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A glorious promise
of Gospel times. A. M. cir. 3292.
:And he will k destroy in this | all faces; and the rebuke of his A. M. cir. 3292. B, C. cir. 712. Olymp. XVII. 1. mountain the face of the covering people shall he take away from Olymp. XVII. i. Numa Pompilii,
1 cast over all people, and m. the off all the earth : for the LORD Numa Pompilii, R. Roman., 4.
R. Roman., 4. vail that is spread over all nations. hath spoken it. 8 He will swallow up death in victory; and 9 And it shall be said in that day, Lo, the Lord God will.o wipe away fears from off this is our God; P we have waited for him, 1 Heb. swallow up.
1 Heb. covered. m 2 Cor. iii. 15; Hos. xiii. 14; 1 Cor. xv. 54; Rev. xx. 14 ; xxi. 4.- .. Rev. vii. Eph. in 18.
17; xxi. 4.-pGen. xlix. 18; Tit. ii. 13. preservers ; because they preserve the strength and “ Moab hath been at ease from his youth, flavour of the wine. "All recent wines, after the fer- And he hath settled upon his lees; mentation has ceased, ought to be kept on their lees Nor hath he been drawn off from vessel to vessel, for a certain time, which greatly contributes to increase Neither hath he gone into captivity : their strength and flavour. Whenever this first fer- Wherefore his taste remaineth in him, mentation has been deficient, they will retain a more And his flavour is not changed." rich and sweet taste than is natural to them in a recent true vinous state; and unless farther fermentation
Sir John Chardin's MS. note on this place of Jereis promoted by their lying longer on their own lees, miah is as follows: “On change ainsi le vin de coupe they will never attain their genuine strength and fla- en coupe en Orient; et quand on en entame une, il vour, but run into repeated and ineffectual fermenta- faut la vuider en petites coupes ou bouteilles, sans tions, and soon degenerate into a liquor of an acetous quoy il s'aigrit. “ They change the wine from vessel kind.—All wines of a light and austere kind, by a fer- to vessel in the east ; and when they unstop a large mentation too great; or too long continued, certainly one, it is necessary to empty it into small vessels, as degenerate into a weak sort of vinegar ; while the otherwise it will grow sour.” stronger not only require, but will safely bear a stronger
- Verse 7. The face of the covering cast over all and often-repeated fermentation ; and are more apt to people--" The covering that covered the face of all degenerate from a defect than excess of fermentation the peoples”] MS. Bodl. reads so up by al peney into a vapid, ropy, and at length into a putrescent chol. The word ' peney, face, has been removed state."
Sir Edward Barry, Observations on the from its right place into the line above, where it makes Wines of the Ancients, p. 9, 10.
no sense; as Houbigant conjectured. 6 The face of Thevenot observes particularly of the Shiras wine, the covering," &c. He will unveil all the . Mosaic that, after it is refined from the lees, it is apt to grow ritual, and show by his apostles that it referred to, and
" Il a beaucoup de lie; c'est pourquoi il donne was accomplished in the sacrificial offering of Jesus puissemment dans la teste; et pour le rendre plus
Christ. traitable on le passe pår un chausse d'hypocras; après
Verse 8. He will swallow up death] He, by the quoi il est fort clair, et moins fumeux. Ils mettent grace of God, will taste death for every man.
Heb. ce vin dans des grandes-jarres de terres qui tiennent dix ii. 9. Probably, swallow up death, and taste death, in ou douze jusqu'à quatorze carabas : mais quand l'on both these verses, refer to the same thing : Jesus a entamé une jarre, il faut la vujder au plutost, et met- dying instead of a guilty world. These forms of tre le vin qu'on en tire dans des bouteilles ou carabas; speech may refer to the punishment of certain crimicar si l'on y manque en le laissant quelque tems après nals; they were obliged to drink a cup of poison. que la jarre est entamée il se gâte et s'aigrit.” Voy- That cup which every criminal in the world must have ages, Tom. ii. p. 245.—" It has much sediment, and drünk, Jesus Christ drank for them; and thus he swal. therefore is intoxicating. · In order to make it more
lowed up death; but as he rose-again from the dead, mellow, they strain it through a hypocrates' sleeve, complete victory was gained. after which it is very clear and less heady. They
From these three verses we learn :lay up this wine in great earthen jars, which hold I. That the Gospel is a plenteous provision : "I from ten to fourteen carabas : but when a jar un- will make a feast for all people.” stopped, it is necessary to empty it immediately, and II. That it is a source of light and salvation : "1 put the wine into bottles, or carabas; for if it be left will destroy the veil. I will abolish death, and bring thus in the jar, it will spoil and become acid.” life and immortality to light."
The caraba, or girba, is a goat's skin drawn off from III. That it is a source of comfort and happithe animal, having no apertures but those occasioned ness: “I will wipe away all tears from off all by the tail, the feet, and the neck, One opening is faces." left, to pour in and draw off the liquor. This skin As in the Arabic countries a covering was put over goes through a sort of tanning process, and is often the face of him who was condemned to suffer death, it beantifully ornamented, as is the case with one of these is probable that the words in ver. 7 may refer to this. girbas now lying before me."
The whole world was condemned to death, and about This clearly explains the very elegant comparison, to be led out to execution, when the gracious Lord or rather allegory, of Jeremiah, chap. xlviii. 11; where interposed, and, by a glorious sacrifice, procured a the reader will find a remarkable example of the mix- general pardon. ture of the proper with the allegorical, not uncommon Verse 9. It shall be said "Shall they say'] So with the Hebrew poets ;
the Septuagint and Vulgale, in the plural number.
Glorious effects of
the Gospel of Christ. A. M. cir. 3292. and he will save us: this is the the midst of them, as', the A. M. cir
. 3292. Olymp. XVII.1. LORD; we have waited for him, that swimmeth spreadeth forth Olymp. XVII. 1. Numæ Pompilii,
we will be glad and rejoice in his hands to swim : and he Numa Pompilii, R. Roman., 4. his salvation :
R. Roman., 4.
shall bring down their pride 10 For in this mountain shall the hand of together with the spoils of their hands. the LORD rest, and Moab shall be r trodden 12 And the fortress of the high fort down under him, even as straw is 'trodden of thy walls shall he bring down, lay down for the dunghill.
low, and bring to the ground, even to the 11 And he shall spread forth his hands in dust.
9 Psa. xx. 5. Or, threshed.
.8 Or, threshed in Madmenah.
-1 Chap. xxvi. 5.
They read 170xi veameru, the Syriac reads Oni ve- the power of God, that nothing whole shall remain.” amarta, thou shalt say. They shall say, i, e., the Hieron. in loc. See the note on chap. xxviii. 27. Jews and the Gentiles-Lo, this (Jesus Christ) is our For the dunghill "Under the wheels of the car."] God: we have waited for him, aceording to the pre-For 7j370 madmenah, the Septuagint, Syriac, and dictions of the prophets. We have expected him, and Vulgale read 173973 mercabah, which I have followwe have not been disappointed; therefore will we be ed. See Joshua xv. 31, compared with xix. 5, where glad, and rejoice in his salvation.
there is a mistake very nearly the same. The keri, Verse 10. Shall the hand of the Lord rest—« The 'sa bemi, is confirmed by twenty-eight MSS., seven hand of JEHOVAH shall give rest”). Heb. min tenu- ancient, and three editions. ach, quiescet. Annon rian taniach, quietem dabit, Verse 11. As he that swimmeth spreadeth forth his shall rest ; shall give rest, ut Græci, avanauow dwoes, hands to swim“ As he that sinketh stretcheth out et Copt. !—Mr. WOIDE. That is, “shall give peace his hands to swim”] There is great obscurity in this and quiet to Sion, by destroying the enemy;" as it place : some understand God as the agent; others, follows.
Moab. I have chosen the latter sense, as I cannot As straw is trodden down—" As the straw is conceive that the stretching out of the hands of a threshed") Hoc juxta ritum loquitur Palæstinæ et swimmer in swimming can be any illustration of the multarum Orientis provinciarum, quæ ob pratorum et action of God stretching out his hands over Moab to fæni penuriam paleas preparant esuj animantium. Sunt destroy it. I take onun hashshocheh, altering the autem carpenta ferrata rotis per medium in serrarum point on the wsin, on the authority of the Septuagint, modum se volventibus, quæ stipulam conterunt; et to be the participle of one shachah, the same with comminuunt in paleas. Quomodo igitur plaustris fer- ni shuach, and now shachach, to bow down, to be deratis paleæ conteruntur, sic conteretur Moab sub eo; pressed ; and that the prophet designed a paronomasia sive sub Dei potentia, sive in semetipso, ut nihil in. eo here, a figure which he frequently uses between the integri remaneat. “ This is spoken in reference to similar words inw shachah, and ninu shechoth. As the mode of threshing in Palestine, and various other innn tachtaiv, in his place, or on the spot, as we say Asiatic provinces. Because of the scarcity of meadow in the preceding verse, gives us an idea of the sudden land and hay, they make chopped straw for the cattle. and complete destruction of Moab; so 127p3 bekirbo, They have large wheels studded over with iron teeth in the midst of him, means that this destruction shall or nails, by which, on the out-of-door threshing-floors, be open, and exposed to the view of all: the neighthey pound and reduce the straw into chaff. As, bouring nations shall plainly see him struggling against therefore, thé straw is reduced to chaff by bringing the it, as a man in the midst of the deep waters exerts all his iron-shod wheel over it; so shall Moab be bruised by efforts by swimming, to save himself from drowning.-L.
This chapter, like the foregoing, is a song of praise, in which thanksgivings for temporal and spiritual mercies
are beautifully mingled, though the latter still predominate. Even the sublime and evangelical doctrine of the resurrection seems here to be hinted at, and made to typify the deliverance of the people of God from a state of the lowest misery; the captivity, the general dispersion, or both. This hymn too, like the preceding, is beautifully diversified by the frequent change of speakers. It opens with a chorus of the Church celebrating the protection vouchsafed by God to his people ; and the happiness of the righteous, whom he guards, contrasted with the misery of the wicked, whom he punishes, 1-7. To this succeeds their own pious resolution of obeying, trusling, and delighting in God, 8. Here the prophet breaks in, in his own person, eagerly catching the last words of the chorus, which were perfectly in unison with the feelings of his own soul, and which he beautifully repeats, as one musical instrument reverberates the sound of another on the same key with it. He makes likewise a suitable response to what had been said on the judgments of God, and observes their different effects on the good and the bad; improving the one, and hardening the other, 9-11. After this, a chorus of Jews express their gratitude to God for past deliverances, make confession
Thanksgivings for the
mercies of God. of their sins, and supplicate his power, which they had been long expecting, 12–18. To this God makes a gracious reply, promising deliverance that should be as life from the dead, 19. And the prophet, (apparently alluding to the command of Moses to the Israelites, when the destroying angel was to go bhrough the land of Egypt,) concludes with exhorting his people to patience and resignation, till God sends the de
liverance he has promised, 20, 21, A. M. cir. 3292. B. C. cir. 712.
a that day shall this song be LORD, have we waited for thee; A. M. cir. 3292.
IN Olymp. XVII. 1. sung in the land of Judah ; the desire of our soul is to thy Olymp. XVII. 1. Numæ Pompilii, We have a strong city; salvation name, and to the remembrance Numæ Pompilii, R. Roman., 4. will God appoint for walls and of thee.
R. Roman., 4. bulwarks.
9 m With my soul have I desired thee in the 2 Open ye the gates, that the righteous night, yea, with my spirit within me will I nation which keepeth the d truth may enter in. seek thee early: for when thy judgments are
3 Thou wilt keep him e in perfect peace, in the earth, the inhabitants of the world will whose f mind is stayed on thee; because he learn righteousness. trusteth in thee.
10 n Let favour be showed to the wicked, yet 4 Trust ye in the LORD for ever : 8 for in will he not learn righteousness : in the land the LORD JEHOVAH is heverlasting strength. of uprightness will he deal unjustly, and will
5 For he bringeth down them that dwell on. not behold the majesty of the LORD. high; · the lofty city, he layeth' it low; he 11 LORD, when thy hand is lifted up, P they layeth it low, even to the ground; he bringeth will not see: but they shall see, and be ashamed it even to the dust.
for their envy 9 at the people; yea, the fire 6 The foot shall tread it down, even the feet of thine enemies shall devour them. of the poor, and the steps of the needy. -12 LORD, thou wilt ordain peace for us : for
7 The way of the just is uprightness: k thou thou also hast wrought all our works "in us. most upright, dost weigh the path of the just. 13 0 LORD our God, s other lords beside
8 Yea, 'in the way of thy judgments, 0 thee have had dominion over us : but by thee I a Chap. ii. H. - Chap. lx. 18.-— Psa. cxvii, 19, 20. Chap 1xiv. 5._tm Psa. Ixiii. 6; Cant. iii. 1. -n Eccles. viii.
- Heb. peace, peace; chap.lvii. 19.—1Or, thought, 12; Rom. i. 4. Psa. cxliii. 10. —p Job xxxiv. 27; Psa or imagination. - Chap. xlv. 17. - Heb. the rock of ages ; xxvii. 5; chap. v. 12.- - Or, toward thy people. Or, for us Deut. xxxii. 4. - Chap. xxv. 12 ; xxxii. 19. Psa. xxxvii. 23.-2 Chron. xii. 8. NOTES ON CHAP. XXVI. Syriac and Vulgate read unos batachnu,
we have Verse 1. We have a strong city] In opposition to trusted." Schroeder, Gram. Heb. p. 360, explains the city of the enemy, which God hath destroyed, chap. the present reading niua batúach, impersonally, confiXXV. 2. See the note there.
Salvation--for walls and bulwarks) Soinoin cho- Verse 4. In the Lord JEHOVAH—" In JEHOVAH”] moth vachel, róalls and redoubts, or the walls and the In Jan JEHOVAH, Heb.; but see Houbigant, and the ditch. 51 chel properly signifies the ditch or french note on chap. xji. 2. without the wall; see Kimchi... The same rabbin says, Everlasting strength] bigboy 918 Isur olamım, “ the This song refers to the time of salvation, i, e., the days rock of ages ;" or, according to Rab. Maimon,--the of the Messiah.
eternal Fountain, Source, or Spring. Does not this Verse 2. The righteous nalion] The converted refer to the lasting streams from the rock in the desert ? Gentiles shall have the gates opened—a full entrance And that rock was Christ. ge han hoped in the Lord into all the glories and privileges of the Gospel ; being fro the eberlastinge worldis. Old MS. BIBLE. fellow heirs with the converted Jews.The Jewish Verse 8. Have we waited for thee We have peculiarity is destroyed, for the middle wall of parti- placed our confidence in thy name”) The Septuagint, tion is broken down.
Syriac, and Chaldee read 1'p kavinu, without the The truth] The Gospel itself—as the fulfilment of pronoun annexed. all the ancient types, shadows, and ceremonies; and Verse 9. Have I desired thee] Forty-one MSS. of therefore termed the truth, in opposition to all those Dr. Kennicott's and many of De Rossi's, (nine ancient) shadowy rites and ceremonies. - The law'was given and five editions read your ivvithicha. It is proper by Moses ; but grace and TRUTH came by Jesus to note this ; because the second yod being omitted Christ;" John i. 17, and see the note there.
in the text, the Vulgate and many others have renderVerse 3. In perfect peace) dhe dibu shalom, sha- ed it in the third person. lom, "peace, peace," i. e., peace upon peace-all kinds When thy judgments, &c.] It would be better to of prosperity-happiness in this world and in the world read, When thy judgments were in the earth, the into come.
habitants of the world have learned (1725 lamedu) Because he trusteth in thee—“ Because they have righteousness. Men seldom seek God in prosperity; trusted in theę.") So the Chaldee, inoa betacho. The they are apt to rest in an earthly portion ; but God in
d Heb. truths.
B. C. cir. 712.
Thanksgivings for the
mercies of God. A. M. cir. 3292.
only will we make mention of eth near the time of her delivery, A M. cis. Fus. Olymp. XVII. 1. thy name.
is in pain, and crieth out in her Olymp. XVILI. Numæ Pompilii,
14 They are dead, they shall pangs; so have we been in thy Numæ Pomplui, R. Roman., 4. not live; they are deceased, they sight, O LORD.
R. Roman., 4. shall not rise : therefore hast thou visited and 18 We have been with child, we have been destroyed them, and made all their memory in pain, we have as it were brought forth to perish.
wind; we have not wrought any deliverance 15 Thou hast increased the nation, O LORD, in the earth ; neither have the inhabitants of thou hast increased the nation : thou art the world fallen. glorified : thou hadst removed it far unto all 19 - Thy dead men shall live, together with the ends of the earth.
my dead body shall they arise. y Awake and 16 LORD, ' in trouble have they visited thee, sing, ye that dwell in dust : for thy dew is as they poured out a "prayer when thy chastening the dew of herbs, and the earth shall cast out was upon them.
the dead. 17 Like as a woman with child, that draw- 20 Come, my people, ? enter thou into thy
mercy embitters this by adversity; then there is a cis, according to the Vulgate ; so also the Syriac and general cry after himself as our chief, solid, and only Chaldee. permanent good.
The deliverance of the people of God from a state Verse 16. Lord, in trouble have they visited them of the lowest depression is explained by images plainly “O Jehovah, in affliction we have sought thee"] So taken from the resurrection of the dead. In the same the Septuagint and two MSS. have 7u7po pekadnucha, manner the Prophet Ezekiel represents the restoration in the first person plural. And so perhaps it should of the Jewish nation from a state of utter dissolution by be 13p3 tsaknu, in the first person; but how the Sep- the restoring of the dry bones to life, exhibited to him tuagint read this word is not clear; and this last mem- in a vision, chap. xxxvii., which is directly thus applied ber of the verse is extremely obscure.
and explained, ver. 11-13. And this deliverance is For 195 lamo, “ on them,” the Septuagint read 135 expressed with a manifest opposition to what is here lanu, " on us,” in the first person likewise ; a frequent said above, ver. 14, of the great lords and tyrants, mistake; see note on chap. x. 29.
under whom they had groaned : Verse 18. We have brought forth wind] The learned Professor Michaelis explains this image in the
“ They are dead, they shall not live; following manner : “ Rariorem morbum describi, em
They are deceased tyrants, they shall not rise :" pneumatosin, aut ventosam molam, dictum ; quo quæ that they should be destroyed utterly, and should never laborant diu et sibi et peritis medicis gravidæ videntur, be restored to their former power and glory. It aptandemque post omnes veræ graviditatis molestias et pears from hence, that the doctrine of the resurrection labores. ventum ex utero emittunt; quem morbum pas- of the dead was at that time a popular and common sim describunt medici.” Syntagma Comment., vol. ii., doctrine ; for an image which is assumed in order to p. 165. « The empneumatosis, or windy inflation of express or represent any thing in the way of allegory the womb, is a disorder to which females are liable. or metaphor, whether poetical or prophetical, must be Some have had this in such wise, for a long time to an image commonly known and understood; otherwise gether, that they have appeared to themselves, and it will not answer the purpose for which it is aseven to very skilful medical men, to be pregnant; and sumed.-L. after having endured much pain, and even the throes Kimchi refers these words to the days of the Mesof apparent childbearing, they have been eased and re- siah, and says, " Then many of the saints shall rise stored to health by the emission of a great quantity of from the dead.". And quotes Dan. xii. 2. Do not wind from the uterus. This disorder is well known these words , speak of the resurrection of our blessed to medical men.” The Syriac translator seems to have Lord; and of that resurrection of the bodies of - men, understood it in this manner : Enixi sumus, ut illæ quæ which shall be the consequence of his body being-raised ventos pariunt. “We have brought forth as they who from the dead ? bring forth wind.”
Thy dead men shall live, --with my dead body shall In the earth" In the land”) yw bearets ; so a they arise.] This seems very express. MS., the Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate.
Verse 20. Come, my people, enter thou into thy Verse 19. My dead body—“My deceased") All chambers] An exhortation to patience and resignation the ancient Versions render it in the plural; they read under oppression, with a confident expectation of de yub niblothai, my dead bodies. The Syriac and liverance by the power of God manifestly to be exertChaldee read onimabas niblotheyhem, their dead bodies. ed in the destruction of the oppressor. It seems to No MS. yet found confirms this reading.
be an allusion to the command of Moses to the Israel The dew of herbs" The dew of the dawn”) Lu- lites, when the destroying angel was to go through the
Destruction of the
enemies of the Church. 4. M. cir
. 3292. chambers, and shut thy doors his place to punish the inhabit- 4 M. cir: 3292. Olymp. XVII. 1. about thee: hide thyself as it ants of the earth for their iniquity: Olymp. XVII. 1. Numæ Pompilii, were · for a little moment, until the earth also shall disclose her Numa Pompilii
, R. Roman., 4 the indignation be overpast.
c blood, and shall no more cover
R. Roman., 4. 21 For, behold, the LORD cometh out of her slain. a Psa. xxx. 5; chap. liv. 7, 8; 2 Cor. iv. 17.
b Mic. i. 3; Jude 14. c Heb. bloods. land of Egypt, "not to go out at the door of their Crimes of cruelty and oppression, which have passed houses until the morning ;" Exod. xii. 22. And be away from the eyes of men, God will bring into judgfore the passage of the Red Sea : “ Fear ye not, ment, and exact punishment for them. O what a stand still, and see the salvation of JEHOVAH. JEHO- reckoning will the kingdoms of the earth have with God, vah shall fight for you, and ye shall hold your peace," for the torrents of blood which they have shed for the Exod. xiv. 13, 14.
gratification of the lust of power and ambition! Who Verse 21. The earth also shall disclose her blood] I shall live when he doeth this?
CHAPTER XXVII. Destruction of the enemies of the Church, 1. God's care of his vineyard, 2-11. Prosperity of the de
scendants of Abraham in the latter days, 12, 13. A. M. cir. 3292.B. C. cir. 712.
Ñ that day the LORD with his that crooked serpent; and he shall 4. M. cir. 3292.
IN Olymp. XVII. 1. sore and great and strong slay the dragon that is in the sea. Olymp. XVII.1. Numa Pompilii, sword shall punish leviathan the 2 In that day d sing ye unto her, Numæ Pompilii. R. Roman., 4.
R. Roman., 4. piercing serpent, even leviathan A vineyard of red wine. • Or, crossing like a bar. —Psa. lxxiv. 13, 14. -- Chap. li. 9; d Chapter v. 1. Psalm lxxx. 8; Jeremiah Ezek, xxix. 3 ; xxxii. 2.
ii. 21. The subject of this chapter-seems to be the nature, Verse 2. Șing ye unto her] ob 138 anu lah. Bishop the measure, and the design of God's dealings with Lowth translates this, Sing ye a responsive song; and his people. 1. His judgments inflicted on their great says that nigy anah, to answer, signifies occasionally and powerful enemies, ver. 1. . 2. His constant care to sing responsively; and that this mode of singing and protection of his favourite vineyard, in the form was frequently practised among the ancient Hebrews. of a dialogue, ver. 2.. 3. The moderation and lenity See De Pöes. Sac. Heb. Præl. xix., at the beginning. with which the severity of his judgments have been This, indeed, was the ancient method of singing in, tempered, ver., 7. 4. The end and design of them, to various nations. The song was divided into distinct recover them from idolatry, ver. 9. And, 5. The re- portions, and the singers sang alternately. There is calling of them, on their repentance, from their several a fine specimen of this in the song of Deborah and dispersions, ver. 12. The first verse seems connected Barak; and also in the Idyls of Theocritus, and the with the two last verses of the preceding chapter.-L. Eclogues of Virgil. NOTES, ON CHAP. XXVII.
This kind of singing was properly a dialogue in Verse 1. Leviathan) The animals here mentioned perse, sung to a particular tune, or in the mode which
is now termed recitativo. I have seen it often pracseem to be the crocodile, rigid by the stiffness of the tised on funeral occasions among the descendants of backbone, so that he cannot readily turn himself when the aboriginal Irish. The poems of Ossian are of he pursues his prey ; hence the easiest way of escap- this kind. ing from him is by making frequent and short turn- The learned Bishop distinguishes the parts of this ings: the serpent or dragon, flexible and winding, dialogue thus :which coils himself up in a circular form : and the sea-monster, or whale. These are used allegorically, 3. JEHOVAH. It is 1, JEHOVAH, that preserve her ; without doubt for great potentates, enemies and per
I will water her every moment; secutors of the people of God: but to specify the par
I will take care of her by night; ticular persons or states designed by the prophet un
And by day I will keep guard over der these images, is a matter of great difficulty, and comes not necessarily within the design of these notes. 4. VINEYARD. I have no wall for my defence : R. D. Kimchi says, leviathan is a parable concerning
O that I had a fence of the thorn and the kings of the Gentiles : it is the largest fish in the
brier! sea, called also'g'on tannin, the dragon, or rather the JEHOVAH. Against them should I march in batwhale. By these names the Grecian, Turkish, and Roman empires are intended. The dragon of the sea
I should burn them up together. seems to mean some nation having a strong naval force 5.
Ah! let her rather take hold of my and extensive commerce. See Kimchi on the place.