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cir. annum

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Prophetic view of the


Gospel dispensation Jews, their restoration to their own land, and the second advent of Christ. Much of the imagery of this chapler seems to have been borrowed from the erodus from Egypt: but it is greatly enlivened by the life, sentiments, and passions ascribed lo inanimate objects ; all nature being represented as rejoicing with the people of God in consequence of their deliverance; and administering in such an unusual manner to their relief and comfort, as to induce some commentators to extend the meaning of the prophecy to the blessedness

of the saints in heaven, 1-10. B. C. cir. 329. THE wilderness and the so- Be strong, fear not : behold, 4. M. cir

. 3291. Olymp. XVI. 4.

litary place shall be glad for your God will come with ven- Olymp. XVI. 4. Numæ Pompilii, them; and the desert shall rejoice, geance, even God with a re- Numæ Pompilii, R. Roman., 3. and blossom as the rose.

compense ; he will come and R. Roman., 3. 2 b It shall blossom abundantly, and rejoice save you. even with joy and singing : the glory of Le-:5 Then the eyes of the blind shall be opened, banon shall be given unto it, the excellency and f the ears of the deaf shall be unstopped. of Carmel and Sharon, they shall see the glory 6 Then shall the 8 lame man leap as a hart, of the Lord, and the excellency of our God. and the 5 tongue of the dumb sing : for in the

3 Strengthen ye the weak hands, and con- wilderness shall i waters break out, and firm the feeble knees.

streams in the desert. 4 Say to them that are of a fearful heart, 7 And the parched ground shall become, a

Chap. Iv. 12. — Chap. xxxii. 15. - Job iv. 3, 4; Heb. (Matt. xi. 5; Mark vii. 32, &c. - Matt. xi. 5; xv. 30; rii. 12. -d Heb. hasty.

Chap. xxix. 18; xxxii. 3, 4; xxi. 14; John v. 8, 9; Acts iii. 2, &c; viit. 7; xiv. 8, &c. xlii. 7; Matt. ix. 27, &c; xi. 5; xii. 22; xx. 30, &c; xxi. 14; Chap. xxxii. 4; Matt. ix. 32, 33 ; xii. 22; xv. 30.

-i Chap. John ix. 6, 7.

xli. 18; xliii. 19; John vii. 38, 39. The various miracles our Lord wrought are the best 9. No lion shall be there; comment on this chapter, which predicts those won- · Nor shall the tyrant of the beasts come up thither : drous works and the glorious state of the Christian Neither shall he be found there ; Church. See the parallel texts in the margin.

But the redeemed shall walk in it. On this chapter Bishop Lowth has offered some im- 10. Yea, the ransomed of JEHOVAH shall return; portant emendations. I shall introduce his translation, They shall come to Sion with triumph ; as the best yet given of this singular prophecy :

And perpetual gladness shall crown their heads. 1. The desert and the waste shall be glad ;

Joy and gladness shall they obtain ; And the wilderness shall rejoice, and flourish :

And sorrow and sighing shall flee away. 2 Like the rose shall it beautifully flourish;

NOTES ON CHAP. XXXV. And the well-watered plain of Jordan shall also Verse 1. Shall be glad] Dive yesusum ; in one rejoice :

MS. the mem seems to have been added ; and DIV The glory of Lebanon shall be given unto it, sum is upon a rasure in another. None of the ancient The beauty of Carmel and of Sharon;

versions acknowledge it ; it seems to have been a These shall behold the glory of JEHOVAH, mistake, arising from the next word beginning with The majesty of our God.

the same letter. Seventeen MSS. have Dini yesu3. Strengthen ye the feeble hands,

sum, both vaus expressed'; and five MSS. Dwo ye. And confirm ye the tottering knees.

susum, without the vaus. Probably the true reading 4. Say ye to the faint-hearted, Be ye strong; is, “The wilderness and the dry place shall be glad." Fear ye not; behold your God!

Not for them. Vengeance will come; the retribution of God: Verse 2. Rejoice even with joy and singing"The

He himself will come, and will deliver you. well-watered plain of Jordan shall also rejoice") For 5. Then shall be unclosed the eyes of the blind; 17 veranen, the Septuagint read 777 yarden, sa

And the ears of the deaf shall be opened : sonua tou lopdavau, “ the deserts of Jordan.” Four 6. Then shall the lame bound like the hart, MSS. read na gulath ; see Josh. xv. 19: “ Irrigua

And the tongue of the dumb shall sing : Jordani ;" Houbigant. n7" gidoth, Ripæ Jordani, For in the wilderness shall burst forth waters, “the banks of Jordan;" Kennicott. See De S. Poësi And torrents in the desert :

Hebr. Prælect. xx. note. 7. And the glowing sand shall become a pool, Unto it] For ab lah, to it, nine MS$. of Kennicott's And the thirsty soil bubbling springs :

and four of De Rossi's read 75 lecha, to thee. See ibid. And in the haunt of dragons shall spring forth Verse 7. The parched ground—“The glowing

The grass with the reed and the bulrush. sand”] a sharab; this word is Arabic, qui que as 8. And a highway shall be there ;

well as Hebrew, expressing in both languages the And it shall be called The way of holiness: same thing, the glowing sandy plain, which in the hot No unclean person shall pass through it : countries at a distance has the appearance of water. But he himself shall be with them, walking in It occurs in the Koran, chap. xxiv.: “But as to the

unbelievers, their works are like a vapour in a plain, And the foolish shall not err therein :

which the thirsty traveller thinketh to be water, until,

the way,

Prophetic view of the


Gospel dispensation A. M. cir. 3291, pool, and the thirsty land 9 "No lion shall be there, nor

A. M. cir. 3291

B. C. cir. 713.
Olymp. XVI.4. springs of water: in f the habi- any ravenous beast shall go up Olymp. XVL 4
Numa Pompilii
, tation of dragons, where each lay, thereon, it shall not be found Numæ Potopilii

, R. Roman., 3. shall be grass with reeds and there ; but the redeemed shall

R. Roman., 3. rushes.

walk there : 8 And a highway shall be there, and a way, 10 And the Pransomed of the LORD shall and it shall be called, The way of holiness ; return, and come to Zion with songs and everm the unclean shall not pass over it; 'n but it lasting joy upon their heads : they shall obshall be for those : the way-faring men, though tain joy and gladness, and a sorrow and fools, shall not err therein.

sighing shall flee away. Chap. xxxiv. 13.-10r, a court for reeds, &c. m Chap. them. Lev. xxvi. 6; chap. xi. 9; Ezek. xxxiv. 25.-Chap. Bi. 1; Joel . 17; Rev. xxi. 27.- Or, for he shall be with li. 11. 4 Chap. xxv. 8; lxv. 19; Rev. vii. 17; xxi. 4. when he cometh thereto, he findeth it to be nothing." pose; our last translators were misled by the authority Mr. Sale's note on this place is, " The Arabic word of the Jews, who have absurdly made a division of the serab signifies that false appearance which in the east- verses in the midst of the sentence, thereby destroying ern countries is often seen on sandy plains about noon, the construction and the sense. resembling a large lake of water in motion, and is oc- Verse 9. It shall not be found there—“ Neither casioned by the reverberation of the sun beams : 'by shall he be found there'] Three MSS. read bo celo, the quivering undulating motion of that quick succes adding the conjunction ; and so likewise the Septuasion of vapours' and exhalations which are extracted gint and Vulgate. And four MSS., one ancient, read by the powerful influence of the sun.'--Shaw, Trav. *99* yimmatsa, the verb, as it certainly ought to be, p. 378. It sometimes tempts thirsty travellers out of in the masculine form. their way; but deceives them when they come near, The redeemed shall walk there] D:5982 geulim. either going forward, (for it always appears at the Those whose forfeited inheritances are brought back same distance,) or quite vanishing." Q. Curtius has by the kinsman, Sxia goel, the nearest of kin to the mentioned it: “ Arenas vapor æstivi solis accendit ; family. This has been considered by all orthodox dicamporumque non alia, quam vasti et profundi æquoris vines as referring to the incarnation of our Lord, and species est.”—Lib. vii., c. 5. Dr. Hyde gives us the his sacrificial offering. After Dinle geulim, one of precise meaning and derivation of the word. “ Dic- De Rossi's MSS. adds Dhwy 7 ad olam, for ever. tum nomen Barca npoan habberakah, splendorem, seu “ The redeemed shall walk there for ever." splendentem regionem notat ; cum ea regio radiis so- Verse 10. The ransomed] "70 peduyey, from 1779 laribus tam copiose collustretur, ut reflexum ab arenis padah, “ to redeem by paying a price." Those for lumen adeo intensè fulgens, a longinquo spectantibus, whom a price was paid down to redeem them from ad instar corporis solaris, aquarum speciem referat ; et bondage and death. hinc arenarum splendor et radiatio, (et linguâ Persicâ Sighing shall flee away.) ang anachah. Never petito nomine,) dicitur wīmes serab, i. e., aquæ su- was a sorrowful accent better expressed than in this perficies seu superficialis aquarum species.” Annot. in strong guttural word, an-ach-ah; nearly the same with Peritsol., cap. ii.'

the Irish in their funeral wailings, och-och-on. The “ Shall spring forth") The 7 he in 17327 rebitseh whole nation express all their mournful accents by seems to have been at first D mein in MS. Bodl., these three monosyllables. whence Dr. Kennicott concludes it should be D'x17 rebitsim. But instead of this word the Syriac, Vul- This chapter contains the following parts :gate, and Chaldee read some word signifying to grow, 1. We have here blessed promises of the latter-day spring up, or abound. Perhaps 1399 paretsah, or glory. 1890 paretsu, or 73710 170 parats hachatsir, as Hou- 2. The prophet may be considered as addressing bigant reads.-L.

the teachers of the Gospel, to show them that it was Verse 8. And a highway) The word 7771 vederech their business to encourage and direct the people in is by mistake added to the first member of the sen- their expectation of redemption. tence from the beginning of the following member. 3. A promise of the manifestation of God among Sixteen MSS. of Dr. Kennicott's, seven ancient, and men is given. two of De Rossi's, have it but once; so likewise the 4. The miracles which Christ should work are exSyriac, Septuagint, and Arabic.

plicitly mentioned. Err therein.) A MS. of Dr. Kennicott's adds 12 bo, 5. The privileges of Christianity are specified ; there in it, which seems necessary to the sense ; and so the shall be, 1. Thorough teaching ; 2. Holy walking. Vulgate, per eam, “ by it.” One of De Rossi's has 6. Perfect safety. OV sham, there.

7. Complete happiness.. And But it shall be for those—"But he himself shall be 8. Final glory. with them, walking in the way.") That is, God; see The chapter shows also that no impurity should be ver. 4. “Who shall dwell among them, and set them tolerated in the Church of God; for as that is the an example that they should follow his steps.” Our mystical body of Christ, it should be like himself, withold English Version translated the place to this pur- out spot or wrinkle, or any such thing.

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Sennacherib invades Judea,


and besieges Jerusalem.


cir. annum

B. C. cir. 710.

Sonnacherib, king of Assyria, comes against Judah, and takes all the fenced cities, 1. He afterwards sends

a great host against Jerusalem ; and his ĝeneral Rabshakeh delivers an insulting and blasphemous mes

sage to Hezekiah, 2-20. Hezekiah and his people are greatly afflicted at the words of Rabshakeh, 21, 22. A. M. cir, 3291.

Now a it came to pass in the B. C. cir. 713.

6 Lo, thou trustest in the fstaff A. M. cir. 3294.

B. C. cir. 710. Olymp. XVI. 4.

fourteenth year of king He- of this broken reed, on Egypt; Olymp. XVII. 3. Numæ Pompilii

, zekiah, that Sennacherib king of whereon if a man lean, it will go Numæ Pompilii, R. Roman., 3. Assyria came up against all the into his hand, and pierce it: so is R. Roman., 6. defenced cities of Judah, and took them. Pharaoh king of Egypt to all that trust in him. A. M. cir. 3294.

2 And the king of Assyria sent 7 But if thou say to me, We trust in the Olymp. XVII. 3. Rabshakeh from Lachish to Jeru- Lord our God: is it not he, whose high places Numæ Pompilii, salem unto king Hezekiah with and whose altars Hezekiah hath taken away, R. Roman., 6.

a great army. And he stood by and said to Judah and to Jerusalem, Ye the conduit of the upper pool in the highway shall worship before this altar ? of the fuller's field.

8 Now therefore give 8 pledges, I pray thee, 3 Then came forth unto him Eliakim, Hil. to my master the king of Assyria, and I will kiah's son, which was over the house, and give thee two thousand horses, if thoạ be able Shebna the scribe, and Joah, Asaph's son, on thy part to set riders upon them. the recceder.

9 How then wilt thou turn away the face of 4 • And Rabshakeh said unto them, Say ye one captain of the least of my master's sernow to Hezekiah, Thus saith the great king, vants, and put thy trust on Egypt for chariots the king of Assyria, What confidence is this and for horsemen? wherein thou trustest?

10 And am I now come up without the LORD 5 I say, sayest thou, (but they are but against tbis land to destroy it? the LORD dvain words) • I have counsel and strength for said unto me, Go up against this land, and war : now. on whom dost thou trust, that thou destroy it. rebellest against me?

11 Then said Eliakim and Shebna and Joah * 2 Kings xviii. 13, 17; 2 Chron. xxxii. I.- b Or, secrelary. Or, but counsel and strength are for the war.- fEzek. xxix. c2 Kings xviii. 19, &c.- - Heb. a word of lips.

6, 7.- Or, hostages. The history of the invasion of Sennacherib, and of these words the other copy, 2 Kings xviii. 18, adds, the miraculous destruction of his army, which makes 7h00 18 18p” vaiyikreu el hammelech, “ And they the subject of so many of Isaiah's prophecies, is very demanded audience of the king." properly inserted here as affording the best light to Verse 3. Í say—“ Thou hast said”] Fourteen many parts of those prophecies, and as almost neces- MSS. (three ancient) of Kennicott's and De Rossi's sary to introduce the prophecy in the thirty-seventh have it in the second person, nous amarta ; 'and so the chapter, being the answer of God to Hezekiah's prayer, other copy, 2 Kings xviii. 20. which could not be properly understood without it. But they are but vain words] ONDU 937 debar seWe find the same narrative in the Second Book of phathayim, a word of the lips. Thou dost talk about Kings, chaps. xviii., xix., xx. ; and these chapters of counsels, but thou hast none; about strength, but there Isaiah, xxxvi., xxxvii., xxxviii., xxxix., for much the is' none with thee. greater part, (the account of the sickness of Hezekiah Verse 6. The staff of this broken reed] A weakonly excepted,) are but a different copy of that narra-ened, faithless ally. tion. The difference of the two copies is little more On Egypt] The Bodl. MS. adds 759 melech, the king than what has manifestly arisen from the mistakes of of Egypt; and so perhaps the Chaldee might read. transcribers; they mutually correct each other, and It will go into his hand, and pierce it] Will take most of the mistakes may be perfectly rectified by a subsidy after subsidy, and do nothing for it. collation of the two copies with the assistance of the Verse 7. But if thou say—“But if ye say"] Two ancient versions. Some few sentences, or members ancient MSS. have 173x7 tomeru in the plural number; of sentences, are omitted in this copy of Isaiah, which so likewise the Septuagint, Chaldee, and the other copy, are found in the other copy in the Book of Kings 2 Kings xviii. 22. Whether these omissions were made by design or mis- Ye shall worship before this altar—" To worship take may be doubted.-L,

only before this altar"] See 2 Chron. xxxii. 12.

Verse 10. Am I now come up without the Lord] NOTES ON CHAP. XXXVI.

Probably some apostate Israelitish priest might have Verse 3. Then came forth unto him] Before I encouraged the king of Assyria by telling him that

cir. annum

R. Roman., 6.

my master

The blasphemous message


of Rabshakeh. 1. M. cirr

. 3394: unto Rabshakeh, Speak, I pray one of his fig-tree; and drink 4. M. cir. 3294. Olymp. XVII. 3. thee, unto thy servants in the ye every one the waters of his, Olymp. XVII. 3. Numæ Pompilii, Syrian language ; for we under- own cistern;

Numæ Pompilii, R. Roman., 6. stand it: and speak not to us in

in 17 Until I come and take you the Jews' language, in the ears of the people away to a land like your own land, a land of that are on the wall.

corn and wine, a land of bread and vineyards. 12 But Rabshakeh said, Hath

18 Beware lest Hezekiah persuade you, saysent me to thy master and to thee to speak ing, The Lord will deliver us. Hath


of those words ? hath he not sent me to the men the gods of the nations delivered his land out that sit upon the wall, that they may eat their of the hand of the king of Assyria ? own dung, and drink their own piss with you? 19 Where are the gods of Hamath and

13 Then Rabshakeh stood, and cried with Arphad? where are the gods of Sepharvaim? a loud voice in the Jews' language, and said, and have they delivered Samaria out of my Hear

ye the words of the great king, the king hand ? of Assyria.

20 Who are they among all the gods of 14 Thụs saith the king, Let not Hezekiah these lands, that have delivered their land out deceive you : for he shall not be able to de- of my hand, that the LORD should deliver Je

rusalem out of


hand ? 15 Neither let Hezekiah make you trust in 21 But they held their peace, and answered the Lord, saying, The Lord will surely de-him not a word : for the king's commandment liver us : this city shall not be delivered into was, saying, Answer him not. the hand of the king of Assyria.

22 Then came Eliakim, the son of Hilkiah, 16 Hearken not to Hezekiah: for thus saith that was over the household, and Shebna the the king of Assyria, Make i an agreement scribe, and Joah, the son of Asaph, the rewith me by a present, and come out to me: corder, to Hezekiah with their clothes rent, * and eat ye every one of his vine, and every and told him the words of Rabshakeh.

liver you,

Or, Seek my favour by a present.

i Heb. Make with me a blessing. Zech. iii. 10.

JEHOVAH had given him à commission against Je- Verse 17. And vineyards] The other copy, 2 Kings rusalem.

xvii. 32, adds here: "A land of oil-olive, and of Verse 12. That they may eat their own dung-honey; that ye may live, and not die : and hearken !! Destined to eat their own dung") Sorb leechol, that not unto Hezekiah when he seduceth-you." they may eat, as our translation literally renders it. But Verse 19. Where are the gods] Many MSS. add the Syriac reads and meechol, that they may not eat, the conjunction here also ; And, or But, where are the perhaps rightly, and afterward ningni umishshethoth, gods, &c, or ninen ushethoth, to the same purpose. Seventeen For other matters relative to this chapter, see the of Dr. Kennicott's MSS., ten-of De Rossi's, and two of notes on 2 Kings xviii. 13, &c. my own, read upin meymey, the water ; mine have Of Sepharvaim] The other copy, 2 Kings xviii. 34, DN'S 'Din meymey sheneyhem, and write in the mar- adds, of “Henah and Ivah.” gin onhan pin meymey regaleyhem, the water of Have they delivered] 'Il vechi. The copulative is their feet, a modest way of expressing urine. not expressed here by the Septuagint, Syriac, Vulgate,

Verse 15. This city shall not be delivered] 50 and three MSS. ; nor is it in any other copy. Ib. Houve-lo, AND this city. Ten of Kennicott's MSS., and bigant reads 'n hachi, with the interrogative particle ; nine of De Rossi's, with one (ancient) of my own, add a probable conjecture, which the ancient Versions above the conjunction.

quoted seem to favour. Verse 16. Make an agreement) nona berachah, Verse 21. But they held their peace" But make a blessing with me ; i. e., Give me a ransom for the people held their peace”] the city, and I will not destroy it ; give me the yearly haam, the people, is supplied from the other copy, and tribute thou hast promised.

is authorized by a MS. which inserts it after ink otho,

העם The word


Hezekiah is greatly distressed, and sends to Isaiah the prophet to pray for him, 1-4. Isaiah returns a com

fortable answer, and predicts the destruction of the king of Assyria and his army, 5–7. Sennacherib, hearing that his kingdom was invaded by the Ethiopians, sends a terrible letter to Hezekiah, to induce him

cir. annum

cir. annum

Isaiah's comfortable answer


to King Hezekiah. to surrender, 9-13. Hezekiah goes to the temple, spreads the letter before the Lord, and makes a most affecting prayer, 14-20. . Isaiah is sent to him to assure him that his prayer is heard; that Jerusalem shall be delivered; and that the Assyrians shall be destroyed, 21-35. That very night a messenger of God slays one hundred and eighty-five thousand Assyrians, 36. . Sennacherib returns to Nineveh, and is

slain by his own sons, 37, 38. A. M. cir. 3294. B. C. cir. 710.

AND - it came to pass, when heard, wherewith the servants of 4. M. cir. 3294, Olymp. XVI1, 3. king Hezekiah heard it, that the king of Assyria have blas- Olymp. XVII. 3. Numæ Pompili, he rent his clothes, and covered phemed me.

Numa Pompilii, R. Roman., 6. himself with sackcloth, and went 7 Behold, I will d send a blast

R. Roman., 6. into the house of the LORD.

upon him, and he shall hear a rumour, and 2 And he sent Eliakim, who was over the return to his own land ; and I will cause him household, and Shebna the scribe, and the to fall by the sword in his own land. elders of the priests covered with sackcloth, 8 So Rabshakeh returned, and found the unto Isaiah the prophet the son of Amoz. king of Assyria warring against Libnah : for

3 And they said unto him, Thus saith Heže- he had heard that he was departed from Lakiah, This day is a day of trouble, and of chish. rebuke, and of blasphemy: for the children 9 And he heard say concerning Tirhakah are come to the birth, and there is not strength king of Ethiopia, He is come forth to make to bring forth.

war with thee.. And when he heard it, he 4 It may be the LORD thy God will hear sent messengers to Hezekiah, saying, the words of Rabshakeh, whom the king of 10 Thus shall ye speak to Hezekiah king Assyria his master bath sent to reproach the of Judah, saying, Let not thy God, in whom living God, and will reprove the words which thou trustest, deceive thee, saying, Jerusalem the LORD thy God hath heard: wherefore lift shall not be given into the hand of the king up thy prayer for the remnant that is left.

of Assyria. 5 So the servants of king Hezekiah came 11 Behold, thou hast heard what the kings to Isaiah.

of Assyria have done to all lands by destroy6 And Isaiah said unto them, Thus shall ye ing them utterly; and shalt thou be delivsay unto your master, Thus saith the LORD, ered? Be not afraid of the words that thou hast 12 Have the gods of the nations delivered

a 2 Kings xix. I, &c.

_6 Or, provocation.

Heb. found.

d Or, put a spirit into him.


Verse 9. He heard say concerning Tirhakah king Verse 6. Thus shall ye say) 110n na ko tomerun, of Ethiopia) When he heard that Tirhakah king of “ thus shall ye (explicitly, earnestly, and positively) Ethiopia had come out against him, then he sent that say." The paragogic y nun deepens and increases the blasphemous manifesto which is contained in ver. sense.

10-13, to terrify Hezekiah into submission. How Verse 7. I will send a blast_“I will infuse a spirit much was this like, in words and spirit, to the maniinto him") “ ning joog nothen bo ruach never signifies festo sent to the Parisians by the late Duke of any thing but putting a spirit into a person : this was Brunswick, from the plains of Champaigne, in 1792, TVEULA Dsidas, the spirit of deceit.—-Secker. “ I will which was the forerunner of the mighty torrents of send a blast”—I do not think that Archbishop Secker human blood which was shed in the French revoluhas hit the true meaning of these words. I believe tion! And what a blast of God fell upon him and his nii ruach means here a pestilential wind, such as the army-nearly like that which fell on the army of Sen, Arabs call simoom, that instantly suffocates both man nacherib ! and beast; and is what is termed " the angel of the He sent messengers" He sent messengers again"] Lord,” God's messenger of death to the Assyrians, The word v vaiyishma, " and he heard,” which ver. 36.

occurs the second time in this verse, is repeated by Verse 8. Rabshakeh returned] From chap. xxxvi. mistake from the beginning of the verse. It is omit2, we learn that the king of Assyria had sent Rab- ted in an ancient MS. It is a mere tautology, and shakeh from Lachish to Jerusalem ; now it is likely embarrasses the sense. The true reading instead of that Rabshakeh had 'besieged that place, and that the it is, dv'i veyesheb, " and he returned,” which the Sepking of Assyria had taken his station before this city, and tuagint read in this place, areoT8&te, and which is predespatched Rabshakeh against Jerusalem. But, as in the served in the other copy, 2 Kings xix. 9 : “He returnverse above it is said, “ he had departed from Lachish,” ed and sent,” that is, according to the Hebrew idiom, probably he had been obliged to raise the siege, and sat " he sent again.” down before Libnah, which promised an easier conquest, Verse 12. As Gozan, and Haran) ; Charan : but

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