Page images
PDF
EPUB

1

d

-e Ver. 5.

m

[ocr errors]

God never forsakes

ISAIAH.

those who trust in him. A. M. cir. 3292. 13 *I have raised him up in :16 They shall be ashamed, and A. M. cir. 3292.

B. C. cir. 712.
Olymp. XVII. 1. righteousness, and I will y direct also confounded, all of them : they Olyınp. XVIII.
Numæ Pompilii, all his ways: he shall z build shall go to confusion together Numæ Pompilii,
R. Roman., 4.

R. Roman., 4.
my city, and he shall let go my that are 8 makers of idols.
captives, not for price nor reward, saith the 17 h But Israel shall be saved in the LORD
LORD of hosts.

with an everlasting salvation : ye shall not be 14 Thus saith the LORD, The labour of ashamed nor confounded world without end.

of the Sabeans, men of stature, shall come over heavens; God himself that formed the earth unto thee, and they shall be thine : they shall and made it; he hath established it, he created come after thee ; ? in chains they shall come it not in vain, he formed it to be inhabited : over, and they shall fall down unto thee, they I am the Lord; and there is none else. shall make supplication unto thee, saying, 19 I have not spoken in ' secret, in a dark

Surely God is in thee; and there is none place of the earth : I said not unto the seed else, there is no God.

of Jacob, Seek ye me in vain : “ I the LORD 15 Verily thou art a God f that hidest thy- speak righteousness, I declare things that are self, O God of Israel, the Saviour.

right. * Chap, xli. 2. --y Or, make straight.- -22 Chron. xxxvi. d] Cor. xiv. 25.

Psa. xliv. 24; chap. viii.
22, 23; Ezra i. l, &c.; chap. xliv. 28. Chap. hi. 3; see 17; lvii. 17. Chap. xliv. 11. - Chap. xxvi. 4; ver. 25;
Rom. iii. 24.—Psa. Ixviii. 31 ; lxxii. 10, 11; chap. xlix. 23; Rom. xi. 26. — Chap, xlii. 5.- Ver. 5.- -Deut. xxx. Il ;
Lx. 9, 10, 14, 16; Zech. viii. 22, 23.-Psa. cxlix. 8.

Chap. xlviii. 16. Psa. xix. 8; cxix. 137, 138.
Do ye question me concerning my children ? people, to the spirited denunciation of the confusion of
And do ye give me directions concerning the work idolaters, and the final destruction of idolatry ; con-
of my hands ?"

trasted with the salvation of Israel, not from temporal Verse 13. I have raised him up] This evidently captivity, but the eternal salvation by the Messiah, refers to Cyrus, and to what he did for the Jews ; and the phrase, to the ages of eternity. But there is not

strongly marked by the repetition and augmentation of informs us by whom he was excited to do it.

Verse 14. The labour of Egypt—" The wealth of only a sudden change in the sentiment, the change is Egypt.”] This seems to relate to the future admission equally observable in the construction of the sentences; of the Gentiles into the Church of God. Compare Psa. into two distichs of the longer sort of verse.

which, from the usual short measure, runs out at once

See Ixviii. 32 ; lxxii. 10; chap. lx. 6-9. And perhaps Prelim. Dissert. p. 66, &c. There is another instance these particular nations may be named, by a metonymy of the same kind, and very like to this, of a sudden common in all poetry, for powerful and wealthy nations transition in regard both to the sentiment and construcin general. See note on chap. lx. 1.

tion in chap. xlii. 17. The Sabeans, men of stature-_"The Sabeans, tall of stature"] That the Sabeans were of a more majes, of the beauty of the distich, is imperfect in the present

“His adversaries”] This line, to the great diminution tic appearance than common, is particularly remarked by Agatharchides, an ancient Greek historian quoted by expressed, as it is in the line following.

text : the subject of the proposition is not particularly

The version Bochart, Phaleg, ii. 26, τα σωματα εστι των κατοικουνsw ažinoywrapa. So also the Septuagint understand of the Septuagint happily supplies the word that is lost : it, rendering it avoges úfrdos, “ tall men.” And the

of avtIXEILEVOI QUTW, “his adversaries,” the original

word was 1'78 tsaraiv.-L. same phrase, nya 'VIX anshey middah, is used for persons of extraordinary stature, Num. xiii. 32, and

Verse 18. He formed it to be inhabited—“For he Chron. XX. 6.

formed it to be inhabited”] An ancient MS. has '7 kı

before nowh lashebeth; and so the ancient Versions. They shall make supplication unto thee—“They shall in suppliant guise address thee”] The conjunction

Verse 19. I have not spoken in secret, in a dark

In opposition to the manner in i vau is supplied by the ancient Versions, and confirm- place of the earth] ed by fifteen MS$, of Kennicott's, (seven ancient,)

which the heathen oracles gave their answers, which thirteen of De Rossi's, and six editions, 75581 veelayich.

were generally delivered from some deep and obscure

Such was the seat of the Cumean Sybil :Three MSS. (two ancient) omit the 1 vau before yohx

antrum. elayich at the beginning of the line.

Excisum Euboicæ latus ingens rupis Verse 15. Verily thou art a God that hidest thyself]

VIRG, Æn. vi. 42. At present, from the nations of the world.

"A cave cut in the side of a huge rock." O God of Israel, the Saviour] While thou revealest Such was that of the famous oracle at Delphi ; of thyself to the Israeliles and savest them.

which, says Strabo, lib. ix., paos d'Eivas To MONTEJOV Verse 16. They shall be ashamed—“ They are autpov xosdov jeta Bafous, ou para supuocquor. “The ashamed”] The reader cannot but observe the sudden oracle is said to be a hollow cavern of considerable transition from the solemn adoration of the secret and depth, with an opening not very wide." And Diodorus, mysterious nature of God's counsels in regard to his giving an account of the origin of this oracle, says

[ocr errors]

cavern,

cir. annum

Unto the Lord

CHAP. XLV.

belongeth salvation A. M. cir. 3292.

20 Assemble yourselves and the ends of the earth : for I am 4. M. cir. 3292 B. C. cir. 712.

B. C. . Olymp. XVII. 1. come; draw near together, ye God, and there is none else. Olymp. XVII. I Numæ Pompilii , that are escaped of the nations : 23 s I have sworn by myself, Numæ Pompilii

, R. Roman. 4.

R. Roman., 4. n they have no knowledge that the word is gone out of my mouth set up the wood of their graven image, and in righteousness, and shall not return, That pray unto a god that cannot save.

unto me every knee shall bow, every tongue 21 Tell ye, and bring them near; yea, let shall swear. them take counsel together: who hath de- 24 Surely, shall one say, In the Lord have clared this from ancient time? who hath told I wrighteousness and strength : even to him it from that time? have not I the LORD? Pand shall men come; and y all that are incensed there is no God else beside me; a just God against him shall be ashamed. and à Saviour: there is none beside me. 25 2 In the LORD shall all the seed of Israel 22 Look ụnto me, and be ye saved, all be justified, and a shall glory.

Chap. xliv. 17, 18, 19; xlvi. 7; xlviii. 7; Rom. i. 22, 23. Rom. xiv. 11; Phil. ii. 10. — Gen. xxxi. 53; Deut. vi. Chap. xli. 22; xliii. 9 ; xliv. 7; xlvi. 10; xlviii. 14.—p Ver. 13; Psa. Ixui. 11 ; chap. Ixv. 16. Or, Surely he shall say of 5, 14, 18; chap. xliv. 8; xlvi. 9; xlviü. 3, &c.—Psa. xxii. me, In the LORD is all righteousness and strength.- w Jer. 27; lxv. 5. - Psa. !xv. 3 ; xcviii. 3. - Gen. xxii. 16; Jer. xxiii. 5; I Cor. i. 30.- Heb. righteousnesses.

:-s Chap. xli. xlix. 13; li. 14; Amos vi. 8; Heb. vi. 13.

Il-Ver. 17.---Il Cor. i. 31. " that there was in that place a great chasm or cleft in above to Cræsus, from the oracle at Delphi, which was : the earth; in which very place is now situated what is If Cræsus march against Cyrus, he shall overthrow a called the Adytum of the temple." Adusov oandalov, great empire : he, supposing that this promised him 750 aroxpupov Mepos tau iepou. Hesych.“ Adytum success, fought, and lost his own, while he expected to means a cavern, or the hidden part of the temple.”. destroy that of his enemy. Here the quack demon

I the Lord speak righteousness, I declare things that took refuge in his designed ambiguity. He predicted are right—" I am Jehovah, who speak truth, who the destruction of a great empire, but did not say give direct answers.”] This also is said in opposition which it was; and therefore he was safe, howsoever to the false and ambiguous answers given by the hea- the case fell out. Not one of the predictions of God's theń oracles, of which there are many noted examples ; prophets is conceived in this way. none more so than that of the answer given to Crosus Verse 21. Bring them near; yea, let them take when he marched against Cyrus, which piece of his counsel together] For 1891" yoatsu or yivvaatsu, let, tory has some connexion with this part of Isaiah's pro- them consult, the Septuagint read wyth yedau, let them phecies. Let us hear Cicero's account of the Delphic know : but an ancient MS. has 1791 yoedu, let them answers in general, and of this in particular : Sed jam come together by appointment ; which may probably be ad te venio,

the true reading.

Verse 22. Osancte Apollo, qui umbilicum certum terrarum obsides,

Look unto me, and be ye saved, sc.) Unde superstitiosa primum sæva evasit vox fera.

This verse and the following contain a plain prediction

of the universal spread of the knowledge of God through Tuis enim oraculis Chrysippus totum volumen imple- Christ; and so the Targum appears to have undervit, partim falsis, ut ego opinor; partim casu veris, ut stood it; see Rom. xiv. 11 ; Phil. ii. 10. The readfit in omni oratione sæpissime ; partim flexiloquis eting of the Targum is remarkable, viz., 'mains 1973 obscuris, ut interpres egeat interprete, et sors ipsa ad ithpeno lemeymri

, look to my Word, 8 noyos, the Lord sortes referenda sit; partim ambiguis, et quæ ad dialect- Jesus. icum deferenda sint. Nam cum sors illa edita est opu

Verse 23. I have sworn by n:yself) ingina belentissimo regi Asiæ,

meymri, by my WORD: and the word-bind pithgam, Cræsus Halym penetrans magnam pervertet opum vim: or saying, to distinguish it from the personal substanhostium vim sese perversurum putavit ; pervertit aùtem tial WORD' meymra, mentioned before. See the suam. Utrum igitur eorum accidisset, verum oracu- Targum. lum fuisset. De Divinat. ii. 56. Mountainous countries, The word is gone out of my mouth—"Truth is gone and those which abounded in chasms, caves, and grot- forth from my mouth; the word'] So the Septuagint tos, were the places in which oracles were most fre- distinguish the members of the sentence, preserving quent. The horror and gloom inspired by such places the elegance of the construction and the clearness of were useful to the lying priests in their system of de- the sense. ception. The terms in which those oracles were con- - Verse 24. Surely, shall one say, In the Lord have ceived, (they were always ambiguous, or equivocal, or I righteousness and strength—“Saying, Only to Jefalse, or illusory,) sometimes the turn of a phrase, or a HOVAH belongeth salvation and power") A MS. omits peculiarity in idiom or construction which might be sli, unto me ; and instead of DX5 li amar, he said lurned pro or con, contained the essence of the oracu- or shall say unto me, the Septuagint read, in the copy lar declaration. Sometimes, in the multitude of guesses, which they used, vax's lemor, saying. For xq' yabo, one turned out to be true; at other times, so equivocal HE shall come, in the singular, twelve MSS. (three anwas the oracle, that, however the thing fell out, the de- cient) read 1x3* yabeu, plural ; and a letter is erased at claration could be interpreted in that way; as in the the end of the word in two others and so the AlexThe vanity of idols

-ISAIAH.

and idolaters. andrine copy of the Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate | knowledged that all his success came from Jehovah. read it. For mp3 tsedakoth, plural, two MSS. read And this sentiment is in effect contained in his decree mpir isidkath, singular ; and so the Septuagint, Syriac, or proclamation, Ezra i. 2: “ Thus saith Cyrus, king of and Chaldee.

Persia, The Lord God of heaven hath given me all the Probably these are the words of Cyrus, who ac- kingdoms of the earth,” &c.

cir. annum

CHAPTER XLVI. The idols of Babylon represented as so far from being able to bear the burden of their volaries, that they

themselves are borne by beasts of burden into captivity, 1, 2, This beautifully contrasted with the tender care of God, in bearing his people from first to last in his arms, and delivering them from their distress, 3, 4.

The prophet then, with his usual force and elegance, goes on to show the folly of idolatry, and the utter inability of idols, 5–7. From which he passes with great ease to the contemplation of the attributes and perfections of the true God, 8–10. Particularly that prescience which foretold the deliverance of the Jews from the Babylonish captivity, with all its leading circumstances; and also that very remole event of which it is the type in the days of the Messiah, 11-13. B.C. CP.322 BEL boweth down, Nebo made, and I will bear; even I A. M. cit 3292. Olymp. XVII. 1. stoopeth, their idols were will carry, and will deliver you. Olymp. XVII. 1.

cir. annum Numa Pompilii

, upon the beasts, and upon the 5 h To whom will ye liken me, Numa Pompilii; R. Roman., 4. cattle: your carriages were heavy and make me equal, and

R. Roman., 4.

compare loaden; b they are a burden to the weary beast. me, that we may be like?

2 They stoop, they bow down together ; 6 i They lavish gold out of the bag, and they could not deliver the burden, but a them- weigh silver in the balance, and hire a goldselves are gone into captivity.

smith; and he maketh it a god: they fall 3 Hearken unto me, O house of Jacob, and down, yea, they worship. all the remnant of the house of Israel, which 7 « They bear him upon the shoulder, they are borne by me from the belly, which are carry him, and set him in his place, and he carried from the womb :

standeth; from his place shall be not remove; 4 And even to your old age f I am he; and yea,'' one shall cry unto him, yet can he not even to hoar hairs & will I carry you : I have answer, nor save him out of his trouble.

a Chap. xxi. 9; Jer. 1, 2; li. 44. b Jer. x. 5. - Jer. xlviii. Psa. cii. 27; Mal. ii. 6.- -8 Psa. xlviii. 14; lxxi. 18. 7. - Heb. their soul.- € Exod. xix, 4; Deut. i. 31 ; xxxii. Chap. xl. 18, 25,- i Chap. xl. 19; xli. 6; xliv. 12, 19; Jer, 11; Psa. Ixxi. 6: chap. Ixiii. 9.

x. 3. Jer. x. 5. Chap. xlv. 20. NOTES ON CHAP. XLVI.

lity of the false gods of the heathen. He like an inVerse 1. Their carriages were heavy loaden-dulgent father had carried his people in his arms, " Their burdens are heavy"] For DJ'nnoj nesuothey- a man carrieth his son,” Deut. i. 31. chem, your burdens, the Septuagint had in their copy tected them, and delivered them from their distresses: ON'NNV) nesuotheyhem, their burdens.

whereas the idols of the heathen are forced to be carVerse 2. They could not deliver the burden-" They ried about themselves, and removed from place to could not deliver their own charge”] That is, their place, with great labour and fatigue, by their worshipworshippers, who ought to have been borne by them. pers; nor can they answer, or deliver their votaries, See the two next verses. The Chaldee and Syriac when they cry unto them. Versions render it in effect to the same purpose, those Moses, expostulating with God on the weight of the that bear them, meaning their worshippers; but how charge laid upon him as leader of his people, expresses they can render sus massa in an active sense, I do not that charge under the same image of a parent s carryunderstand.

ing his children, in very strong terms : Have I conFor xs lo, nol, mbi velo, and they could not, is the ceived all this people ? have I begotten them? that reading of twenty-four of Kennicott's, sixteen of De thou shouldest say unto me, Carry them in thy bosom, Rossi's, and two of my own MSS. The added 1 vau as a nursing father beareth the sucking child, unto the gives more elegance to the passage.

land which thou swarest unto their fathers;" Num. But themselves" Even they themselves"] For xi. 12.

, . ). 2 Verse 7. They bear him upon the shoulder-and set naphshan, with more force.

him in his place.) This is the way in which the HinVerse 3. Which are borne by me from the belly-doos carry their gods; and indeed so exact a picture “Ye that have been borne by me from the birth”) is this of the idolatrous procession of this people, that The prophet very ingeniously, and with great force, the prophet might almost be supposed to have been contrasts the power of God, and his tender goodness. sitting among the Hindoos when he delivered this pro effectually exerted towards his people, with the inabi- phecy;-WARD's Customs,

66

as He had pro

[ocr errors]

ki כי נפשם vemaphsham, an ancient MS. has ונפשם

The attributes and

CHAP. XLVII.

perfections of God. A. M. cir. 3292. 8 Remember this, and shows the man that executeth

A. M. cir. 3292. B. C. cir. 712.

my

B. C. cir. 712. Olymp. XVII. 1. yourselves men: " bring it again counsel from a far country: yea, Olymp. XVII. 1. Numæ Pompuii, to mind, Oye transgressors. "I have spoken it, I will also Nomæ Pompilii, R. Roman., 4. 9 Remember the former bring it to pass; I have pur

R. Roman., things of old : for I am God, and there is none posed it, I will also do it. ? else; I am God, and there is none like me, | 12 Hearken unto me, ye

12 Hearken unto me, ye stout-hearted, 10 » Declaring the end from the beginning, that are far from righteousness : and from ancient times the things that are not : 13 * I bring near my righteousness; it shall yet done, saying, 4 My counsel shall stand, not be far off, and my salvation shall not and I will do all my pleasure :

tarry: and I will place a salvation in Zion for 11 Calling a ravenous bird from the east, Israel my glory. 'm Chap. xliv. 19; xlvij. 7.- Deut. xxxii. 7. Chap. xlv.

s Heb. the man of my counsel. - Chap. xliv. 28; xlv. 13. 5, 21. - Chap. xlv. 21. -4 Psa. xxxiii. 1]; Prov. xix. 21 ; - Num. xxiii. 19.-Psa. Ixxvi. 5.- Rom. x.3. - Chap. XXI. 30; Acts v. 39; Heb. vi. 17. - Chap. xli. 2, 25.

li. 5; Rom. i. 17; vi. 21.- Hab. ii. 3.- • Chap. xii. 11. Pindar has treated with a just and very elegant The work of the artificer's hand with the axe; ridicule the work of the statuary even in comparison With silver and with gold it is adorned ; with his own poetry, from this circumstance of its With nails and with hammers it is fastened, that it being fixed to a certain station. « The friends of Py

may not totter. theas," says the Scholiast, “ came to the poet, desiring Like the palm-tree they stand stiff, and cannot him to write an ode on his victory. Pindar demanded speak; three drachms, (mina, I suppose it should be,) for the They are carried about, for they cannot go : ode. No, say they, we ean have a brazen statue for Fear them not, for they cannot do harm; that money, which will be better than a poem. How. Neither is it in them to do good.” ever, changing their minds afterwards, they came and offered him what he had demanded." This gave him Verse 8. Show yourselves men] wwxnn hithoshathe hint of the following ingenious exordium of his shů. This word is rather of doubtful derivation and ode :

signification. It occurs only in this place : and some Ουκ ανδριανοποιος ειμ'

of the ancient interpreters seem to have had something “Ωστελινυσσοντα μ' εργαζε

different in their copies. The Vulgate read VIM σθαι αγαλματ' επ' αυτας βαθμιδος

hithbosheshu, take shame to yourselves; the Syriac “Εσσαοτ'. Αλλ' επι πασας

13ann hithbonenu, consider with yourselves ; the SepΟλλαδος εν σ' ακατω γλυκειαοιδα

tuagint Orsvažeta' perhaps 1528777 hithabbelu, groan or Στειχαπ’ Αιγινας διαγγελ

mourn, within yourselves. Several MSS. read wvwn λοισόσι Λαμπωνος υιος

hithosheshu, but without any help to the sense. Πυθέας ευρυσθενης

Verse 11. Calling a ravenous bird from the eastΝικη Νεμβιους παγκρατιου στεφανον. Nem. ν.

Calling from the east the eagle"] A very proper emThus elegantly translated by Mr. Francis in a note blem for Cyrus, as in other respects, so particularly to Hor. Carm. iv. 2. 19.

because the ensign of Cyrus was a golden eagle,

AETOE xpuoous, the very word o'y ayit, which the " It is not mine with forming hand

prophet' uses here, expressed as near as may be in To bid a lifeless image stand

Greek letters. Xenoph. Cyrop. lib. vii. sub. init. For ever on its base :

Kimchi says his father understood this, not of Cyrus, But fly, my verses, and proclaim

but of the Messiah. To distant realms, with deathless fame,

From a far country—“From a land far distant"] That Pytheas conquered in the rapid race."

Two MSS. add the conjunction I vau, yixdi umeerets ; Jeremiah, chap. x. 3–5, seems to be indebted to and so the Septuagint; Syriac, and Vulgate. Isaiah for most of the following passage :

Verse 12. Hearken unto me, ye stout-hearted “ The practices of the people are altogether vanity: This is an address to the Babylonians, stubbornly bent For they cut down a tree from the forest ; on the practice of injustice towards the Israelites.

CHAPTER XLVII. The destruction of Babylon is denounced by a beautiful selection of circumstances, in which her prosperous is

contrasted with her adverse condition. She is represented as a tender and delicate female reduced to the work and abject condition of a slave, and bereaved of every consolation, 1-4. And that on account of her cruelty, particularly to God's people, her pride, voluptuousness, sorceries, and incantations, 5-11. The folly of these last practices elegantly exposed by the prophet, 12–15. It is worthy of observation that almost all the imagery of this chapter is applied in the book of the Revelation, (in nearly the same words,) to the antitype of the illustrious capital of the Chaldean empire, viz. Babylon the GREAT.

cir. annum

D

1. 34.

Prophecy concerning the

ISAIAH.

destruction of Babylon. 1.1. C. 322: COME down, and sit in the shalt no more be called, The lady 4. M. cir

. 3292. Olymp. XVII. I. dust, 0 virgin daughter of of kingdoms.

Olymp. XVII. I.

cir, annum Numæ Pompilii, Babylon; sit on the ground: there 6 i I was wroth- with my peo- Numæ Pompilii, R. Roman., 4.

is no throne, O daughter of the ple, * I have polluted mine inher- R. Roman., 4. Chaldeans : for thou shalt -no more be called itance, and given them into thine hand : thou tender and delicate.

didst show them no mercy; upon the ancient 2 + Take the millstones, and grind meal : \hast thou very heavily laid thy yoke. uncover thy locks, make bare the leg, uncover 7 And thou saidst, I shall be na lady for the thigh, pass over the rivers.

ever: so that thou didst not a lay these things 3. • Thy nakedness shall be uncovered, yea, to thy heart, o neither didst remember the latthy shame shall be seen : • I will take ven- ter end of it. geance, and I will not meet thee as a man. 8 Therefore hear now this, thou that art given

4 As for four Redeemer, the Lord of hosts to pleasures, that dwellest carelessly, that is his name, the Holy One of Israel. sayest in thine heart, PI am, and none else

5 Sit thou 8 silent, and get thee into dark- beside me; :4 I shall not sit as a widow, ness, O daughter of the Chaldeans : " for thou neither shall I know the loss of children:

• Jer. xlviii. 18. — Chap. iii. 26. -c Exod. xi. 5; Judg. See 2 Sam. xxiv. 14; 2 Chron. xxviji. 9; Zech. i. 15. xvi. 21 ; Matt. xxiv. 41.- Chap. ii. 17; XX. 4; Jer. xiii. 22, Chap. xliii. 28. Deut. xxviii. 50.- Ver.5; Rev. xviii. 7. 26; Nah. iii. 5.- - Rom. xii. 19. - Chap. xliii

. 3, 14; Jer. Chap. xlvi. 8.

Lo Deut. xxxii. 29. p Ver. 10; Zeph. ii. 15. -&1 Sam. ii. 9. La Ver. 7; chap. xiii. 19; Dan. ii. 37. 9 Rev. xviii. 7. NOTES ON CHAP, XLVII.

are obliged to truss very high, to which there seems Verse 1. Come down, and sit in the dust"Descend, a reference in the third verse : Thy nakedness shall and sit on the dust”] See note on chap. iii. 26, and be- uncovered. on chap. lii. 2.

· Verse 3. I will not meet thee as a man" Neither Verse 2. Take the mill-stones, and grind meal — will. I suffer man to intercede with me."] "The • Take the mill, and grind corn") It was the work of verb should be pointed, or written, v'29x aphgia, in slaves to grind the corn. They used hand-mills : wa- Hiphil. ter-mills were not invented till a little before the time Verse 4. Our Redeemer" Our Avenger”] Here of Augustus, (see the Greek epigram of Antipater, a chorus breaks in upon the midst of the subject, with which seems to celebrate it as a new invention, Anthol. a change of construction, as well as sentiment, from Cephale, 653 ;) wind-mills, not until long after. It the longer to the shorter kind of verse, for one distich was not only the work of slaves, but the hardest only; after which the former subject and style are work; and often inflicted upon them as a severe pu- resumed. See note on chap. xlv. 16. nishment :

Verse 6. : I was wroth with my people] God, in the Molendum in pistrino ;: vapulandum ; habendæ com

course of his providence, makes use of great conquerpedes.

ors and tyrants as his instruments to execute his judgTERENT. Phorm. ii. 1. 19.

ments in the earth; he employs one wicked nation to

scourge another. The inflicter of the punishment may Hominem pistrino dignum. Id. Heaut. iii. 2. 19.

perhaps be as culpable as the sufferer; and may add To grind in the mill, to be scourged, to be put in to his guilt by indulging his cruelty in executing God's the stocks, were punishments for slaves. Hence a justice. When he has fulfilled the work to which the delinquent was said to be a man worthy of the mill. Divine vengeance has ordained him, he will become The tread-mill, now in use in England, is a revival of himself the object of it ; see chap. x. 5-12. God this ancient usage. But in the east grinding was the charges the Babylonians, though employed by himself work of the female slaves. See Exod. xi. 5 ; xii. 29, to chastise his people, with cruelty in regard to them. (in the version of the Septuagint ;) Matt. xxiv. 41; They exceeded the bounds of justice and humanity in Homer, Odyss. xx. 105-108. And it is the same to oppressing and destroying them; and though they were this day. • Women alone are employed to grind their really executing the righteous decree of God, yet, as corn;" Shaw's Algiers and Tunis, p. 287. “ They are far as it regarded themselves, they were only indulgthe female slaves, that are generally employed in the ing their own ambition and violence. The Prophet east at those hand-mills for grinding corn; it is ex- Zechariah sets this matter in the same light : “I was tremely laborious, and esteemed the lowest employment but a little angry, and they helped forward the afflicin the house ;" Sir J. Chardin, Harmer's Observ. i., tion;" chap. i. 15.-L.

The words denote that state of captivity to Verse 7. So that thou didst not- Because thou which the Babylonians should be reduced.

didst not"] For W ad, read by al; so two MSS., and Make bare the leg, uncover the thigh] This is re- one edition. And for In'Tix acharithah, “ the latter peatedly seen in Bengal, where there are few bridges, end of il," read your acharithecha," thy latter end ;" and both sexes, having neither shoes nor stockings, so thirteen MSS., and two editions, and the Vulgate. truss up their loose garments, and walk across, where Both the sixth and seventh verses are wanting in one the waters are not deep. In the deeper water they of my oldest-MSS.

P. 153.

« PreviousContinue »