed from one side to the other, and may mean the Verse 35. The violence done to me be upon Babya principal gates or passes in the city, which the victo-lon--and my blood upon the inhabitants of Chaldea] rious army would immediately seize, that they might Zion begins to speak, ver. 34, and ends with this prevent all communication between the inhabitants.
The answer of Jehovah begins with the next The reeds they have burned with fire] What this verse. Though the Chaldeans have been the instrumeans I cannot tell, unless it refer to something donement of God to punish the Jews, yet in return they, after the taking of the city. Setting fire to the reeds being themselves exceedingly wicked, shall suffer for in the marshy ground, in order the better to clear the all the carnage they have made, and for all the blood places, and give a freer passage to the water, that it they have shed. may neither stagnate nor turn the solid ground into a Verse 36. I will dry up her sea] Exhaust all her marsh. Dr. Blayney thinks it refers to the firing of treasures. the houses, in order to throw the inhabitants into the Verse 37. Without an inhabitant.] See chap. I. 39. greater confusion ; but no historian makes any men- Verse 39. In their heat I will make their feasts] țion of burning the city, except what is said ver. 30, It was on the night of a feast day, while their hearts “ They have burned her dwelling places ;” and this were heated with wine and revelry, that Babylon was may be a poetical expression. That they burnt .no- | taken; see Dan. v. 1-3. This feast was held in hothing before they took the city must be evident from nour of the goddess Sheshach, (or perhaps of Bel,) who the circumstance of their taking the city by surprise, is mentioned, ver. 41, as being taken with her wor. in the night time, with the greatest secrecy. Still shippers. As it was in the night the city was taken, there might have been some gates, barricadoes, or many had retired to rest, and never awoke ; slain in wooden works, serving for barracks or such like, which their beds, they slept a perpetual sleep: obstructed some of the great passages, which, when Verse 41. How is Sheshach taken!] Perhaps the they had entered, they were obliged to burn, in order city is here called by the name of its idol. to get themselves a ready passage through the city. The praise of the whole earth] One of the seven This is the more likely because this burning of reeds wonders of the world ; superexcellent for the height, is connected with the stopping of the passages, burning breadth, and compass of its walls, its hanging gardens, the dwelling places, and breaking the bars.
the temple of Belus, &c., &c.
B. C. 595.
B. C. 595. OI. XLVI. 2.
The fearful destruction
of Babylon foretold A. M. 3409.
A. M. 3409. 42 The sea is.come up upon 50 Ye that have escaped the OL. XLVI. 2. Babylon: she is covered with sword, go away, stand not still :
Anno Tarquinii Prisci, the multitude of the waves remember the Lord afar off, and Tarquinii Prisci, R. Roman., 22. thereof.
let Jerusalem come into your mind. R. Roman., 22. 43 · Her cities are a desolation, a dry land, 51 We are confounded, because we have and a wilderness, a land wherein no man dwell- heard reproach; shame hath covered our faces: eth, neither doth any son of man pass thereby. for strangers are come into the sanctuaries of
44 d And I will punish Bel in Babylon, and I the Lord's house. will bring forth out of his mouth that which 52 Wherefore, behold, the days come, saith he hath swallowed up: and the nations shall the Lord, that I will do judgment upon her not flow together any more unto him: yea, graven images : and through all her land the . the wall of Babylon shall fall.
wounded shall groan. 45 "My people, go ye out of the midst of 53 - Though Babylon should mount up to her, and deliver ye every man his soul from heaven, and though she should fortify the the fierce anger of the Lord.
height of her strength, yet from me shall 46 And & lest your heart faint, and ye fear spoilers come unto her, saith the LORD. 5 for the rumour that shall be heard in the 54 + A sound of a cry cometh from Babylon, land; a rumour shall both come one year, and and great destruction from the land of the after that in another year shall come a rumour, Chaldeans : and violence in the land, ruler against ruler. 55 Because the Lord hath spoiled Babylon,
47 Therefore, behold, the days come, that and destroyed out of her the great voice; I will do judgment upon the graven images when her waves do roar like great waters, a of Babylon : and her whole land shall be con- noise of their voice is uttered : founded, and all her slain shall fall in the midst 56 Because the spoiler is come upon her, of her.
even upon Babylon, and her mighty men are 48 Then the heaven and the earth, and all taken, every one of their bows is broken : " for that is therein, shall sing for Babylon : m for the Lord God of recompenses shall surely the spoilers shall come unto her from the north, requite. saith the LORD.
57 And I will make drunk her princes, and 49 n As Babylon hath caused the slain of her wise men, her captains, and her rulers, Israel to fall, so at Babylon shall-fall the slain and her mighty men: and they shall sleep a of all • the earth.
perpetual sleep, and not wake, saith w the King, - Chap. 1. 39, 40, ver. 29.
p Or, Both Babylon is to fall, Oye slain of Israel, and with Babl; chap. I. 2.- Ver. 58. Ver. 6; chap. 1. 8; Rev. xviii. 4. ylon, &c. Or, the country -- Chap. xliv. 28.- Psa. -62 Kings xix. 7.-i Chap. l. 2; ver. 52. xliv. 15, 16; lxxix. 4.-
- Chap. xlix. 16; Heb. visit upon.
"Isa. xliv. 23; xlix. 43; Rev. xviii. 20. ix. 2 ; Obad. 4. – Chap. 1. 22.- -vPsa. xciv. 1 ; chap. lvi. 29; Chap. 1, 3, 4.
Chap. xlvi. 18; xlviii. 15. Verse 42. The sea is come up] A multitude of foes Babylon] Its fall shall be a subject of universal have inundated the city.
rejoicing. Verse 44. I will punish Bel in Babylon] Bel or Verse 50. Ye that have escaped the sword] The Jews. Belus was their supreme deity.
Let Jerusalem come into your mind.] Pray for its That which he hath swallowed up] The sacred restoration; and embrace the first opportunity offered vessels of the temple of Jerusalem, which were taken of returning thither. thence by Nebuchadnezzar, and dedicated to him in Verse 51. Strangers are come into the sanctuaries] his temple at Babylon.
The lamentation of the pious Jews for the profanation The wall of Babylon shall fall.] It shall cease to of the temple by the Chaldeans. be a defence; and shall moulder away until, in process Verse 53. Though Babylon should mount up to of time, it shall not be discernible.
heaven] Though it were fortified even to the skies, it Verse 45. My people, go ye out] A warning to all shall fall by the enemies that I will send against it. the Jews in Babylon to leave the city, and escape for Verse 55. The great voice] Its pride and insuffertheir lives.
able boasting. Verse 46. A rumour shall-come one year] A year Verse 56. The Lord God of recompenses] The fall before the capture of the city there shall be a rumour of Babylon is an act of Divine justice; whatever it of war,--and in that year Belshazzar was defeated by suffers, it is in consequence of its crimes. Cyrus. In the following year the city was taken. Verse 57. I will make drunk her princes] See on Verse 48. The heaven and the earth-shall sing for I ver. 39.
See (gs. viii. 7, 8.
d Isa. xlvi.
& Or, let not.
-r Ver. 47.
ver. 24. Ver. 39.
A. M. 3409. B. C. 595. Ol. XLVI. 2.
A. M. 3409.
B. C. 595. Ol. XLVI. 2.
The message of Jeremiah
to the captives in Babylon. whose name is the LORD of 61 And Jeremiah said to hosts.
Seraiah, When thou comest to Tarquinii Prisci, 58 Thus saith the LORD of Babylon, and shalt see, and shalt Tarquinii Prisci, R. Roman., 22. hosts ; * The y broad walls of read all these words ;
R. Roman., 22. Babylon shall be utterly : broken, and her high 62 Then shalt thou say, O Lord, thou hast gates shall be burned with fire; and a the peo- spoken against this place, to cut it off, that ple shall labour in vain, and the folk in the a none shall remain in it, neither man nor beast, fire, and they shall be weary.
but that it shall be e desolate for ever. 59 The word which Jeremiah the prophet' 63' And it shall be, when thou hast made an commanded Seraiah the son of Neriah, the end of reading this book, that thou shalt bind son of Maaseiah, when he went b with Zede- a stone to it, and cast it into the midst of kiah the king of Judah into Babylon in the Euphrates : fourth year of his reign. And this Seraiah 64 And thou shalt say, Thus shall Babywas a quiet prince.
lon sink, and shall not rise from the evil 60 So Jeremiah wrote in a book all the evil ihat I will bring upon her: band they shall that should come upon Babylon, even all these be weary. Thus far are the words of Jewords that are written against Babylon. remiah.
Or, The walls of broad Babylon.—y Ver. 44. naked. a Hab. ii. 13.- -b Or, on the behalf of.
Or, made of Menucha, or chief chamberlain. d Chap. I. 3, 39; ver. 29. - Or, prince e Heb. desolations. See Rèv. xviii. 21.-Ver. 58.
Verse 58. The broad walls of Babylon] Herodotus, from the walls. Harpagus having consented, they who saw these walls, says, “ The city was a regular carried their wives, children, and their most valuable square, each side of which was one hundred and twenty effects, aboard their ships; then, throwing a mass of stadia, the circumference four hundred and eighty-sta- iron into the sea, bound themselves by an oath never dia. It was surroûnded by a wall fifty cubits broad, to return till that iron should rise to the top and swim. and two hundred cubits high; and each side had See Herodotus, lib. i. c. 165. twenty-five brazen gates."—Herod., lib. i. c. 178. Horace refers to this in his epode Ad Populum RoHad not Cyrus resorted to stratagem, humanly speak- manum, Epode xvi. ver. 25:ing, he could not have taken this city. For the destruction of this wall and its very vestiges, see on Isa.
Sed juremus in hæc: simul imis saxa renarint xiii. 19.
Vadis levata, ne redire sit nefas. Verse 59. The word which Jeremiah) On account “ As the Phocæans oft for freedom bled, of the message sent by Jeremiah to the Jewish cap
At length with imprecated curses fled.” FRANCIS.' tives in Babylon.
Verse 60. Wrote in a book] Whether this book con- . Thus far are the words of Jeremiah.). It appears tained any more than is recorded in this place we do that the following chapter is not the work of this pronot know; probably it contained no more than what is phet : it is not his style. The author of it writes Jefound in verses 62-64. A book, 190 sepher, signifies, hoiachin; Jeremiah writes him always Jeconiah, or in Hebrew, any writing, great or small.
Coniah. It is merely historical, and is very similar Verse 64. Thus shall Babylon sink, fc.) This is to 2 Kings xxiv. 18–xxv. 30. The author, whoever the emblem of its overthrow and irretrievable ruin. he was, relates the capture of Jerusalem, the fate of See Rev. xviii. 21, where we find that this is an em- | Zedekiah, the pillage and burning of the city and the blem of the total ruin of mystical Babylon.
temple. He mentions also certain persons of distincHerodotus relates a similar action of the Phocæans, tion who were slain by the Chaldeans. He mentions who, having resolved to leave their country, and never the nụmber of the captives that were carried to Babyreturn to it again, μυδρον σιδηρσον κασεποντωσαν, και lon at three different times ; and concludes with the ωμοσαν μη πριν ες Φωκαιην ήξειν, πριν και τον μυδρον deliverance of King Jehoiaching from prison in Babyσουσον αναφηναι: “threw a mass of iron into the sea, lon, in which he had been for thirty-seven years. It and swore that they would never return to Phocæa till is very likely that the whole chapter has been comthat iron mass should rise and swim on the top.” The piled from some chronicle of that time; or it was destory is this : The Phocæans, being besieged by Har- signed as a preface to the Book of the Lamentations ; pagus, general of the Persians, demanded one day's and would stand with great propriety before it, as it truce to deliberate on the propositions he had made to contains the facts on which that inimitable poem is thèm relative to their surrendering their city; and beg- built. Were it allowable, I would remove it to that ged that in the mean while he would take off his army | place.
Account of the siege
and capture of Jerusalem.
B. C. 588.
This chapter was added after Jeremiah's time, probably by Ezra, after the return from the captivity, of
which it gives a short account, nearly the same as in 2 Kings xxiv. 18-20, and xxv. It is very properly subjoined to the preceding prophecies, in order to show how exactly they were fulfilled. · It likewise forms a proper introduction to the following Lamentations, as it gives an account of the mournful events which gave rise to them.
Zedekiah's evil reign and rebellion against Nebuchadnezzar, 1-3. Jerusalem is taken by the Chaldeans after a siege of eighteen months, 4-7. Zedekiah pursued and taken in the plains of Jericho, and his whole army dispersed, 8, 9. The king's sons and all the princes of Judah slain in Riblah, 10. Zedekiah has his eyes put out by order of the Chaldean monarch ; and is afterward bound in chains, carried to Babylon, and imprisoned for life, 11. · Nebuzar-adan, the captain of the guard, burns and spoils the city and temple, 12-19. The two pillars of the temple, with their dimensions and ornaments, 20–23. The officers of the temple, and several others, carried away captives into Babylon, and then slain by order of Nebuchadnezzar, 24–27. The number of Jews that Nebuchadnezzar carried away captive in the seventh year of his reign, 28 ; in his eighteenth year, 29; and in his twenty-third year, 30. Evil-merodach, the son of Nebuchadnezzar, in the year of his accession to the throne of Babylon, (which was in the thirty-seventh year of the captivity, and the one hundred and ninety-first from the building of Rome, according to the computation of Varro,).orders Jehoiachin to be taken out of prison, and treats him kindly for the remainder of his life, 31-34. A. M. 3406 ZEDEKIAH was one and the ninth day of the month, the
A. M. 3416. B. C. 598 twenty years old when he famine was sore in the city, so Ol. XLVIII. 1. 01. XLV: 3. b began to reign, and he reigned that there was no bread for the Tarquinii Prisci, XLVIII. 1. eleven
R. Roman., 29. years in Jerusalem. And people of the land. his mother's name was Hamutal the daughter 7 Then the city was broken up, and all the of Jeremiah of Libnah..
men of war fled, and went forth out of the 2 And he did that which was evil in the city by night by the way of the gate between eyes of the Lord, according to all that Jehoi- the two walls, which was by the king's akim had done.
garden; (now the Chaldeans were by the city A. M. cir, 3411.
3 For through the anger of the round about :) and they went by the way of B. C. cir. 593.
Ol. XLVI. 4. Lord it came to pass in Jerusa- the plain.
them out from his presence, that after the king, and overtook Zedekiah in the
4 And it came to pass in the tered from him. OI. XLVII. 3. i ninth year of his reign, in the 9 a Then they took the king, and carried Tarquinii Prisci, tenth month, in the tenth day of him up unto the king of Babylon to Riblah R. Roman., 27. the 'month, that Nebuchadrezzar in the land of Hamath ; where he gave judgking of Babylon came, he and all his army, ment upon him. against Jerusalem, and pitched against it, and 10 e And the king of Babylon slew the sons built forts against it round about.
of Zedekiah before his eyes : he slew also all A. M. 3414
5 So the city was besieged unto the princes of Judah in Riblah. B. C. 590-588. the eleventh year of king Zedekiah. 11 Then he put out the eyes of Zedekiah;
6 And in the fourth mỏnth, in and the king of Babylon bound him in 8 chains, .2 Kings xxiv. 18.--Heb. reigned. < 2 Kings xxv. 1-27; 1Chap. xxxii. 4. Ezek. xii. 13.—Heb. blinded. -Or, chap. xxxix. 1; Zech. viii. 19.
fetters. NOTES ON CHAP. LII.
Verse 5. So the city was besieged] It held out one Verse 1. Zedekiah was one and twenty years old)
year and six months. See 2 Kings xxiv. 18.
Verse 6. And in the fourth month} See the notes Verse 2. And he did-evil] This and the following nearly to our July.
on chap. xxxix. 1, &c. The fourth month answers verse are the same as 2 Kings xxiv. 19.
Verse 8. The army of the Chaldeans pursued] See Verse 3. Through the anger of the Lord] Here is on 2 Kings xxv. 5. a king given to a people in God's anger, and taken
Verse 9. King of Babylon to Riblah] See the note away in his displeasure.
on chap. xxxix. 5. Verse 4. Ninth year tenth month) Answering Verse 11. He put out the eyes of Zedekiah] Sea nearly to our January.
i on chap. xxxix. 7.
cir. annum 24.
Ol. XLVII. 3
B. C. 588.
Account of the persons
: carried into captivity. A. M. 3416.
A. M. 3416. and carried him to Babylon, and in silver, took the captain of the B. C. 588. 01. XLVII.1. put him in prison till the day guard away.
01. XLVIII. 1. Tarquinii Prisci, of his death.
20 The two pillars, one sea, and Tarquinü Prisci, R. Roman., 29.
R. Roman., 29, 12 Now in the fifth month, in twelve brazen bulls that were che tenth day of the month, k which was the under the bases, which king Solomon had nineteenth year of Nebuchadrezzar king of made in the house of the LORD: " the * brass Babylon, 'came Nebuzar-adan, m captain of of all these vessels was without weight. the guard, which o served the king of Babylon, 21 And.concerning the pillars, the height of into Jerusalem,
one pillar was eighteen cubits; and a 2 fillet 13 And burned the house of the LORD, and of twelve cubits did compass it; and the the king's house; and all the houses of Jeru- thickness thereof was four fingers :- it was salem, and all the houses of the great men, hollow. burned he with fire :
22 And a chapiter of brass wās upon it; and 14 And all the army of the Chaldeans, that the height of one chapiter was five cubits, with were with the captain of the guard, brake down network and pomegranates upon the chapiters all the walls of Jerusalem round about. round about, all of brass. The second pillar
15 Then Nebużar-adan the captain of the also and the pomegranates were like unto these. guard carried away captive certain of the poor
23 And there were ninety and six pomegraof the people, and the residue of the people nates on a side; and all the pomegranates upthat remained in the city, and those that fell on the network were a hundred round about. away, that fell to the king of Babylon, and the 24 And 6 the captain of the guard took Serest of the multitude.
raiah the chief priest, and Zephaniah the se16 But Nebuzar-adan the captain of the guard cond priest, and the three keepers of the d door: left certain of the poor of the land for vine- 25 He took also out of the city an eunuch, dressers and for husbandmen.
which had the charge of the men of war; and 17 & Also the pillars of brass that were in seven men of them that were near the king's the house of the Lord, and the bases, and the person, which were found in the city, and the brazen sea that was in the house of the LORD principal scribe of the host, who mustered the the Chaldeans brake, and carried all the brass people of the land; and threescore men of the of them to Babylon.
people of the land, that were found in the 18 The caldrons also, and the shovels, and midst of the city. the snuffers, and the u bowls, and the spoons, 26 So Nebuzaradan the captain of the guard and all the vessels of brass wherewith they took them, and brought them to the king of ministered, took they away.
Babylon to Riblah. 19 And the basins, and the firepans, and the 27 And the king of Babylon smote them, and bowls, and the caldrons, and the candlesticks, put them to death in Riblah in the land of and the spoons, and the cups ; that which was Hamath. Thus & Judah was carried away of gold in gold, and that which was of silver captive out of his own land. ha Heb. horise of the wards.- Li Zech. vi. 5; viii. 19. - Seed
u Or, basins,
Or, censers. -w 1 Kings vii. 47. Heb. - Chap. xxxix. 9. - Or, chief marshal. Heb. their brass. --*1 Kings vii. 15; 2 Kings xxv. 17; 2 Chron. il. chief of the executioners, or slaughtermen ; and so ver. 14, &c. 15.-- 2 Heb. thread. - See l Kings vii. 20. —52 Kings axv. o Heb. stood before.-- - Chap. xxxix. 8, 9.-9 Chap. xxvii. 19,
Chap. xxi. 1; xxix. 25. —d Heb. ihreshold. Heb. See 1 Kings vii. 15, 23, 27, 50. - Exod, xxvii. 3; 2 Kings xxv. saw the face of the king. - Or, scribe of the captain of the host. 14, 15, 16. — Or, instruments to remove the ashes.
& Lam. i. 3. Verse 12. Now in the fifth month] Answering Verse 17. Also the pillars] See on chap. xxvii. 19. nearly to our August.
Verses 18-23. In reference to these verses see the Verse 13. And burned the house of the Lord] Thus parallel texts in the margin, the various readings there, perished this magnificent structure, after it had stood and the notes. four hundred and twenty-four years three months and Verse 24. The second priest) See the note on % eight days. It was built A. M. 2992, and destroyed Kings xxv. 18. A. M. 3416.
The three keepers) The priests who stood at the Verse 15. Those that fell away] The deserters to door to receive the offerings of the people, see 2 Kings the Chaldeans during the siege.
xx. 9, and xxiii. 4. Verse 16. The poor of the land] See on chap. Verse 25. Seven men that were near the king's Xxxix. 1.
person] These were privy counsellors.