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The desolations


coming upon Jerusalem. A. M. cir. 3392. 13 Behold, he shall come up B. C. cir. 612.

20 8 Destruction upon destruc- A M. cir. 3392. Ol. cir. XLII. 1. as clouds, and his chariots shall tion is cried; for the whole land Ol. cir. XLII. 1. Tarquinii Prisci, R. Roman.,

Tarquinii Prisci, be as a whirlwind : y his horses is spoiled : suddenly are my R. Roman., cir. annum 5.

cir. annum 5. are swifter than eagles. Wo unto tents spoiled, and my curtains in a us! for we are spoiled.

moment. 14 0 Jerusalem, z wash thine heart from 21 How long shall I see the standard, and! wickedness, that thou mayest be saved. How hear the sound of the trampet ? long shall thy vain thoughts lodge within thee? 22 For my people is foolish, they have not

15 For a voice declareth a from Dan, and known me: they are sottish children, and publisheth affliction from Mount Ephraim. they have none understanding; i they are

16 Make ye mention to the nations; behold, wise to do evil, but to do good they have no publish against Jerusalem, that watchers come knowledge. • from a far coumtry, and give out their voice 23 I beheld the earth, and, lo, it was 'withagainst the cities of Judah.

out form and void; and the heavens, and 17 · A's keepers of a field, are they against they had no light. her round about; because she hath been re- 24 m I beheld the mountains, and, lo, they bellious against me, saith the LORD.

trembled, and all the hills moved lightly. 18 Thy way and thy doings have procured 25 I beheld, and, lo, there was no man, and these things unto thee; this is thy wicked- n all the birds of the heavens were fled. ness, because it is bitter, because it reacheth 26 I beheld, and, lo, the fruitful place was unto thine heart.

a wilderness, and all the cities thereof were 19 My e bowels, my bowels! I am pained at broken down at the presence of the Lord, fmy very heart; my heart maketh a noise in and by his fierce anger. me; I cannot hold my peace, because thou 27 For thus hath the LORD said, The whole hast heard, O my soul, the sound of the trumpet, land shall be desolatę; °yet will I not make the alarm of war.

a full end. * Isa. v. 28. y Deut. xxviii. 49; Lam. iv. 19; Hos. viii. 1 ; chap. ix. 1, 10; see Luke xix. 42.- {Heb. the walls of my heart. Hab. i. 8. -2 Isa. i. 16; James iv. 8.a Chap. viii. 16. < Psa. xlii. 7; Ezek. vii. 26. -b Chap. x. 20. Li Rom. xvi. Chap. v. 15. - 2 Kings xxv. ), 4. -d Psa: cvii. 17; Isa. 19. Isa. xxiv. 19.- Gen. i. 2.mlsa. v. 25; Ezek. 1 l; chap. ii. 17, 19._ Isa. xv. 5; xvi. Il ; xxi. 3 ; xxii. 4; xxxviii. 20.- Zeph.i.3. Chap. v. 10, 18; xxx. 11 ; xlvi. 28. to show the overwhelming effect of the invasion of the guards all round about it; so that none could enter to land by the Chaldeans.

give assistance, and none who wished to escape were Verse 13. Wo unto us! The people, deeply affect- permitted to go out. ed with these threatened judgments, interrupt the pro- Verse 19. My bowels) From this to the twenty phet with the lamentation-Wo unto us, for we are ninth verse the prophet describes the ruin of Jerusalem spoiled! The prophet then resumes :

and the desolation of Judea by the Chaldeans in lanVerse 14. Ó Jerusalem, wash thine heart] Why guage and imagery scarcely paralleled in the whole do ye not put away your wickedness, that ye may be Bible. At the sight of misery the bowels are first affectsaved from these tremendous judgments? How long ed; pain is next felt by a sort of stricture in the perishall thy vain thoughts of safety and prosperity lodge cardium; and then, the heart becoming strongly affected within thee? Whilst thou continuest a rebel against by irregular palpitations, a gush of tears, accompanied God, and provokest him daily by thy abominations! with wailings, is the issue.—“My bowels, my bowels !

Verse 15. For a voice declareth from Dan] Dan I am pained at my very heart, (the walls of my heart;). was a city in the tribe of Dan, north of Jerusalem; the my heart maketh a noise in me; I cannot hold my peace.” first city in Palestine, which occurs in the way from Here is nature, and fact also. Babylon to Jerusalem.

Verse 20. Destruction upon destruction] Cities Affiction from Mount Ephraim.) Between Dan and burnt, and their inhabitants destroyed. Jerusalem are the mountains of Ephraim. These My tents spoiled] Even the solitary dwellings in would be the first places attacked by the Chaldeans; the fields and open country do not escape. and the rumour from thence would show that the land Verse 23. I beheld the earth, (the land,) and lo, it was invaded.

was without form and void) 11731 1777. Iohu uabohu ; Verse 16. Watchers come from a far country] Per- the very words used in Genesis to denote the formless sons to besiege fortified places.

state of the chaotic mass before God had brought it Verse 17. As keepers of a field] In the eastern coun- into order. tries grain is often sown in the open country; and, when Verse 24. The mountains-hills] Princes, rulers, nearly ripe, guards are placed at different distances &c., were astonished and fled. round about it to preserve it from being plundered. Verse 25. The birds of the heavens were fled.] The Jerusalem was watched, like one of these fields, by land was so desolated that even the fowls of heaven

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cir. annum 5.

The corrupted state

of the people. A. M. cir. 3392. 28 For this p shall the earth crimson, though thou deckest A M. Cor. 3392.

B. C. cir. 612.
Ol. cir. XLII. 1. mourn, and a the heavens above thee with ornaments of gold, Ol. cir. XLII. I.
Tarquinii Prisci,

Tarquinii Prisci, R. Roman.,

be black . because I have spoken though thou rentest thy face R. Roman., cir. annum 5.

it, I have purposed it, and will with painting, in vain shalt thou not repent, neither will I turn back from it. make thyself fair ; u thy lovers will despise

29 The whole city shall flee for the noise of thee, they will seek thy life. the horsemen and bowmen; they shall go 31 For I have heard a voice as of a woman into thickets, and climb up upon the rocks : in travail, and the anguish as of her that every city shall be forsaken, and not a man bringeth forth her first child, the voice of the dwell therein.

daughter of Zion, that bewaileth herself, that 30 And when thou art spoiled, what wilt 'spreadeth her hands, saying, Wo is me now! thou do? Though thou clothest thyself with | for my soul is wearied because of murderers. p Hos. iv. 3. -4 Isa. y. 30; 1. 3. Num. xxiii. 19; chap. Heb. eyes. Chap. xxii. 20, 22; Lam. i. 2, 19.- Isa. i. 15; - 2 Kings ix. 30; Ezek. xxiii. 40.

Lam. i. 17. could not find meat, and therefore, fled away to an- thou make use of every means of address, of cunning, other region. How powerfully energetic is this de- and of solicitation, to get assistance from the neighbourscription ! See Zeph. i. 3.

ing states, it will be all in vain.. Reference is here Verse 30. Though thou rentest thy face with paint- particularly made to the practice of harlots to allure men. ing] This probably refers to the custom of introducing Verse 31. Bringeth forth her first child). In such stibium, a preparation of antimony, between the eye a' case the fear, danger, and pain were naturally the and the lids, in order to produce a fine lustre, which greatest. occasions a distension of the eye-lid in the time of the Spreadeth her hands] The gesture indicated by naoperation. In order to heighten the effect from this, ture to signify distress, and implore help. We have met some may have introduced a more than ordinary quan- with this figure in other parts, and among the classic tity, so as nearly to rend the eye-lid itself. Though writers it is frequent.

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vii. 16.


CHAPTER V. The prophet, having described the judgments impending over his countrymen, enlarges on the corruptions

which prevailed among them. Their profession of religion was all false and hypocritical, 1, 2. Though corrected, they were not amended, but persisted in their guilt, 3.. This was not the case with the low and ignorant only, 4 ; but more egregiously so with those of the higher order, from whose knowledge and opportunities better things might have been expected, 5. God therefore threatens them with the most cruel enemies, 6; and appeals to themselves if they should be permitted to practise such_sins unpunished, 7–9. He then commands their enemies to razc the walls of Jerusalem, 10; that devoted city, whose inhabitants added to all their other sins the highest contempt of God's word and prophets, 11-13. Wherefore his word, in the mouth of his prophet, shall be as fire to consume them, 14 ; the Chaldean forces shall cruelly afflict them, 15-17; and farther judgments await them as the consequence of their apostasy and idolatry, 18, 19. The chapter closes with a most melancholy picture of the moral condition of the Jewish people at that period which immediately preceded the Babylonish captivity, 20–31. 3. C. cir . 6122 RUN ye to and fro through eth, judgment, that seeketh the 4: M. cir. 3392.

B. C. cir. 612. Ol. cir. XLII. 1. the streets of Jerusalem, and truth; and I will pardon it. OI. cir. XLII. I. Tarquinii Prisci, R. Roman.,

Tarquinü Prisci, see now, and know, and seek in 2 And d though they say,

é The

R. Roman., cir. annum 5.

cir, annum 5. the broad places thereof, - if ye LORD liveth ; surely they `swear can find a man, if there be any that execut- falsely. a Ezek. xxii. 30. Gen. xvii. 23, &c.; Psa. xii. I. c Gen. xviii. 26. & Tit. i. 16. Le Chap. iv.2. Chap, vii.9. NOTES ON CHAP. V.

I will pardon it.] I will spare the city for the sake Verse 1. Broad places) Market-places, and those of one righteous person. So at the intercession of where there was most public resort.

Abraham, God would have spared Sodom if there had If ye can find a man] 'A certain philosopher went been ten righteous persons found in it; Gen. xviii. 26. through the streets of Athens with a lighted lamp in Verse 2. The Lord liveth] Though they profess to his hand ; and being asked what he sought, answered, bind themselves by Jehovah, as if they acknowledged “ I am seeking to find a man.” So in Jerusalem none him their God and only Lord, yet they swore falsely ; was found, on the most diligent search, who acted for not believing in him, they took a false oath; one worthy the character of a rational being.

by which they did not believe themselves bound,

B. C. cir. 612.

cir. annum 5.

cir. annum 5.

All conditions of the people


had corrupted themselves. A. M. cir. 3392. B. C. cir. 612.

3 O LORD, are not a thine eyes children have forsaken me, and 4. M. cir. 3392. 01. cir. XLII. 1.


the truth? thou hast s sworn by them * that are no gods: 01. cir. XLII. 1. Tarquinii Prisci,

h R. Roman,

Tarquinii Prisci, stricken them, but they have when I had fed them to the R. Roman.,

not grieved; thou hast consumed full, they then committed adulthem, but they have refused to receive cor- iery, and assembled themselves by troops in rection; they have made their faces harder the harlots' houses. than a rock; they have refused to return. 8 They were as fed horses in the morning.

4 Therefore I said, Surely these are poor; every one w neighed after his neighbour's wife. they are foolish: fork they know not the 9 * Shall I not visit for these things? saith the way of the Lord, nor the judgment of their LORD: Yand shall not my soul be avenged on God. .

such a nation as this? 5 I will get me unto the great men, and will 10 2 Go ye up upon her walls, and destroy; speak unto them; for- they have known the a but make not a full end : take away

her batway of the Lord, and, the judgment of their tlements; for they are not the Lord's. God: but these have altogether m broken the 11 For bihe house of Israel and the house yoke, and burst the bonds.

of Judah have dealt very treacherously against 6 Wherefore " a lion out of the forest shall me, saith the Lord. slay them, "and a wolf of the P evenings shall. 12 • They have belied the LORD, and said, spoil them, ? a leopard shall watch over their «It is not he; neither shall evil come upon cities ; every one that goeth out thence shall' us ; neither shall we see sword nor famine: be torn in pieces : because their transgres- 13 And the prophets shall become wind, and sions are many, and their backslidings are the word is not in them; thus shall it be done increased.

unto them. 7 How shall I pardon thee for this ? thy 14 Wherefore thus saith the Lord God of €2 Chron. xvi. 9. h Isa. 1.5; ix. 13; chap. 11.30. iChap. * Deut. xxxii. 21; Gal. iv. 8. - Deut. xxxii. 15. - Ezek. vü. 28; Zeph. iii. 2. — Chap. vii. 8.- I Mic. iii.. -m Psa. xxii. 11. Chap. xiii. 27.- Ver. 29; chap. ix. 9. -y Chap. Chap. iv. 7.— Psa. civ. 20; Hab. i. 8; Zeph. iii. 3. xliv. 22. Chap. xxxix. 8.

Chap. iv. 27; Or, deserts.-- Hos. xiii. 7.

- Heb. are strong.

s Josh. Chap. iii. 20. << 2 Chron. xxxvi. 16; chap. iv. 10.—d Isa. Xm. 7; Zeph. i. 5.

xxviii. 15.- Chap. xiv. 13. not acknowledging him as their Lord. See on chap. Verse 10. Go ye up upon her walls! This is the iv. 2.

permission and authority given to the Chaldeans to Verse 4. These are poor] They are ignorant; they pillage Jerusalem. have no education ; they know no better.

Take away her battlements] Some translate nivo Verse 5. I will get me unto the great men] Those netishoth, branches; others, vines. Destroy the whose circumstances and rank in life gave them oppor- branches, cut down the stem ; but do not damage the tunities of information which the others could not have, root. Leave so many of the people that the state for the reasons already given.

may be regenerated. The Septuagint, Syriac, and These have altogether broken the yoke] These have Arabic read, “ Leave her foundations, for they are the cast aside all restraint, have acted above law, and have Lord's;" and this agrees with “ Destroy, but make trampled all moral obligations under their feet; and not a full end." into their vortex the lower classes of the people have Verse 12. They have belied the Lord] und kichabeen swept away.

Solon said; “ The laws are like shu. They have denied or disavowed the Lord. cobwebs; they entangle the small fry, but the great It is not he] *177 17 lo hu, he is not; there is no ones go through them, and carry all away with them.” such being; therefore this evil shall not come upon us.

Verse 6. Wherefore a lion] Nebuchadnezzar, ac- On their premises, this conclusion was just. There cording to the general opinion ; who is called here a is no judge ; therefore there shall be no judgment. lion for his courage and violence, a bear for his rapa- Thus they denied the Lord. They were atheists at ciousness, and a leopard for his activity. Dahler sup- heart. poses the Scythians to be intended, both here and in Verse 13. And the prophets shall become wind) chap. iv. 7.

What are the prophets ? Empty persons. Their words Verse 7. In the harlots' houses.] In places conse- are wind; we hear the sound of their threatenings, crated to idolatry. In the language of the prophets, but of the matter of the threatenings we shall hear no adultery generally signifies idolatry. This we have more.

And the word is not in them] There is no inspirer; Verse 8. After his neighbour's wife.] This may have but may their own predictions fall on their own heads! been literally true, as the abominations of idolatry, in This seems the natural sense of this passage. which they were so deeply practised, would necessarily Verse 14. Because ye speak this word) Because produce such a state of things as that here mentioned. I ye thus treat my message, “ I will make my words in

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ver. 18. cir. annum 5.

often seen.

cir. annum 5.

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The profligacy of


the people described. -A. M. cir. 3392. hosts, B. C. cir. 612. Because ye speak this serve strangers in a land that is. A M. cir. 3392.

B. C. 01. cir. XLII.1. word, behold, I will make my not yours.

Ol, cir. XLII. I. Tarquinii Prisci,

Tarquinii Prisci R. Roman., words in thy mouth fire, and this 20 Declare this in the house of

R. Roman., people wood, and it shall de- Jacob, and publish it in Judah, vour them.

saying, 15 Lo, I will bring a bnation upon you 21 Hear now this, 0 ° foolish people, and h from far, O house of Israel, saith the Lord: without P understanding; which have eyes, and it is a mighty nation, it is an ancient nation, see not; which have ears, and hear not: a nation whose language thou knowest not, 22 Fear ye not me ? saith the LORD: will neither understandest what they say. ye not tremble at my presence, which have

16 Their quiver is as an open sepulchre, placed the sand for the bound of the sea by they are all mighty men.

a perpetual decree, that it cannot pass it: and 17 And they shall eat up thine i harvest, and though the waves thereof toss themselves, yet thy bread, which thy sons and thy daughters can they not prevail; though they roar, yet should eat; they shall eat up thy flocks and can they not pass over it? thine herds: they shall eat up thy vines and 23 But this people hath a revolting and a thy fig trees: they shall impoverish thy rebellious heart; they are revolted and gone. fenced cities, wherein thou trustedst, with the 24 Neither say they in their heart; Let us sword,

now fear the Lord our God, that giveth 18 Nevertheless in those days, saith the rain, both the former and the latter, in his LORD, I k will not make a full-end with you.

hé reserveth unto us the appointed 19 And it shall come to pass, when ye shall weeks of the harvest. say, 1 Wherefore doeth the Lord our God all 25. Your iniquities have turned away these these things unto us? then shalt thou answer things, and your sins have withholden goud them, Like as ye have' m forsaken me, and things from you. served strange gods in your land, so n shall ye 26 For among my people are found wicked

"Chap. 1. 9.—Deut. xxviii. 49; Isa. v. 26 ; chap. i. 15; vi: 22. 26; Rom. xi. 8. -- Heb. heart; Hos. vii. 11. -- Rev. xv h Isa. xxxix. 3 ; chap. iv. 16. - Lev. xxvi. 16; Deut. xxviii. 31, 4. -- Job xxvi. 10; xxxviii. 10, 11; Psa. civ. 9; Prov. viib 33. — Chap. iv. 27.- Deut. xxix. 24, &c.; 1 Kings ix. 8,9; 29. Psa. cxlvii. 8; chap. xiv. 22; Matt. v. 45; Acts chap. xiii. 22; xvi. 10. —m Chap. ii. 13. - Deut. xxviii. 48. xiv. 17.—Deut. xi. 14; Joel ii. 23. - Gen. viii. 22.

Isa. vi. 9; Ezek. xii. 2; Matt. xii. 14; John xii. 40; Acts xxviii. Chap. in. 3. thy mouth fire.” They have said they are but air; Verse 23. They are revolted and gone.) They but I will make them fire, and a fire too that shall de- have abandoned me, and are gone farther and farther vour them. And how this was to be done, and by into transgression. They are gone entirely away from whom, is mentioned in the next verse.

truth and righteousness. Verse 15. I will bring a nation] 'The Scythians, Verse 24. Giveth rain, both the former and the latsays Dahler; the Babylonians, whose antiquity was ter] See the note on chap. iii. 3. great, that empire being founded by Nimrod.

The appointed weeks of the harvest.] As the early Whose language thou knowest nol] The Chaldee, rains fell in the northern parts of Judea about the enu which, though a dialect of the Hebrew, is so very dif- of September, in the civil year of the Hebrews, so the ferent in its words and construction, that in hearing it latter rains fell before harvest, in the months of March spoken they could not possibly colect the meaning of and April. The appointed weeks of the harvest were what was said.

those which fell between the passover

and pentecost. Verse 16. Their quiver is an open sepulchre) They in the southern parts the harvest was earlier than in are such exact archers as never to miss their mark; the northern. Dr. Blayney translates, “A sufficiency every arrow is sure to slay one man.

of the appointed things of harvest he secureth to us." Verse 18. I will not make a full end] There are If the word nyov, weeks, be read with a v sin inmore evils in store for you. You shall not only be stead of a v shin, it will signify fulness or sufficiency; spoiled, and all your property destroyed, but ye shall and thus the Septuagint and Vulgate have read it. I be carried into captivity; and ye shall serve strangers think the present reading is much to be preferred in a land that is not yours, ver. 19.

God appoints a harvest time, and in his good provi Verse 32. Which have placed the sand for the bound denoe he generally gives harvest weather. of the sea] What can I not do, who confine the sea, Verse 25. Your iniquities have turned away these that enormous mass of waters, and prevent it from things) When these appointed weeks of harvest do overflowing the earth ; not by immense mountains and not come, should we not examine and see whether this rocks, but by the sand, no particle of which is in cohe- be not in God's judgments? Have not our iniquities sion with another? The most tremendous waves can- turned away these good things from us? not displace nor pass over this simple barrier.

Verse 26. They lay wait, as he that selteth snares]


B. C. cir. 612.

cir. annum 5.

cir. annum 5.



The wickedness of the

CHAP. VI. prophets, priests, and people A.M. cir. 3392. men : w they * lay wait, as he that


• Shall I not visit for A. M. cir. 3392. Ol. cir. XLII. ! setteth snares; they set a trap, these things ? saith the LORD: Ol

. cir. XLII. 1. Tarquinii Prisci,

Tarquinii Prisci, R. Roman., they catch men.

shall not my soul be aveng- R. Roman., 27 As a y cage is full of birds, ed on such

nation so are their houses full of deceit: therefore this? they are become great, and waxen rich: 30 d A wonderful and horrible thing is coni

28 They are waxen 2 fat, they shine : yea, mitted in the land ; they overpass the deeds of the wicked : they 31 The prophets prophesy ' falsely, and the judge not the cause, the cause of the father-priests & bear rule by their means; and my less, yet they prosper; and the right of the people h love to have it so: and what will ye needy do they not judge.

do in the end thereof?

Or, they pry as fowlers lie in wait. Prov. i. 11, 17, 18; Hab. e Ver. 9; Mal. i. 5. - Or, Astonishment and filthiness, i. 15.-=-y Or, coop:-- Deut. xxxii. 15.-_Isa. i. 23; Zech, 1 Chap. xxiii. 14; Hos. vi. 10.—Chap. xiv. 14 / xx111

. 25, 26 ; vii. 10.- Job xii. 6; Psa. lxxii, 12; chap. xii. s.

Ezek. xii. 6.—Or, take into their hands.- Mic. i. 11.

A metaphor taken from fowlers, who, having fixed their prophets affording them all that their influence and nets, lie down and keep out of sight, that when birds power can procure, to enable them to keep their places, come, they may be ready to draw and entangle them. and feed on the riches of the Lord's house.

Verse 27. As a cage is full of birds] There is no And my people love to have it so] Are perfectly doubt that the reference here is to a decoy or trap- satisfied with this state of things, because they are percage, as Dr. Blayney has rendered it; in these the mitted to continue in their sins without reproof or refowlers put several tame birds, which when the wild straint. The prophets and the priests united to deceive ones see, they come and light on the cage, and fall and ruin the people. The prophets gave out false into the snare.

predictions ; by their means the priests got the govern. Verse 28. They judge not the cause, yet they pros- ment of the people into their own hands; and so infaper) Perhaps we might be justified in translating, tuated were the people that they willingly abandoned á And shall they prosper ?"

themselves to those blind guides, and would not hearVerse 30. A wonderful and horrible thing is com- ken to the voice of any reformer. In my Old Bible mitted in the land] Dahler translates : “Strange the words stand thus :- Stompng and merbailis bev crimes and horrible trespasses have been committed in made in the erthe, prophets prophecieden lesing; and the land." These have been already detailed ; but prestis slappiden with jope with ther bóndes, and my this may refer to what follows.

peple lobid siche thingis. False prophets and worldly Verse 31. The prophets prophesy falsely] The false priests have been in all ages the bane of religion, and prophets predict favourable things, that they may the ruin of many souls. When profligate people stand please both the princes and the people.

up on behalf of profligate priests, corruption must then The priests bear rule by their means] The false l be at its height.


Jeremiah, in the spirit of prophecy, seeing the Chaldeans on their march, bids his people set up the usual

signals of distress, and spread the general alarm to betake themselves to flight, 1. Then, by a beautiful allusion to the custom of shepherds moving their flocks to the richest pastures, Jerusalem is singled out as a place devoted to be eaten up or trodden down by the armies of the Chaldeans, who are called up against her, and whose ardour and impatience are so great that the soldiers, when they arrive in the evening, regrel they have no more day, and desire to begin the attack without waiting for the light of the morning, 2–5. God is then represented as animating and directing the besiegers against this guilty city, which sinned as incessantly as a fountain flows, 6, 7, aithough warned of the fatal consequence, 8. He intimates also, by the gleaning of the grapes, that one invasion should carry away the remains of another, till their disobedience, hypocrisy, and other sins should end in their total overthrow, 9–15. And to show that God is clear when he judgeth, he mentions his having in vain admonished and warned them, and calls upon the whole world to witness the equity of his proceedings, 16-18, in punishing this perverse and hypocritical people 19, 20, by the ministry of the cruel Chaldeans, 21–23. Upon this a chorus of Jews is introduced expressing their fears and alarm, 24, 25; to which the prophet echoes a response full of sympathy and tenderness, 26. The concluding verses, by metaphors taken from the process of refining gold and silver, represent all the methods hitherto used lo amend them as wholly ineffectual, 27–30.


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