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Pashur, the governor,
smites the prophet: 4. M. cir. 3397. 11 And shalt say unto them, incense unto all the host A. M. cir. 3397. B. C. cir. 607.
B. C. cir. 607. OI XLIII. 2. Thus saith the LORD of hosts ; of heaven, and u have poured 01. XLIII. 2. Tarquinii Prisci,
Tarquinii Prisci; R. Roman.,
Even so will I break this, peo- out drink-offerings unto other R. Roman., cir. annum 10.
cir, annum 10. ple and this city, as one breaketh gods. a potter's vessel, that cannot ? be made whole 14 Then came Jeremiah from Tophet, whiagain ; and they shall " bury them in Tophet, ther the LORD had sent him to prophesy ; till there be no place to bury.
and he stood in the court of the Lord's house; 12 Thus will I do unto this place, saith the and said to all the people, LORD, and to the inhabitants thereof, and 15 Thus saith the LORD of hosts, the God even make this city as Tophet:
of Israel; Behold, I will bring upon this city * 13 And the houses of Jerusalem, and the and upon all her towns all the evil that I have houses of the kings of Judah, shall be defiled pronounced against it, because w they have *as the place of Tophet, because of all the hardened their necks, that they might not hear houses upon whose, roofs they have burned my words. Psa, ii. 9; Isa. xxx. 14; Lam. iv. 2. - Heb. be healed. 12 Kings xxiii. 12; chap. xxxii. 29; Zeph. i. 5. Chap. vii. 18. Chap. vii. 32.—2 Kings xxiii. 10.
See 2 Chron. xx. 5.—w Chap. vii. 26; xvii. 23. besieged by the Romans. This also the prophet might Verse 12. And even make this city as Tophet] Á have had in view.
place of slaughter and destruction. Verse 11. Even so will I break this people and this Verse 14. Then came Jeremiah from Tophet) He city) The breaking of the bottle was the symbolical re- had probably gone to the valley of Hinnom, and there presentation of the destruction of the city and of the state. repeated the discourse which he had a little before de
That cannot be made whole again] This seems to livered to the chief priests and elders. refer rather to the final destruction of Jerusalem by the Verse 15. Because they have hardened their necks) Romans, than to what was done by the Chaldeans. A metaphor taken from unruly and unbroken oxens Jerusalem was healed after 70 years: but nearly 1800 who resist the yoke, break and run away with their years have elapsed since Jerusalem was taken and gears. So this people had broken and destroyed the destroyed by the Romans; and it was then so broken, yoke of the law. thal it could not be made whole again.
Jeremiah, on account of his prophesying evil concerning Judah and Jerusalem, is beaten and imprisoned by
Pashur, chief governor of the temple, 1, 2. On the following day the prophet is released, who denounces the awful judgments of God which should fall upon the governor and all his house, as well as upon the whole land of Judah, in the approaching Babylonish captivity, 3-6. Jeremiah then bitterly complains of the reproaches continually heaped upon him by his enemies; and, in his haste, resolves to speak no more in the name of Jehovah; but the word of the Lord is in his heart as a burning flame, so that he is not able to forbear, 7-10. The prophet professes his trust in God, whom he praises for his laté deliverance, 11-13. The remaining verses, which appear to be out of their place, contain Jeremiah's regret that he was ever born to a life of so much sorrow and trouble, 14-18. This complaint resembles that of Job; only it is milder, and more dolorous. This excites our pity, that our horror. Both are highly poetical, and embellished with every circumstance that can heighten the colouring. But such circumstances are not always to be too literally understood or explained. We must often make allowances for the strong figures of easterti poetry. B. C. Cir. 2027 NOW Pashur the son of • Im- and put him in the stocks that A. M. cir. 3397 Ol. XLIII. 2. mur the priest, who was were in the high gate of Benja- 01. XLIII. 2. Tarquinii Prisci,
Tarquinii Prisci; R. Roman., also chief governor in the house min, which was by the house of R. Roman., cir. annum 10 of the Lord, heard that Jeremiah the Lord. prophesied these things.
3 And it came to pass on the morrow, that 2 Then Pashur smote Jeremiah the prophet, Pashur brought forth Jeremiah out of the
a 1 Chronicles, chap. xxiv. 14. NOTES ON CHAP. XX.
Verse 2. Put him in the stocks] Probably such a Verse 1. Pashur-chief governor Pashur was place near the gate as we term the lock-up; the coalprobably one of the chief priests of the twenty-four hole ; or it may mean a sort of dungeon. elasses.
Verse 3. The Lord hath not called thy name Pashur]
cir. annum 10.
cir. annum 10.
Jeremiah foretells the
Babylonish captivity A. M. cir. 3397. stocks. Then said Jeremiah 8 For since I spake, I cried A. M. cit. 3397. B. C. cir: 607.
OI. XLIII. 2. unto him, The LORD hath not out, h I cried violence and spoil ;
Tarquinii Prisci, R. Rornan., called thy name Pashur, but because the word of the LORD
R. Roman., cir, annum 10. Magor-missabib.
was made a reproach unto me, 4. For thus saith the LORD, Behold, I will and a derision, daily. make thee a terror to thyself, and to all thy 9 Then I said, I will not make mention of friends : and they shall fall by the sword of him, nor speak any more in his name. But their enemies, and thine eyes shall behold it: his word was in mine heart as a burning fire and I will give all Judah into the hand of the shut up in my bones, and I was weary with king of Babylon, and he shall carry them cap- forbearing, and I could not stay. tive into Babylon, and shall slay them with 10 For I heard the defaming of many, the sword.
fear on every side. Report, say they, and 5 Moreover I' will deliver all the strength we will report it. All my familiars watchof this city, and all the labours thereof, and ed for my halting, saying, Peradventure hè all the precious things thereof, and all the will be enticed, and we shall prevail against treasures of the kings of Judah will I give him, and we shall take our revenge into the hand of their enemies, which shall him. spoil them, and take them, and carry them to 11 But o the Lord is with me as a mighty Babylon.
terrible one: therefore my persecutors shall 6 And thou, Pashur, and all that dwell in stumble, and they shall not P prevail : they thine house, shall go into captivity: and thou shall be greatly ashamed; for they shall not shalt come to Babylon, and there thou shalt prosper : their ? everlasting confusion shall die, and shalt be buried there, thou, and all thy never be forgotten. friends, to whom thou hast d prophesied lies. 12 But, O Lord of hosts, that 'triest the
7 O LORD, thou hast deceived me, and I righteous, and seest the reins and the heart, was e deceived : f thou art stronger than I,, and let me see thy vengeance on them: for unto hast prevailed: 6 I am in derision daily, every thee have I opened my cause. one mocketh me.
13 Sing unto the LORD, praise ye the LORD:
That is, fear round about ; Psa. xxxi. 13; ver. 10; chap. vi. Job xxxü. 18; Acts xviii. 5. - Psa. xxxi. 13. Heb. 25; xlvi. 5; xlix. 29. -2 Kings xx. 17; xxiv. 12-16; xxv. every man of my peace. - Job 19; Psa. xli. 9; lv. 13, 14; 13, &c.; chap. iii. 24. d Chap. xiv. 13, 14; xxviii. 15; xxix. Luke xi. 53, 51.- Chap. i. 8, 19. Chap. xv. 20; xvii. 18. 21. Le Or, enticed. – Chap 1. 6, 7.->Lam. iii. 14. Ch. Chap. xxiii. 40. Chap. xi. 20; xvii. 10. - Psa. liv. 7; vi. 7. Job xxxii. 18, 19; Psa. xxxix. 3.
-Security on all sides. This name thou hast had, but sense here as in Gen. ix. 27 : God shall enlarge ( pernot by Divine appointment.
suade, margin) Japheth; and he shall dwell in the tents But Magor-missabib—-Fear on every side. This of Shem. name hath God given thee; because, in the course of Verse 8. I cried violence and spoil] This was the his providence, thou shalt be placed in the circum- burden of the message thou didst give me. stances signified by it: thou shall be a terror to thyself. Verse 9. I will not make mention of him] I will re
Verse 6. And thou, Pashur_shall go into captivity] nounce the prophetic office, and return to my house. Thou shalt suffer for the false prophecies which thou As a burning fire shut up in my bones] He felt hast delivered, and for thy insults to my prophet. stings of conscience for the hasty and disobedient
Verse 7. O Lord, thou hast deceived me] Thou hast resolution he had formed; he felt ashamed of his promised me protection; and, lo! I am now delivered own weakness, that did not confide in the promise into the hands of my enemies. These words were pro- and strength of God; and God's word was in him as bably spoken when Pashur smote him, and put him in a strongly raging fire, and he was obliged to deliver prison.
it, in order to get rid of the tortures which he felt I think our translation of this passage is very ex- from suppressing the solemn message which God had ceptionable. My old Bible reads, I hou laddist me given. It is as dangerous to refuse to go when called, aside Lord; and was lad aside. The original as it is to run without a call. On this subject, see on word is ning pitlithani, thou hast persuaded me, i. e., chap. i. 6. to go and prophesy to this people. I went, faithfully Verse 10. Report—and we will report it.) Let us declared thy message, and now I am likely to perish spread calumnies against him every where; or let us by their cruelty. As the root ang pathah signifies spread reports of dangers coming upon him, that we to persuade and allure, as well as to deceive, the above may intimidate him, and cause him to desist. must be its meaning in this place. Taken as in our Verse 11. But the Lord is with me as a mighty Version, it is highly irreverent. It is used in the same terrible one] Thus was he, by his strong confidence Zedekiah wishes to
inquire of the Lord. A. M. cir. 3398. for the hath delivered the soul the LORD ' overthrew, and repent- AB.C. Cor. 606 B. C. cir. 606. Ol. XLIII. 3. of the poor from the hand of evil ed not : and let him whear the OI. XLIII. 3. Tarquinii Prisci,
Tarquinii Prisci, R. Roman., doers. cry in the morning, and the
R. Roman., cir. annum 11. 14 u Cursed be the day wherein shouting at noontide ;
cir, annum 11. I was born: let not the day wherein my mother 17 Because he slew me not from the womb bare me be blessed.
or that my mother might have been my grave 15 Cursed be the man who brought tidings and her womb to be always great with me. to my father, saying, A man child is born - 18 , Wherefore came I forth out of the unto thee; making him very glad.
womb to z see labour and sorrow, that
my 16 And let that man be as the cities which days should be consumed with shame?
Psa. xxxv. 9, 10; cix. 30, 31. —u Job iii. 3; chap. xv. 10.
* Gen. xix. 25.
Chap. xviii. 22.- Job iii. 10, 11.- - Job ini. 20.- Lam.
in the strong God, delivered from all his fears, and Transpositions in this prophet are frequent; therefore enabled to go on comfortably with his work.
place these five verses after the eighth, and let the Verse 13. Sing unto the Lord] He was so com- chapter end with the thirteenth, and the whole will form pletely delivered from all fear, that although he remained a piece of exquisite poetry; where the state of despair, in the same circumstances, yet he exults in the Divine and the hasty resolutions he had formed while under its protection, and does not fear the face of any adversary. influence, and the state of confidence to which he was
Verse 14. Cursed be the day wherein I was born] raised by the succouring influence of God, will appear If we take these words literally, and suppose them to to be both illustrative of each other, and are touched be in their proper place, they are utterly inconsistent with a delicacy and fervour which even a cold heart with that state of confidence in which he exulted a few must admire. See Job iii. 3, and the notes there. The minutes before. If they are the language of Jeremiah, two passages are very similar. they must have been spoken on a prior occasion, when Verse 15. A man child is born] Borun is to thee probably he had given way to a passionate hastiness. a knabe child.--Old MS, Bible. This is the old They might well comport with the state he was in ver. English word for man or servant ; and is so used by 9. I really believe these verses have got out of their Wiclif, Rev. xii. 5. proper place, which I conjecture to be between the Verse 16. And let him hear the cry] Let him be eighth and ninth verses. There they will come in very in continual alarms. properly; and might have been a part of his complaint Verse 18. Wherefore came I forth] It would have in those moments when he had purposed to flee from been well had I never been born, as I have neither com: God as did Jonah, and prophesy no more in his name. fort in my life, nor comfort in my work.
cir. annum 28.
CHAPTER XXI. Nebuchadnezzar being come up against Jerusalem, Zedekiah sends Pashur and Zephaniah to the prophet lo
request him to intercede with God in behalf of his people, 1, 2. But he is declared to be against Jerusalem, and the whole land of Judah ; and the only mitigation of their punishment must proceed from their surrendering to the king of Babylon, 3–10. Prophecy concerning the house of the king of Judah, 11, 12, Notwithstanding the amazing fortifications round about Jerusalem, in which the people rainly trust, the
Lord will most assuredly visit them for their iniquities; the city shall be taken by the Chaldeans, 13, 14, A. M. cir. 3415. B. C. cir. 589.
THE word which came unto chiah, and Zephaniah the son 4.M.cit. 3445. OL. XLVII. 4, Jeremiah from the Lord, of Maaseiah the priest, saying, 01. XLVII. 4. Tamuinii Prisci,
Tarquinii Prisci, R. Roman.,
when king Zedekiah sent unto 2 Inquire, I pray thee, of R. Roman.,
him a Pashur the son of Mel- the Lord for us; (for Nebuchad- cir. annum 28. · Chap. xxxvui. I. -b 2 Kings xxv. 18; chap. xxix. 25; xxxvji. 3.
Chap. xxxvii. 3, 7.
of Zedekiah, and the breaking out of the war thereVerse 1. The word which came unto Jeremiah) upon ; and which are continued on to the taking of The chapters in the remaining parts of this prophecy Jerusalem, related in chap. xxix., in the following orseem strangely interchanged. This subject has been der:-ch. xxi., xxxiv., xxxvii., xxxii., xxxiii., xxxviii., mentioned in the introduction, and some tables given ; xxxix. and to these the critical reader is reqnested to refer. Pashur the son of Melchiah] There can be little The discourse here was delivered about the ninth year doubt that this Pashur was a different person from of the reign of Zedekiah.' *This chapter, observes Dr. him who was called the son of Immur in the preceding Blayney, contains the first of those prophecies which chapter. were delivered by Jeremiah, subsequent to the revolt Verse 2. Inquire, I pray thee) See whether God
R. Roman., cir. annum 28.
Prophecy against the
house of Judah. A. M. cir. 3415. rezzar king of Babylon maketh 8 And unto this people thou A. M. cir. 3115.
war against us; if so be that the shalt say, Thus saith the Lord; 1. XLVII. 4. Tarquinii Prisci,
Tarquinii Prisci, Lord will deal with us according Behold, I set before you the R. Roman., to all his wondrous works, that way of life, and the way
of death. eir. annum 28. he may go up from us.
9 He that i abideth in this city shall die by 3 Then said Jeremiah-unto them, Thus shall the sword, and by the famine, and by the ye say to Zedekiah :
pestilence : but he that goeth out, and falleth 4 Thus saith the Lord God of Israel: Be- to the Chaldeans that besiege you, he shall hold, I will turn back the weapons of war that live, and his life shall be unto him for a prey. are in your hands, wherewith ye fight against 10 For I have set my face against this city the king of Babylon, and against the Chal- for evil, and not for good, saith the LORD: deans, which besiege you without the walls, mit shall be given into the hand of the king of and I will assemble them into the midst of Babylon, and he shall n burn it with fire. this city.
11 And touching the house of the king of 5 And I myself will fight against you with Judah, say, Hear ye the word of the LORD; an outstretched hand and with a strong arm,
12 O house of David, thus saith the LORD; even in anger, and in fury, and in great wrath. • Execute pjudgment 9 in the morning, and
6 And I will smite the inhabitants of this deliver him that is spoiled out of the hand of city, both man and beast : they shall die of a the oppressor, lest my fury go out like fire, great pestilence.
and burn that none can quench it, because of 7 And afterward, saith the LORD, ' I will de- the evil of your doings. liver Zedekiah king of Judah, and his servants, 13 Behold, I am against thee, O sinand the people, and such as are left in this habitant of the valley, and rock of the plain, city from the pestilence, from the sword, and saith the LORD; which say, Who shall come from the famine, into the hand of Nebuchad-down against us? or who shall enter into our rezzar king of Babylon, and into the hand of habitations ? their enemies, and into the hand of those that 14 But I will punish you according to the seek their life : and he shall smite them with fruit of your doings, saith the Lord: and I the edge of the sword; he shall not spare will kindle a fire in the forest thereof, and wit them, neither have pity, nor have mercy. shall devour all things round about it.
d Isa, xiii. 4. - Exod. vi. 6. Chap. xxxvii. 17; xxxix. 1 Chap. xxxiv. 2, 22; xxxvii. 10; xxxviii. 18, 23; lii. 13. $; lii. 9.
-6 Deut. xxiii. 50; 2 Chron. xxxvi. 17.- h Deut. Chap. xxii. 3; Zech. vii. 9. Heb. Judge.- - Psa. ci. 8. XXX, 19.
Chap. xxxviii. 2, 17, 18. - Chap. xxxix. 18; xlv. Ezek. xiii. 8. - Heb. inhabitress. Chap. xlix. 4.- Heb. 5.- - Ley. xvii. 10; chap. xliv. Il; Amos ix. 4.- - Chap. visit upon.- - Prov. i. 31 ; Isa, iii. 10, 11,- -w 2 Chron. xxxvi. xxxviij. 3.
19; chap. lii. 13.
intends to deliver us into or out of the hand of the in the present instance. This is explained in the next Chaldeans.
Verse 4.. I will turn back the weapons) Every Verse 10. He shall burn it with fire.) What a heavy attempt you make to repel the Chaldeans shall be message to alt; and especially to them who had any unsuccessful.
fear of God, or reverence for the temple and its sacred I will assemble them into the midst of this city.) I services ! will deliver the city into their hands.
Verse 12. Execute judgment in the morning) ProVerse 6. They shall die of a great pestilence.] The bably the time for dispensing judgment was the mornsword may appear to be that of man, though I have given ing, when the people were going to their work ; but the the Chaldeans their commission; but the pestilence words may mean, Do justice promptly, do not delay. shall appear to be the immediate act of God.
Let justice be administered as soon as required. Verse 7. Nebuchadrezzar) This name is spelt as Verse 13. O inhabitant of the valley, and rock of the above in lwenty-six places of this book; and in ten places plain) Dr. Blayney translates : “O thou inhabitant of it is spelt Nebuchadnezzar, which is the common or- the levelled hollow of a rock.” With all his explanathography. The difference is only a 7 resh for a 3 nun; tion I cannot see the good sense of this translation. Jebut the MSS. are various on this point. It is the same rusalem itself, though partly on two hills, was also experson who is intended by both names; and here all the tended in the valley; and Zion, the city of David, was Versions, except the Arabic, which omits the name, have properly a rock, strongly fortified both by nature and art; it in the usual form.
and by its ancient possessors, the Jebusites, was deemed Verse 8. Behold, I set before you the way of life, impregnable. and the way of death.] Meaning escape or destruction Who shall come down against us ?) Probably the
The prophet's message
to the king of Judah. words of those courtiers who had persuaded Zedekiah | to every part of the circumference, and so consume the to rebel against the king of Babylon.
whole. Verse 14. I will kindle a fire in the forest thereof ] The beginning of the thirth-fourth chapter should I will send destruction into its centre, that shall spread follow here. See the arrangement on ver, I
A. M. cir. 3406.
B. C. cir. 598.
This section of prophecy, extending to the end of the eighth verse of the next chapter, is addressed to the
king of Judah and his people. It enjoins on them the practice of justice and equity, as they would hope to prosper, 1-4; but threatens them, in case of disobedience, with utter destruction, 5-9. The captivity of Shallum, the son of Josiah, is declared to be irreversible, 10-12; and the miserable and unlamented end of Jeconiah, contemptuously called Coniah, is foretold, 13–19. His family is threatened with the like capti
vity, and his seed declared to be for ever excluded from the throne, 20-30. B.C. cit. 398. THUS saith the Lord; Go 6 For thus saith the LORD unto. A. M. cir. 3406. Ol. cir. XLV. 3. down to the house of the the king's house of Judah; Thou ol. cir. XLV. 3. Tarquinii Prisci,
R. Roman., king of Judah, and speak there art Gilead unto me, and the Tarquini Prisci, cir. annum 19. this word,
head of Lebanon : yet surely I cir. annum 19, 2 And say, * Hear the word of the LORD, will make thee a wilderness, and cities which O king of Judah, that sittest upon the throne are not inhabited. of David, thou, and thy servants, and thy 7 And I will prepare destroyers against thee, people that enter in by these gatés ;
every one with his weapons and they shall 3 Thus saith the LORD; ”Execute ye judg- cut down 6 thy choice cedars, and cast them ment and righteousness, and deliver the spoiled into the fire. out of the hand of the oppressor : and do no 8 And many nations shall pass by this city, wrong, do no violence to the stranger, the and they shall say every man to his neighfatherless, nor the widow, neither shed inno- bour, Wherefore hath the LORD done thus cent blood in this place.
unto this great city ? 4 For if ye do this thing indeed, d then shall 9 Then they shall answer, Because they there enter in by the gates of this house kings have forsaken the covenant of the Lord their sitting upon the throne of David, riding in God, and worshipped other gods, and served chariots and on horses, he, and his servants, them. and his people.
10 Weep ye not for the dead, neither be, · 5 But if ye will not hear these words, 'I moan him: but weep sore for him " that goeth swear by myself, saith the LORD, that this away : for he shall return no morę, nor see house shall become a desolation.
his native country.
a Chap. xvii. 20. - Chap. xxi. 12. See ver. 17.- Ch. Chap. xxi. 14.- Deut. xxix. 24, 25; 1 Kings ix. 8, 9. xvii. 25. Heb. for David upon his throne.
—Heb. vi. 13, 17. * 2 Kings xxii. 17; 2 Chron. xxxiv, 25.—2 Kings xxii. 20. & Isa. xxxvii. 24.
m Ver. il.
NOTES ON CHAP. XXII.
Verse 7. They shall cut down thy choice cedars) Verse 1. Go down to the house of the king of Judah, The destruction of the country is expressed under the and speak there this word] This is supposed by Dah- symbol of the destruction of a fine forest; a multitude ler to have been published in the first year of the reign of fellers come against it, each with his axe; and, there of Zedekiah.
being no resistance, every tree is soon felled to the Verse 2. O king of Judah—thou, and thy servants] earth. “ These destroyers,” God says, “I have preHis ministers are here addressed, as chiefly governing pared, nump kiddashti, I have sanctified-consecrated, the nation ; and who had counselled Zedekiah to rebel. to this work. They have their commission from me.
Verse 6. Thou art Gilead unto me, and the head of Verse 8. Many nations shall pass] These words Lebanon) Perhaps in allusion, says Dahler, to the oaks seem borrowed from Deut. xxix.-22, &c. of Gilead, and the cedars of Mount Lebanon, of which Verse 10. Weep ye not for the dead] Josiah, dead the palace was constructed. Lebanon was the highest in consequence of the wound he had received at Memountain in Israel, and Gilead the richest and most giddo, in a battle with Pharaoh-necho, king of Egypt ; fertile part of the country; and were, therefore, proper but he died in peace with God. emblems of the reigning family. Though thou art the But weep sore for him that goeth away] Namely, richest and most powerful, I, who raised thee up, can Jehoahaz, the son of Josiah, called below Shallum, bring thee down and make thee a wilderness. whom Pharaoh-necho had carried captive into Egypt,