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The future restoration
of the Israelites. A. M. cir. 3292. off, that have not heard my fame, B. C. cir. 712.
22 For as the new heavens A. M. cir. 3292.
B. C. cir. 712. Olymp. XVII. 1. neither have seen my glory; ?and and the new earth, which I will Olymp. XVII. 1. Numa Pompilii, they shall declare my glory among make, shall remain before me, Numa Pompilii
, R. Roman., 4. the Gentiles.
saith the LORD, so shall your seed
R. Roman., 4. 20 And they shall bring all your brethren and your name remain. * for an offering unto the Lord out of all 23° And • it shall come to pass that ' froin nations, upon horses, and in chariots, and in one new moon to another, and from one sabbath blitters, and upon mules, and upon swift to another, shall all flesh come to worship beasts, to my holy mountain Jerusalem, saith before me, sạith the LORD. the Lord, as the children of Israel bring an 24. And they shall go forth, and look upon offering in a clean vessel into the house of the carcasses of the men that have transgressed the LORD.
against me: for their í worm shall not die, 21 And I will also take of them for priests neither shall their fire be quenched ; and they and for Levites, saith the LORD.
shall be an abhorring unto all flesh. Mal. i. 11.-a Rom. xv. 16. Or, couches. - Exod. Heb. from new moon to his new moon, and from sabbath to his sabxix. 6; chap. Ixi. 6; 1 Pet. ii. 9.; Rex. i. 6.- Chap. Ixv. 17. bath. —Psa. lxv. 2; chap. xlix. 26.- Ver. 16. Mark 2 Pet. m. 13; Rev. xxi. 1.- Zech. xiv. 16.
ix. 44, 46, 48. nop kesheth, the bow, is omitted in a MS. and by the See Matt. viii. 11. Cænabat Nerva cum paucis. Septuagint.
Veiento proximus, atque etiam in sinu recumbebat. That have not heard my fame_^ Who never heard " The Emperor Nervá supped with few. Veiento was my name”) For yny shimi, my fame, I read, with the the first in his estimation, and even reclined in his boSeptuagint and Syriac, 'ov shemi, my name.
som.” Plin. Epist. iv. 22. Compare John xii. 23 ; Verse 20. And in chariots—“And in counes ") for we could not possibly have any conception of it, There is a sort of vehicle much used in the east, con- but by analogy from worldly objects. In like manner sisting of a pair of hampers or cradles, thrown across he expressed the place of torment under the image of a camel's back, 'one on each side ; in each of which a Gehenna ;. and the punishment of the wicked by the person is carried. They have a covering to defend worm which there preyed on the carcasses, and the fire them from the rain and the sun. Thevenot calls them that consumed the wretched victims. Marking howcounes, i. p. 356. Maillet describes them as covered ever, in the strongest manner, the difference between cages hanging on both sides of a camel. “At Alep- Gehenna and the invisible place of torment; namely, po,” says Dr. Russell, “ women of inferior condition in that in the former the suffering is transient :the worm longer journeys are commonly stowed, one on each itself which preys upon the body, dies; and the fire side of a mule, in a sort of covered cradles.” Nat. which totally consumes it, is soon extinguished :Hist. of Aleppo, p. 89. These seem to be what the whereas in the figurative Gehenna the instruments of prophet means by the word '?¥ tsabbim. Harmer's punishment shall be everlasting, and the suffering with. Observations, i. p. 445,
out end; “ for there the worm dieth not, and the fire Verse 21. And for Levites) For DS5 laleviyim, is not quenched.” fifty-nine MSS., (eight ancient,) have Dubbi velale- These emblematical images, expressing heaven and viyim, adding the conjunction 1 vau, which the sense hell, were in use among the Jews before our Saviour's seems necessarily to require : and so read all the an- time; and in using them he complied with their nocient versions. See Josh. ii. 3, and the various read. tions. “Blessed is he that shall eat bread in the king, ings on that place in Kennicott's Bible.
dom of God," says the Jew to our Saviour, Luke xiv, Verse 24. For their worm shall not die). These 15. And in regard to Gehenna, the Chaldee parawords of the prophet are applied by our blessed Sa- phrast, as I observed before on chap. xxx. 33, renders viour, Mark ix. 44, to express the everlasting punish-everlasting or continual burnings by “ the Gehenna of ment of the wicked in Gehenna, or in hell. Gehenna, everlasting fire.” And before his time the son of Sior the valley of Hinnom, was very near to Jerusalem rach, chap. vii. 17, had said, “ The vengeance of the to the south-east : it was the place where the idola- ungodly is fire and worms." So likewise the author trous Jews celebrated that horrible rite of making their of the book of Judith, chap. xvi. 17: “Wo to the nachildren pass through the fire, that is, of burning them tions rising up against my kindred : 'the Lord Almighty in sacrifice to Moloch. To put a stop to this abomi- will take vengeance of them in the day of judgment, nable practice, Josiah defiled, or desecrated, the place, in putting fire and worms in their flesh;” manifestly by filling it with human bones, 2 Kings xxiii. 10, 14; referring to the same emblem.—L. and probably it was the custom afterwards to throw out
Kimchi's conclusion of his notes on this book is the carcasses of animals there, when it also became the remarkable : common burying place for the poorer people of Jeru- “ Blessed be God who hath created the mountains salem. Our Saviour expressed the state of the blessed
and the hills, by sensible images; such as paradise, Abraham's bo- And hath endued me with strength to finish the som, or, which is the same thing, a place to recline book of salvation : next to Abraham at table in the kingdom of heaven. He shall rejoice us with good tidings and reports,
on this prophet. He shall show us a token for good ;
in 1726, they were sold by public auction, and came And the end of his miracles he shall cause to ap- into the possession of the Rev. John Van der Hagen, a proach us."
reformed minister of the same place. Several of the Versions have a peculiarity in their
In 1733, Jo, Christ. Wolf described these MSS. in terminations :
the fourth volume of his Bibliotheca Hebræa, p. 79.
A few years ago I had the singular good forture to And they shall be to a satiety of sight to all flesh.
purchase the whole of these at Utrecht; å.collection VULGATE.
of MSS., which Dr. Kennicott complains that he could And thei schul ben into fyllpng of sigt to all fleshe. not by any entreaties obtain the privilege of collating.
Old MS. BIBLE.
These are his own words, Wolfius, (Bib. Heb. iv. And they shall be as a vision to all flesh.
79–82,) memorat codices 10. olim penes SchultinSEPTUAGINT..
gium ; quorum plurimi postea erant penes Rev. Joh. And the wicked shall be punished in hell till the Van der Hagen. Usum Codd. Hagenianorum obtirighteous shall say,—It is enough. CHALDEE.
nere nulla potuit à me precatio.” Dissert. Gener. p.
78. sub Cod. 84. Dr. Kennicott supposed that three They shall be an astonishment to all flesh;
of those MSS. had been collated for him : but in this So that they shall be a spectacle. to all beings. I believe he was mistaken; as he was also in suppos
ing that only the greater part of the ten MSS. of The end of the prophecy of Isaiah the prophet. Schulting had fallen into the hands of Mr. Van der Praise to God who is truly praiseworthy. ARABIC.
Hagen; for the fact is, the whole ten were purchased One of my old Hebrew MSS. after the twenty-first library, being precisely those described by Wolfius, as
by Van der Hagen, and the same ten are now in my verse repeats the twenty-third : “ And it shall come to above. I have collated the Prophet Isaiah throughout, pass that from one new moon'to another, and from one Sabbath to another, shall all flesh come to worship added their testimony in many places to the various
in two of the most ancient of these MSS.; and have before me, saith the Lord.”
readings collected by Kennicott and De Rossi.' The MASORETIC Notes.
very bad state of my health, and particularly of my Number of verses in this book, 1295. eyes, prevented a more extensive collation of these Middle verse, --Chap. xxxiii. 21.
very ancient and invaluable MSS. Some of the oldest Masoretic sections, 26.
are without any date. They are marked with the ten
first letters of the alphabet. Cod. C. was written pin chazak, Be strong.
A. D. 1076,-D. in 1286,4G. in 1215,-H, `in In the course of these notes the reader will have 1309,-1. in 1136. In most of these there is an often observed two MSS. of the Septuagint referred ample harvest of important various readings. to by Bp. Lowth, and marked 1. B. 11., 1. D. 11. They Bishop Lowth, in giving an account of his labours are both in the British Museum. The former contains on this prophet, takes a general view of the difficulties the prophets, and was written about the tenth or ele- and helps he met with in his work. This being of venth century; and because it once belonged to Pacho- considerable importance, I shall lay an abstract' of it mius, patriarch of Constantinople, in the beginning of before the reader, as a proper supplement to the prethe sixteenth century, the bishop often quotes it by ceding sheets. He observes : the title MS. Pachom. The other contains many of ** The Masoretic punctuation,— by which the pronunthe historical books, beginning with Ruth, and ending ciation of the language is given, and the forms of the with Ezra; and has also the Prophet Isaiah, This several parts of speech, the construction of the words, MS. consists of two parts,--one apparently written in the distribution and limits of the sentences, and the the eleventh or twelfth century; the other, in the be- connexion of the several members, are fixed,—is in efginning of the fourteenth. Dr. Grabe and Dr. Woide, fect an interpretation of the Hebrew text made by the as well as Bp. Lowth, considered these MSS. of great Jews of late ages, probably not earlier than the eighth value and authority.
century; and may be considered as their translation of It may be necessary to say something of the He- the Old Testament. Where the words unpointed are brew MSS. which I have also frequently quoted. The capable of various meanings, according as they may be collations of Kennicott and De Rossi have been long variously pronounced and constructed, the Jews by their before the public; and to describe them would be , pointing have determined them to one meaning and conuseless. The collections of the latter Bp. Lowth had struction ; and the sense which they thus give is their never seen, else he could have strengthened his autho- sense of the passage, just as the rendering of a transrities : these, for the first time, I have in the preced-lator into another language is his sense. ing notes incorporated with Bishop Lowth's references, have been considered as part of the Hebrew text, and and thus added double strength to the learned prelate's as giving the meaning of it on no less than Divine auauthorities. But of my own I should say something, thority. Accordingly our public translations in the as they form no part of the above collections; and yet modern tongues, for the use of the Church among Proare among the oldest MSS. known to exist. Inde- testants, and so likewise the modern Latin translations, pendently of rolls, which contain only the Megillah, are for the most part close copies of the Hebrew pointed Esther, and the Pentateuch, they are ten in number, text, and are in reality only versions at second hand, and formerly belonged to the Rev. Cornelius Schulting, translations of the Jews' interpretation of the Old Tes. a Protestant minister of Amsterdam. After his death tament,
on this prophet “ To what a length an opinion lightly taken up, and to meet with a Greek translator very unworthy of him, embraced with a full assent without due examination, there being hardly any book of the Old Testament so may be carried, we may see in another example of ill rendered in that Version as this of Isaiah. much the same kind. The learned of the Church of “ The Arábic Version is sometimes referred to as Rome, who have taken the liberty of giving transla- verifying the reading of the Septuagint, being, for the iions of Scripture in the modern languages, have for most part at least, taken from that Version. the most part subjected and devoted themselves to a “ The Chaldee paraphrase of Jonathan ben Uzziel, prejudice equally groundless and absurd. The Council made about or before the time of our Saviour, though of Trent declared the Latin translation of the Scrip- it often wanders from the text in a wordy allegorical tures, called the Vulgate, which had been for many ages explanation, yet very frequently adheres to it closely, in use in their Church, to be authentic; a very am- and gives.a verbal rendering of it; and accordingly is biguous term, which ought to have been more precisely sometimes of great use in ascertaining the true readdefined than the fathers of this council chose to de- ing of the Hebrew text.,fine it. Upon this ground many contended that the “ The Syriac Version stands next in order of time. Vulgate Version was dictated by the Holy Spirit;, at but is superior to the Chaldee in usefulness and author least was providentially guarded against all error; was ity, as well in ascertaining as in explaining the Hebrew consequently of Divine authority, and more to be re- text. It is a close translation of the Hebrew language garded than even the original Hebrew and Greek texts. into one of near affinity to it. It is supposed to have
* But a very fruitful source of error proceeded from been made as early as the first century. the Jewish copyists consulting more the fair appearance
" The fragments of the three Greek Versions of of their copy than the correctness of it, by wilfully Aquila, Symmachus, and Theodotion, all made in the leaving mistakes uncorrected, lest by erasing they should second century, which are collected in the Hexapla of diminish the beauty and the value of the transcript, (for Montfaucon, are of considerable use for the same instance, when they had written a word or part of a purpose. word wrong, and immediately saw their mistake, they “The Vulgate, being for the most part the translaleft the mistake uncorrected, and wrote the word anew tion of Jerome, made in the fourth century, is of serafter it ;) their scrupulous regard to the eyenness and vice in the same way, in proportion to its antiquity. fulness of their lines, which induced them to cut off In referring to Dr. Kennicott's Collections, I have from the ends of lines a letter or letters for which there given the whole number of manuscripts or editions was not sufficient room, (for they never divided a word, which concur in any particular reading; what proporso that the parts of it should belong to two lines,) and tion that number bears to the whole number of collated to add to the ends of lines letters wholly insignificant, 'copies which contain the Book of Isaiah, may be seen by way of expletives to fill up a vacant space : their by comparing it with the catalogue of copies collated, custom of writing part of a word at the end of a line, which is given at the end of that book in the doctor's where there was not room for the whole, and then giv- edition of the Hebrew Bible. ing the whole word at the beginning of the next line. “ Among the manuscripts which have been collated,
“ These circumstances considered, it would be the I consider those of the tenth, eleventh, and twelfth most astonishing of all miracles, if the Hebrew writings centuries as ancient, comparatively and in respect of of the Old Testament had come down to us through the rest. Therefore in quoting a number of manutheir hands absolutely pure, and free from all mistakes scripts, where the variation is of some importance, I whatsoever.
have added, that so many of that number are ancient, “ The ancient Versions, as the principal sources of that is, are of the centuries above mentioned. emendation, and highly useful in rectifying as well as - “ The design of the notes is to give the reasons and in explaining the Hebrew text, are contained in the authorities on which the translation is founded ; to recLondon Polyglot.
tify or to explain the words of the text; to illustrate “ The Greek Version, commonly called the Septua- the ideas, the images, and the allusions of the prophet, gint, or of the seventy interpreters, probably made by by referring to objects, notions, and customs which pedifferent hands, (the number of them uncertain,) and at culiarly belong to his age and his country ; and to point different times, as the exigence of the Jewish Church out the beauties of particular passages. If the reader at Alexandria and in other parts of Egypt required, is would go deeper into the mystical sense, into theologiof the first authority, and of the greatest use in cor-cal, historical, and chronological disquisitions, there are recting the Hebrew text, as being the most ancient of many learned expositors to whom he may have recourse, all; and as the copy from which it was translated ap- who have written full commentaries on this prophet, to pears to have been free from many errors which after which title the present work has no pretensions. The wards by degrees got into the text. But the Greek sublime and spiritual uses to be made of this peculiarly Version of Isaiah is not so old as that of the Penta- evangelical prophet, must be all founded on a faithful teuch by a hundred years and more, having been made representation of the literal sense which his words conin all probability after the time of Antiochus Epiphanes, tain. This is what I have endeavoured closely and when the reading of the prophets in the Jewish syna- exactly to express.” gogues began to be practised; and even after the building of Onias' temple, to favour which there seems to In conclusion, it may be necessary to give some achave been some artifice employed in a certain passage count of what I have ventured to superadd to the laof Isaiah (chap. xix. 18) in this Version. And it un- bours of this very learned prelate. After consulting fortunately happens that Isaiah has had the hard fate (the various commentators, who have spent much time Concluding observations
on this prophet. and labour in their endeavours to illustrate this prophet, While I have cautiously handled those passages, the I found their interpretations of many of the most im- application of which was dubious, I have taken care to portant prophecies strangely different, and often at va- give my opinion with firmness on those which seem to riance. Former commentators have taken especial have no other meaning than what they derive from their care to bring forth in the most prominent point of view application to the great work of redemption by Jesus all those passages which have been generally under- Christ, and the glory that should follow the outpouring stood to refer to our blessed Lord, and the Christian of his Spirit. Many readers will no doubt suppose that dispensation. Later critics, especially those on the I should have dwelt more on the spiritual parts of this continent, have adopted the Jewish plan of interpreta- inimitable book; but to this there would be scarcely tion, referring the parts belonging to the Messiah in his any end. Who could exhaust the stores of this prosufferings, &c., to the prophet himself, or to the chil- phet! and if any thing were left unsaid, some would dren of the captivity in their state of suffering ; and still be unsatisfied, to say. nothing of the volume being those passages which speak of the redemption of the thereby swollen beyond all reasonable bounds. I have world, and the glorious state of the Christian Church, marked enough for the reader's meditation ; and have they apply to the deliverance of the Israelites from the thrown out a sufficient number of hints to be improved Babylonish captivity. It is really painful to see what by ministers of the word of God. To another class labour and learning these critics spend to rob the pro- it may appear too critical ; but this chiefly applies to phet of his title of evangelical ; and to show that even the learned bishop, whose plan, as by far the best in the sacred writers of the New Testament, in their ap- my judgment, I have followed ; and whose collection plication of select passages to our Lord, only followed of various readings I felt it my duty to complete, a the popular custom of accommodating passages of the thing that none of his editors have attempted before. Sacred Writings to occurrences and events, to which I have therefore added the various readings collected their leading circumstances bore some kind of resem- by De Rossi to those of Dr. Kennicott, which the blance, the application being only intended to convey bishop bad cited as authorities, on which he built his the idea of similitude, and not of identity.
alterations and critical conjectures. 250
INTRODUCTION TO THE BOOK
PROP HET JEREMIA H.
THE Prophet Jeremiah, son of Hilkiah, was of the sacerdotal race, and a native of
Anathoth, a village in the tribe of Benjamin, within a few miles of Jerusalem, which had been appointed for the use of the priests, the descendants of Aaron, Josh. xxi. 18. He was called to the prophetic office when very young; probably when he was fourteen years of age, and in the thirteenth of the reign of Josiah, A. M. 3375, B. C. 629. He continued to prophesy till after the destruction of Jerusalem by the Chaldeans, which took place A. M. 3416; and it is supposed that about two years after he died in Egypt. Thus it appears that he discharged the arduous duties of the prophetic office for upwards of forty years.
Being very young when called to the prophetic office, he endeavoured to excuse himself on account of his youth and incapacity for the work; but, being overruled by the Divine authority, he undertook the task, and performed it with matchless zeal and fidelity in the midst of a most crooked and perverse people, by whom he was continually. persecuted, and whom he boldly reproved, often at the hazard of his life.
His attachment to his country was strong and fervent; he foresaw by the light of prophecy the ruin that was coming upon it. He might have made terms with the enemy, and not only saved his lifc, bút have gained ease and plenty ; but he chose rather to continue with his people, and take his part in all the disasters that befell them.
After the destruction of Jerusalem, Nebuchadnezzar having made Gedaliah governor of Judea, the fractious Jews rose up against him, and put him to death; they then escaped to Tahpanhes in Egypt, carrying Jeremiah with them; who, continuing to testify against their wickedness and idolatry, at length fell a victim to his faithfulness : they filled up the measure of their iniquity, as tradition reports, by stoning the prophet to death. God marked this murderous outrage by his peculiar displeasure ; for in a few years after they were almost all miserably destroyed by the Chaldean armies, which had invaded Égypt; and even this destruction had been foretold by the prophet himself, chap. xliv: “ They were consumed by the sword and by the famine until there was an end of them, a small remnant only escaping,” ver. 14, 27, 28.
The pitch of desperate wickedness to which the Jews had arrived previously to their captivity was truly astonishing. They had exhausted all the means that infinite mercy, associated with infinite justice, could employ, for the salvation of sinners; and they became in consequence desperately wicked; no wonder, therefore, that wrath fell upon them to the uttermost. It seems that their hardness and darkness had proceeded to such lengths that they abandoned themselves to all the abominations of idolatry to avenge themselves on God, because he would not bear with their continual profligacy. Were ever people more highly favoured, more desperately ungrateful, or more signally punished! What a lesson is their history to the nations of the earth, and especially to those who have been favoured with the light of revelation !
I should have entered into a particular discussion relative to the history of those times mentioned by this prophet, had they not passed already in review in the Books of Kings and Chronicles ; in which much of the historical parts of this prophet has been anticipated ;