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Israel encouraged


to trust in God. give you rest." There may be a sincere penitent, That compass yourselves about with sparks" Who walking in darkness, having no light of salvation ; for heap the fuel round about”] “200 megozeley, accenthis is the case of all when they first begin to turn to dentes, Syr.; forte legerunt pro 'yxa meazzerey 'T'X9 God. What should sueh do? They should trust, be- meirey; nam sequitur 718 ur."-Secker. Lud. Calieve on, the Lord Jesus, who died for them, and lean pellus, in his criticism on this place, thinks it should upon his all-sufficient merits for the light of salvation be '9789 meazzerey, from the Sepluagint, xaTiO XUOVTES. which God. has promised.. Thus acting, they will There are others who are widely different from soon have a sure trust and confidence that God for those already described.' Without faith, repentance, Christ's sake has forgiven them their sin, and thus or a holy life, they are bold in their professed confithey shall have the light of life.

dence in God-presumptuous in their trust in the Verse 10. That obeyelh the voice of his servant- mercy of God; and, while destitute of all preparation “ Let him hearken unto the voice of his servant”) for and right to the kingdom of heaven, would think For you shomea, pointed as the participle, the Septua- it criminal to doubt their final salvation! Living in gint and Syriac read you yishma, future or impera- this way, what can they have at the hand of God tive. This gives a much more elegant turn and dis- but an endless bed of sorrow! Ye shall lie down in tribution to the sentence.

Verse 11. Ye that kindle a fire] The fire of their But there is a general sense, and accordant to the own kindling, by the light of which they walk with design of the prophecy, in which these words may be security and satisfaction, is an image designed to ex, understood and paraphrased: Behold, all ye that kindle press, in general, human devices and mere worldly a fire--provoke war and contention; compass yourpolicy, exclusive of faith, and trust in God; which, selves about with sparks-stirring up seditions and rethough they flatter themselves for a while with plea-. bellions :' walk in the light of your fire-go on in your sing expectations and some appearance of success, lust of power and restless ambition. Ye shall lie shall in the end turn to the confusion of the authors. down in sorrow-it will turn to your own perdition, Or more particularly, as Vitringa explains it, it may See the Targum. , This seems to refer to the restless mean the designs of the turbulent and factious Jews spirit of the Jews, always stirring up confusion and , in the times succeeding those of Christ, who, in pur-strife ; rebelling against and provoking the Romans, suit of their own desperate schemes, stirred up the till at last their city was taken, their temple burnt to war against the Romans, and kindled a fire which the ground, and upwards of a million of themselves consumed their city and nation.

destroyed, and the rest led into captivity!



The prophet exhorts the children of Abraham to trust in the Lord; and briefly, but beautifully, describes the

great blessedness which should be the consequence, 1-3. Then, turning to the Gentiles, encourages them : to look for a portion in the same salvation, 4, 5; the everlasting duration of which is majestically described, 6. And as it is everlasting, so is it sure to the righteous, notwithstanding all the machinations of their enemies, 7, 8. The faithful, then, with exultation and joy, lift their voices, reminding God of his wondrous works of old, which encourage them to look now for the like glorious accomplishment of these promises, 9-11. In answer to this the Divinity is introduced comforting them under their trials, and telling them that the deliverer was already on his way to save and to establish them, 12-16. On this the prophet turns to Jerusalem to comfort and congratulate her on so joyful a prospect. She is represented, by a bold image, as a person lying in the streets

, under the intoxicating effects of the cup of the Divine wrath, without a single person from among her own people appointed to give her consolation, and trodden under the feel of her enemies ;- but, in the time allotted by the Divine providence, the cup of trembling shall be laken out of her hand, and put into that of her oppressors ; and she shall drink it no more again

for ever, 17–22. 4.M.C. 3292. HEARKEN to me, "ye thatp. 2Look unto Abraham your B. c. cit. 112 Olymp. XVU. 1. follow after righteousness, father, and unto Sarah that bare Olymp. XVII. 1, Nume Pompilii, ye that seek the LORD : look you: d for I called him alone, Numa Pompilii, R. Roman., 4.

R. Roman., 4. unto the rock whence 'ye are and blessed him, and increashewn, and to the hole of the pit whence ye ed him. are digged.

3 For the LORD fshall comfort Zion : he Ver. 7. Rom. ix. 30, 31, 32. Rom. iv. 1, 16; Heb. xi. Gen. xxiv, 1, 35.- - Psa. cii. 13; chap. xl. 1; lii. 9; Ixi. 2;

11, 12.
Gen. xii. 1, 2.

livi. 13; Zech. i. 17; ver. 12.

The rock) Abraham. Verse 1. Ye thal follow after righteousness). The The hole of the pit] Sarah ; as explained in ver. 2, people who, feeling the want of salvation, seek the Verse 2. I called him alone] As I have made out Lord in order to be justified.

of one a great nation; so, although ye are brought low

cir. annum

R. Roman., 4.

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The great happiness


of the godly. A.M. cir

. 3292. will comfort all her waste places ;| 8 For a the moth shall eat them 4. M. cir. 3292 Olymp. XVII. 1. and he will make her wilderness up like a garment, and the worm Olymp. XVII. 1. Numæ Pompilii, like Eden, and her desert & like shall eat them like wool : but my Numæ Pompilir,

R. Roman., 4. the garden of the Lord: joy and righteousness shall be for ever, gladness shall be found therein, thanksgiving and my salvation from generation to generation. and the voice of melody.

9 Awake, awake, w put on strength, O arm 4 Hearken unto me, my people ; and give of the LORD; awake, *as in the ancient days, ear unto me, O my nation : for a law shall in the generations of old. y Art thou not it proceed from me, and I will make my judg- that hath cut z Rahab, and wounded the ment to rest i for a light of the people. a dragon ?

5 My righteousness is near; my salvation 10 Art thou not it which hath b dried the is gone forth, 1 and mine arms shall judge the sea, the waters of the great deep; that hath people : m the isles shall wait upon me, and made the depths of the sea a' way for the non mine arm shall they trust.

ransomed to pass over? 6 • Lift up your eyes to the heavens, and 11 Therefore the redeemed of the LORD look upon the earth beneath: for Pthe heavens shall return, and come with singing unto Zion; shall vanish away like smoke, 4 and the earth and everlasting joy shall be upon their head : shall wax old like a garment, and they that they shall obtain gladness and joy; and sordwell therein shall die in like manner : but my row and mourning shall flee away. salvation shall be for ever, and my righteous- 12 I, even I, am hed that comforteth you : ness shall not be abolished.

who art thou, that thou shouldest be afraid 7 Hearken unto me, ye that know right- • of a man that shall die, and of the son of eousness, the people sin whose heart is my man which shall be made fas grass ; law; + fear ye' not the reproach of men, 'nei- 13 And forgettest the LORD thy Maker, that ther be ye afraid of their revilings.

hath stretched forth the heavens, and laid the

-i Chap

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&Gen. xüï. 10; Joel ii. 3. ch Chap. ii. 3 ; xlii. 4.

w Psa. xciii. 1; Rev. xi. 17. Psa. xliv. I. -y Jub xxvi. xlii. 6. Chap. xlvi. 13; lvi. l; Rom. i. 16, 17.- Psa. lxvii. 12. - -2 Psa. Ixxxvii. 4;lxxxix. 10. Psa. Ixxiv. 13, 14; chap. 4; xcviii. 9. Chap. 1x. 9. Rom. i. 16. Chap. xl. 26. / xxvii. 1; Ezek. xxix. 3.-—-ab Exod. xiv. 21; chap. xliii. 16. P Psa. cii. 26; Matt. xxiv. 35 ; 2 Pet. iii. 10, 12.- Chap. I. 9. Chap. xxxv. 10.-d Ver. 3; 2 Cor. i. 3. Psa. cxvui. 6. Ver. 1. s Psa. xxxvii. 31. i Matt. x. 28; Acts y. 41. Chap. xl. 6; 1 Pet. i. 24. Job ix. 8; Psa. civ. 2; chap. xl. u Chap. 1. 9.—Psa. xliv. 23; chap. lii. 1.

22; xlii. 5; xliv. 24.


and minished, yet I can restore you to happiness, and isedek, righteousness, is used in such a great latitude greatly multiply your number.

of signification, for justice, truth, faithfulness, goodness, Verse 4. My people— my nation—“O ye peoples mercy, deliverance, salvation, &c., that it is not easy

-0 ye nations”) For 'by ammi, my people, the Bod- sometimes to give the precise meaning of it without leian MS, and another read Ob ummim, ye peoples; much circumlocution; it means here the faithful comand for pixs leumi, my nation, the Bodleian MS. and pletion of God's promises to deliver his people. eight others, (two of them ancient,) and four of De Verse 6. My salvation shall be for ever] Aben Ezra Rossi's, read oors leummim, ye nations, and so the says, From this verse divines have learnt the immortalSyriac in both words. The difference is very material ; ity of the soul. Men shall perish as the earth does, for in this case the address is made, not to the Jews, because they are formed from it; but they who are but to the Gentiles, as in all reason it ought to be ; for filled with the salvation of God shall remain for ever. this and the two following verses express the call of the See Kimchi. Gentiles, the islands, or the distant lands on the coasts Verse 11. They shall obtain gladness and joy ; and of the Mediterranean and other seas. It is also to be sorrow and mourning shall flee away.] Nineteen MSS. observed that God in no other place calls his people and the two oldest editions have 10° yasigu ; and fortyox's leummi, my nation. It has been before remark-six MSS. of Kennicotl's and ten of De Rossi's, and ed that transcribers frequently omitted the final mem the same two editions, and agreeably to them the Chalof nouns plural, and supplied it, for brevity's sake, and dee and Syriac, have 1031 venasu ; , and so both words sometimes for want of room at the end of a line, by a are expressed, chap. xxxv. 10, of which place this is small stroke thus hgy; which mark, being effaced or a repetition. And from comparing both together it overlooked, has been the occasion of many mistakes of appears that the I vau in this place is become by misthis kind.

take in the present text final; nun of the preceding A law shall proceed from me] The new law, the word. Gospel of our Lord Jesus. Kimchi


“ After the Verse 13. Of the oppressor, as if he, &c.)“The war with Gog and Magog the King Messiah will teach caph in 0x3 keasher seems clearly to have changed the people to walk in the ways of the Lord.”

its situation from the end of the preceding word to Verse 5. My righteousness is near] The word pas the beginning of this; or rather, to have been omitted

Jerusalem encouraged


to trust in God.

cir, annum

R Roman., 4.

R. Roman., 4.

A cir: 3292. foundations of the earth; and hast the cup of his fury; " thou hast A M. cir

. 3292. Olymp. XVII. 1. feared continually every day be- drunken the dregs of the cup of Olymp. XVII. 1. Nume Pornpilii, cause of the fury of the oppressor, trembling, and wrung them out. Numæ Pompilii,

as if he h were ready to destroy? 18 There is none to guide her i and where is the fury of the oppressor ? among all the sons whom she hath brought

14 The captive exile hasteneth that he may forth; neither is there any that taketh her be loosed, * and that he should not die in the by the hand of all the sons that she hath pit, nor that his bread should fail.

brought up. 15 But I am the LORD thy God, that 1 di- 19 sThese two things are come unto thee, vided the sea, whose waves roared : The who shall be sorry for thee? desolation, and LORD of hosts is his name.

u destruction, and the famine, and the sword: 16 And I have put my words in thy mouth, by whom shall I comfort thee?and I have covered thee in the shadow of Thy sons have sainted, they lie at the mine hand, that I may plant the heavens, head of all the streets, as a wild bull in a and lay the foundations of the earth, and say net : they are full of the fury of the LORD, unto Zion, Thou art my people.

the rebuke of thy God. 17 P Awake, awake, stand up, O Jerusalem, 21. Therefore hear now this, thou afflicted, which 4 hast drunk at the hand of the LORD and drunken, ' but not with wine.

20 W

1 Or, made himself ready.-i Job xx. 7.- Zech. ix. ll. See Deut. xxviii. 28, 34 ; Psa. Ix. 3 ; lxxv. 8; Ezek. xxiii. 32, Psa lxxiv. 13; Job xxvi. 12; Jer. xxxi. 35. Deut. xviii. 18; 33, 34; Zech. xi. 2 ; Rev. xiv. 10. * Chap. xlvii. 9. - Heb. chap. lix. 21; John 11. 34. Chap. xlix. 2.0 Chap. Ixv. 17; , happened.- Lo Heb. breaking: - Amos vii. 2. W Lam. ii. 11, lavi 22.- Chap. lii. 1,- Job xxi. 20; Jer. xxi. 15, 16. 12. - See ver. 17; Lam. ii. 15.

by mistake there, because it was here. That it was desolation by famine, and destruction by the sword, there the Septuagint show by rendering 7p'yan ham- taking the terms alternately: of which form of conmetsikech 91 Bovtos de, of him that oppressed thee. "struction see other examples. De S. Poësi, Heb. And so they render this word in both its places in this Præl. xixn, and Prelim. Dissert. p. xxx. The Chaldee verse. The Vulgate also has the pronoun in the first paraphrast, not rightly understanding this, has had reinstance; furoris ejus qui te tribulabat.Dr. Juób. course to the following expedient : “Two afflictions The correction seems well founded; I have not con- are come upon thee, and when four shall come upon formed the translation to it, because it makes little dif- thee, depredation, and destruction, and the famine, ference ir. the sense.

and the sword” Five MSS. have ayn haraab, Verse 14. The captive exile hasteneth that he may without the conjunction / vau; and so the Septuagint be loosed" He marcheth on with speed, who cometh and Syriac. to set free the captive"] Cyrus, if understood of the By whom shall I comfort thee—“ Who shall comfort temporal redemption from the captivity of Babylon ; in thee"] A MS., the Septuagint, Syriac, Chaldee, and the spiritual sense, the Messiah, who comes to open the Vulgate have it in the third person, jpnia' yenachamech, prison to them that are bound.

which is evidently right. Verse 16. That I may plant the heavens" To Verse 20. As a wild bull "in a net : they are full, stretch out the heavens”). In the present text it is $0.-"Like the oryx taken in the toils; drenched to pesh lintoa, to plant the heavens :" the phrase is cer- the full”] Perhaps Dixho 779 michmerah metainly very obscure, and in all probability is a mistake leim.” SECKER. The demonstrative 7 he, prefixed to for nous lintoth. · This latter is the word used in 2x52 meleim, full, seems improper in this place. ver. 13 just before, in the very same sentence ; 'and Verse 21. Drunken, but not with wine] Æschylus this phrase oceurs very frequently in Isaiah, chap. xl. has the same expression :22, xlii. 5, xliv. 24, xlv. 12; the former in no other

Αόινoις εμμανεις θυμωμασι: Eumen. 863. place. It is also very remarkable, that in the Sama

Intoxicated with passion, not with wine. ritan text, Num. xxiv. 6, these two words are twice changed by mistake, one for the other, in the same Schultens thinks that this circumlocution, as he calls verse.

it, gradum adfert incomparabiliter majorem ; and that Verse 17. The cup of trembling] oborrin dva cos it means, not simply without wine, but much more than haltarelah, " the cup of mortal poison,” veneni morti- with wine. Gram. Heb. p. 182. See his note on Job feri.—Montan. This may also allude to the ancient xxx. 38. custom of taking off criminals by a cup of poison. The bold image of the cup of God's wrath, often Socrates is well known to have been sentenced by the employed by the sacred writers, (see note on chap. i. Areopagus to drink a cup of the juice of hemlock, which 22,) is nowhere handled with greater force and suboccasioned his death. See the note on Heb. ii. 9, and limity than in this passage of Isaiah, ver. 17-23. Jesee also Bishop Lowth's note on ver. 21.

rusalem is represented in person as staggering under Verse 19. These two thingsdesolation, and de- the effects of it, destitute of that assistance which she struction, and the famine, and the sword] That is, might expect from her children; not one of them being

· y Jer. 1. 34.

God will confound all


the enemies of his Church. A. M. cir. 3292. B. C. cir. 712.

22 Thus saith thy Lord the 23 But ? I will, put it into the A. M. cir. 3292. Olymp. XVII. 1. LORD, and thy God y that pleadeth hand of them that afflict thee; Olymp. XVII. 1. Numa Pompilii

, the cause of his people, Behold I which have. said to thy soul, Nutna Pompilii, R. Roman., 4. have taken out of thine hand the Bow down, that we may go over:

R. Roman., 4. cup of trembling, even the dregs of the cup of and thou hast laid thy body as the ground, my fury; thou shalt no more drink it again: and as the street, to them that went over. :- Jer. xxv. 17, 26, 28; Zech. xii. 2.

a Psa. lxvi, 11, 12. able to support or to lead her. They, abject and amazed, Blessings to these, to those distributes ills ; lie at the head of every street, overwhelmed with the To most he mingles both : the wretch decreed greatness of their distress; like the oryx entangled in To taste the bad unmixed, is cursed indeed : a net, in vain struggling to rend it, and extricate him- Pursued by wrongs, by meagre famine driven, self. This is poetry of the first order, sublimity of the He wanders outcast both of earth and heaven." highest character:

Pope. Plato had an idea something like this : “Suppose," Verse 23. Them that afflict theem Them who opsays he, “God had given to men a medicating potion press thee") “ The Septuagint, Chaldee, Syriac, and inducing, fear, so that the more any one should drink Vulgate appear to have read 7'ld monayich, as in chap. of it, so much the more miserable he should find him- xl. 26.”-SECKER. self at every draught, and become fearful of every thing Which have said to thy soul, Bow down—“Who both present and future; and at last, though the most say to thee, Bow down thy body”] A very strong courageous of men, should be totally possessed by fear : and most expressive description of the insolent pride and afterwards, having slept off the effects of it, should of eastern conquerors; which, though it may seem become himself again.” De Leg. i., near the end. He greatly exaggerated, yet hardly exceeds the strict truth. pursues at large this hypothesis, applying it to his own An example has already been given of it in the note purpose, which has no relation to the present subject. to chap. xlix. 23. I will here add one or two more.. Homer places two vessels at the disposal of Jupiter, “ Joshua called for all the men of Israel ; and said unto one of good, the other of evil. He gives to some a the captains of the men of war that went with him, potion mixed of both; to others from the evil vessel only: Come near, put your feet upon the necks of these kings,” these are completely miserable. Iliad xxiv. 527-533. Josh. x, 24. * Adonibezek said, Threescore and ten Δοιοι γαρ σε πιθοι κατακειαται εν Διος ουδει

kings, having their thumbs and their great toes cut off, Δωρων, οία διδωσι, κακων, έτερος δε εαων.

gathered their meat under my table : As I have done, so “Ω μεν καμμιξας δώη Ζευς τερπικεραυνος, ,

hath God requited me," Judg. i. 7. The Emperor VaΑλλοτε μεν σε κακό όγε κυρεται, αλλοτε δ' εσόλω".

lerianus, being through treachery taken prisoner by Sapor “Ω δε κε των λυγρων δωη, λωβησον εθηκε.

king of Persia, was treated by him as the basest and Και ε κακη βουβρωσεις επι χθονα διαν ελαυνει: .

most abject slave : for the Persian monarch commanded Φουσα δ' ουσε θεοισι σετιμενος, oυσι βρoσoισιν.

the unhappy Roman to bow himself down, and offer

him his back, on which he set his foot, in order to 16

Two urns by Jove's high throne have ever-stood, mount his chariot or horse, whenever he had occasion.
The source of evil one, and one of good ; .

-LACTANTIUS, De Mort. Persec. cap. v. Aurel. Vic,
From thence the cup of mortal man he fills, TOR. Epitome, cap. xxxii.-L.

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Jerusalem, in manifest allusion to the strong figure employed in the close of the preceding chapter, is repre-

sented as fallen asleep in the dust, and in that helpless state bound by her enemies. The prophet, with all
the ardour natural to one who had such joyful news to communicate, bids her awake, arise, put on her best
attire, (holiness to the Lord,) and ascend her lofty seat; and then he delivers the message he had in charge,
a very consolatory part of which was, that " no more should enter into her the uncircumcised and the pol-
luted," 1-6. . Awaking from her stupefaction, Jerusalem sees the messenger of such joyful tidings on the
eminence from which he spied the coming deliverance. She expresses, in beautiful terms, her joy at the
news, repeating with peculiar elegance the words of the crier, 7. The rapturous intelligence, that Jehovah
was returning to resume his residence on his holy mountain, immediately spreads to others on the watch,
who all join in the glad acclamation, 8 ; and, in the ardour of their joy, they call to the very ruins of Jeru-
salem to sing along with them, because Jehovah maketh bare his holy arm in the sight of all the nations,
and all the ends of the earth are about to see the salvation of Israel's God, 9, 10. To complete the deli-
verance, they are commanded to march in triumph out of Babylon, earnestly exhorted to have nothing to do
with any of her abominations, and assured that Jehovah will guide them in all their way, 11, 12. The
prophet then passes to the procuring cause of this great blessedness to the house of Israel in particular,
and to the world in general, viz., the humiliation, sufferings, death, burial, resurrection, and ascension of
Jesus Christ; 'a very celebraled and clear prophecy, which takes up the remainder of this and the whole
of the following chapter.

1 cir, annun


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Zion is encouraged


to trust in the Lord. BACO.CO. 372. AWAKE, *awake; put on thy | 4 For thus-saith the Lord God, 4. M. cir. 3292. Olymp. XVII. 1. strength, o Zion; put on thy My people went down aforetime Olymp. XVII. I. Numa Pompilii, beautiful garments, 0 Jerusalem, into h Egypt to sojourn there; Numæ Pompili, R. Roman., 4. the holy city: for • henceforth and the Assyrian oppressed them R. Roman, 4 there shall no more come into thee The un- without cause. circumcised and the unclean.

5 Now therefore, what have I here, saith the 2 • Shake thyself from the dust; arise, and Lord, that my people is taken away for nought? sit down, O Jerusalem : 'loose thyself from the they that rule over them make them to howl, bands of thy neck, O captive daughter of Zion. saith the Lord; and my name continually

3 For thus saith the LORD, 6-Ye have sold every day is i blasphemed, yourselves for nought; and ye shall be re- 6 Therefore my people shall know my name. deemed without money.

therefore they shall know in that day that I Chap. li. 9, 17:- Neh. xi. 1; chap. xlvii. 2; Matt. iv. 5 ; Zech. ii. 7.-8 Psa. xliv. 12; chap. xlv; 13; Jer. xv. Rev. xxi. 2. ---Chap. xxxv. 8; İx. 21; Nah, i. 15.

d Rev.

add Gen. xlvi. 6; Acts vii. 14. — Ezek. XX, 27; Rom. I11. 27. - See chap, iii. 26 ; li. 23.


tom. ix. p. 85, 12mo. Besides the six steps to SoloVerse 1. There shall no more come into thee--For mon's throne, there was a footstool of gold fastened to *3' yabo, “shall come,” xas lebo, " to come,” is the the seat, 2 Chron. ix. 18, which would otherwise have reading of five of Kennicott's and two of De Rossi's been too high for the king to reach, or to sit on conMSS. This is the better reading, 235 70rxh 'g kị veniently. lo yosiph lebo, There shall not add to come.!! - When Thetis comes to wait on Vulcan to request

The uncircumcised and the unclean.) Christians armour for her son, she is received with great respect, have turned many passages of the prophets against the , and seated on a silver-studded throne, a chair of cereJews; and it is not to be wondered at, that in support mony, with a footstool :of their obstinate and hopeless cause, they should press

Την μεν επεισα καθεισεν επι Βρονου αργυροηλου, a prophecy into their service, and make it speak

Καλου, δαιδαλεου: υπο δε θρηνυς ποσιν ήεν. against the Christians. This Kimchi does in this

Iliad xviii. 389. place; for he says, by the uncircumcised, the Christians are meant; and by the unclean, the Turks. The Chris- * High on a throne, with stars of silver graced, tians are uncircumcised; and the Turks,-though cir

And various artifice, the queen she placed ; cumcised, and using many ablutions, are unclean in

A footstool at her feet."


. their works.

Ο γας θρονος αυτος μονον ελευθεριός εστι καθεδρα συν Verse 2. Sit down, 0 Jerusalem—"Ascend thy Fotodiw. Athenæus, v. 4. A throne is nothing more lofty seat, 0 Jerusalem") The literal rendering here than a handsome sort of chair with a footstool.”—L. is, according to our English translation, "arise, sit ;'' Verse 4. Thus saith the Lord God) 77177-1978 Ado-' on which a very learned person remarks : '“ So the old nai Yehovah; but Adonai is wanting in twelve of Kenversions. But sitting is an expression of mourning in nicott's, five of De Rossi's, and two of my own MSS. , Scripture and the ancients; and doth not well agree and by the Septuagint and Arabic. Some MSS. have with the rising just before.” It does not indeed agree, IRJY 717 Yehovah tsebaoth, “ Lord of hosts ;” and according to our ideas; but, considered in an oriental others have O'nsx 117' Yehovah Elohim, “ Lord God.” light, it is perfectly consistent. The common manner Verse 5. They that rule over them—“ They that are of sitting in the eastern countries is upon the ground lords over them.”] For thon moshelo, singular, in the or the floor with the legs crossed. The people of bet- text, more than a hundred and twenty, MSS. (De ter condition have the floors of their chambers or divans Rossi says, codices innumeri, .“ numberless copies") covered with carpets for this purpose ; and round the have rhon moshelaiv, plural, according to the Masochamber broad couches, raised a little above the floor, retical correction in the margin ; which shows that spread with mattresses handsomely covered, which are the Masoretes often superstitiously retained apparent called sofas. When sitting is spoken of as a posture mistakes in the text, even when they had sufficient of more than ordinary state, it is quite of a different evidence to authorize the introduction of the true kind ; and means sitting on high, on a chair of state or reading. throne called the musnud; for which a footstool was Make them to howl-“ Make their boast of it”] For necessary, both in order that the person might raise him-losboot yeheililu, “ make them to howl,” five MSS., self up to it, and for supporting the legs when he was (two ancient,) have is too yehalelu,“ make their boast;" placed in it. “Chairs,” says Sir John Chardin, “ are which is confirmed by the Chaldee paraphrast, who never used in Persia, but at the coronation of their kings. renders it jnanya mishtabbechin. Ulaloo is not only The king is seated in a chair of gold set with jewels, the cry itself, but also the name of the funeral song of three feet high. The chairs which are used by the the Irish. The Arabs have a cry very much resempeople in the east are always so high as to make a bling this. footstool necessary.

And this proves the propriety of Verse 6. Therefore my people shall know] The the style of Scripture, which always joins the footstool word pas lachen, occurring the second time in this Lo the throne.” (Isa. lxvị. 1; Psa. cx. 1.) Voyages, Iverse, seems to be repeated by mistake. It has no


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