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Prophecy concerning

CHAP. XXII.

Shebna and Eliakim. A. M. cir. 3292.

16. What hast thou here ? and and from thy state shall he pull 4. M. cir. 3292. B. C. cir. 712. Olymp. XVII. 1. whom hast thou here, that thou thee down.

Olymp. XVII. 1. Nunæ Pompilii, hast hewed thee out a sepulchre - 20 And it shall come to pass Numæ Pompilii, R. Roman., 4. here, * as he y that heweth him in that day, that I will call my

R. Roman., 4. out a sepulchre on high, and that graveth a servant « Eliakim the son of Hilkiah : habitation for himself in a rock?

21 And I will clothe him with thy robe, and 17 Behold, ? the LORD will carry thee away strengthen him with thy girdle, and I will with * a mighty' captivity, band will surely commit thy government into his hand : and cover thee.

- he shall be a father to the inhabitants of Je18 He will surely violently turn and toss rusalem, and to the house of Judah. thee like a ball into a large country: there 22 And the key of the house of David will shalt thou die, and there the chariots of thy I lay upon his shoulder; so he shall e open, glory shall be the shame of thy lord's house. and none shall shut: and he shall shut, and

19 And I will drive thee from thy station, none shall open.

* Or, Ohe.-32 Sam. xviii. 18; Mait. xxvii. 60,2 Or, the a Heb. the captivity of a man.- -- Esth. vij. 8. Heb. LORD who covered thee with an excelleni covering, and clothed thee large of spaces.- 2 Kings xviii. 18.- e Job xii. 14; Rev. gorgeously, shall surely, &c.; ver. 18.

iii, 7.

this passage is merely historical, and does not admit mentioned in the preceding verse, were the ensigns of of that sort of ellipsis by which in the poetical parts power and authority, so likewise was the key the mark a person is frequently introduced speaking, without the of office, either sacred or civil. The priestess of Juno usual notice, that what follows was delivered by him. is said to be the key-bearer of the goddess, xAsidougos

Verse 16. A sepulchre on highin a rock] It has 'Hpas. Æschyl. Suppl. 299. A female high in office been observed before, on chap. xiv., that persons of under a great quèen has the same title :high rank in Judea, and in most parts of the east,

Καλλιθοη κλειδουχος Ολυμπιαδος βασιλειης. . were generally buried in large sepulchral vaults, hewn out in the rock for the use of themselves and their fa

“Callithoe was the key-bearer of the Olympian milies. The vanity of Shebna is set forth by his

queen.”. being so studious and careful to have his sepulchre on Auctor Phoronidis ap. Clem. Alex. p. 418, edit. Potter. high-in a lofty vault; and that probably in a high This mark of office was likewise among the Greeks, as situation, that it might be more conspicuous. Heze- here in Isaiah, borne on the shoulder; the priestess kiah was buried, obyob lemalah, sv avaßarsi, Sept. of Ceres, xarwadiacu sxe xhaida, had the key on her in the chiefest, says our translation; rather, in the shoulder. Callim. Ceres, ver. 45. To comprehend highest part of the sepulchres of the sons of David, to how the key could be borne on the shoulder, it will do him the more honour, 2 Chron. xxxii. 33. There be necessary to say something of the form of it: but are some monuments still remaining in Persia of great without entering into a long disquisition, and a great antiquity, called Naksi Rustam, which give one a clear deal of obscure learning, concerning the locks and keys idea of Shebna's pompous design for his sepulchre. of the ancients, it will be sufficient to observe, that They eonsist of several sepulchres, each of them hewn one sort of keys, and that probably the most ancient, in a high rock near the top; the front of the rock to was of considerable magnitude, and as to the shape, the valley below is adorned with carved work in re- very much bent and crooked. Aratus, to give his lievo, being the outside of the sepulchre, Some of reader an idea of the form of the constellation Cassiothese sepulchres are about thirty feet in the perpendi- peia, compares it to a key. - It must be owned that the cular from the valley ; which is itself perhaps raised passage is very obscure; but the learned Huetius has above half as much by the accumulation of the earth bestowed a great deal of pains in explaining it, Anisince they were made. See the description of them madvers. in Manilii, lib. i. 355 ; and I think has sucin Chardin, Pietro della Valle, Thevenot; and Kempfer. ceeded very well in it. Homer, Odyss. xxi.-6, deDiodorus Siculus, lib. xvii., mentions these ancient scribes the key of Ulysses' storehouse as suxaurins, of monuments, and calls them the sepulchres of the kings a large curvature ; which. Eustathius explains by sayof Persia.-L.

ing it was OgEnaVOErdns, in shape like a reaphook. Verse 17. Cover thee] That is; thy face. This was Huetius says the constellation Cassiopeia answers to the condition of mourners in general, and particularly this description; the stars to the north making the of condemned persons. See Esther vi. 12; vii. 8. curve part, that is, the principal part of the key ; the

Verse 19. I will drive thee) 70778 ehersecha, in southern stars, the handle. The curve part was introthe first person, Syr. Vulg.

duced into the key-hole ; and, being properly directed Verse 21. To the inhabitants] '2005 leyosliebey, by the handle, took hold of the bolts within, and moved in the plural number, four of Dr. Kennicott's MSS., them from their places. We may easily collect from (two ancient,) and two of De Rossi's, with the Septua- this account, that such a key would lie very well upon gint, Syriac, and Vulgate.

the shoulder; that it must be of some considerable Verse 22. And the key of the house of David will I size and weight, and could hardly be commodiously lay upon his shoulder) As the robe and the baldric, I carried otherwise. Ulysses' key was of brass, and the

cir, annum

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Prophecy concerning Eliakim,

ISAIAH.

the son of Hilkiah. A. M. cir. 3292.

23 And I will fasten him as the vessels of cups, even to all the 4: M. cir: 3292. B. C. cir. 712. Olymp. XVII. 1. f a nail in a sure place; and he 6 vessels of flagons.

Olymp. XVII. 1. Numæ Pompilii, shall be for a glorious throne to 25 In that day, saith the LORD Numæ Pompilii, R. Roman., 4. his father's house.

of hosts, shall the nail that is

R. Roman., 4. 24 And they shall hang upon him all the fastened in the sure place be removed, and be cut glory of his father's house, the offspring and down, and fall; and the burden that was upon the issue, all vessels of small quantity, from it shall be cut off: for the Lord hath spoken it. Ezra ix. 8.

8 Or, instruments of viols.- ch Ver. 23. handle of ivory: but this was a royal key. The more were of necessary and common use, and of no small common ones were probably of wood. In Egypt they importance in all their apartments; conspicuous, and have no other than wooden loeks and keys to this day; much exposed to observation : and if they seem to us even the gates of Cairo have no better. Baumgarten, mean and insignificant, it is because we are not aePeregr. i. 18. Thevenot, part ii., chap. 10. But was quainted with the thing itself, and have no name to it not the representation of a key, either cut out in express it but by what conveys to us a low and concloth and sewed on the shoulder of the garment, or em-temptible idea. “ Grace hath been showed from the broidered on that part of the garment itself! The idea Lord our God," saith Ezra, chap. ix. 8, “to leave us of a huge key of a gate, in any kind of metal, laid a remnant to escape, and to give us a nail in his holy across the shoulder, is to me very ridiculous. . place :" that is, as the margin of our Bible explains it,

In allusion to the image of the key, as the ensign“ a constant and sure abode.” of power; the unlimited extent of that power is ex- “He that doth lodge near her (Wisdom's) house, pressed with great clearness as well as force by the

Shall also fasten a pin in her walls." sole and exclusive authority to open and shut. Our

Ecclus. xiv. 24. Saviour, therefore, has upon a similar occasion made

The dignity and propriety. of the metaphor appears use of a like manner of expression, Matt. xvi. 19; and in Rev. ii. 7 has applied to himself the

from the Prophet Zechariah's use of it :words

very of the prophet.

“From him shall be the corner-stone, from him the Verse 23. A nail] In ancient times, and in the

nail, eastern countries, as the way of life, so the houses,

From him the battle-bow, were much more simple than ours at present. They

· From him every ruler together.". Zech, x. 4. had not that quantity and variety of furniture, nor and Mohammed, using the same word, calls Pharaoh those accommodations of all sorts, with which we the lord or master of the nails, that is, well attended abound. It was convenient and even necessary for by nobles and officers capable of administering his affairs. them, and it made an essential part in the building of Koran, Sur. Xxxviii. 11, and lxxxix. 9. So some una house, to furnish the inside of the several apartments derstand this passage of the Koran. Mr. Sale seems with sets of spikes, nails, or large pegs, upon which to to prefer another interpretation. dispose of and hang .up the several movables and Taylor, in his Concordance, thinks an' yathed means utensils in common use, and proper to the apartment. the pillar or post that stands in the middle, and supThese -spikes they worked into the walls at the first ports the tent, in which such pegs are fixed to hang erection of them, the walls being of such materials that their arms, &c., upon ; referring to Shaw's Travels, p. they could not bear their being driven in afterwards ; 287. , But inoyathed is never used, as far as appears and they were contrived so as to strengthen the walls to me, in that sense. It was indeed necessary that the by binding the parts together, as well as to serve for pillar of the tent should have such pegs on it for that convenience. Sir John Chardin's account of this mat- purpose ; but the hanging of such things in this manter is this :—“ They do not drive with a hammer the ner upon this pillar does not prove that ma' yathed was nails that are put into the eastern walls. The walls the pillar itself. are too hard, being of brick ; or, if they are of clay, A glorious throne" A glorious seat”] That is, too 'mouldering : but they fix them in the brick-work his father's house, and all his own family. shall be as they are building. They are large nails, with square gloriously seated, shall flourish in honour and prosheads like dice, well made, the ends being bent so as perity; and shall depend upon him, and be supported to make them cramp-irons. They commonly place by him. them at the windows and doors, in order to hang upon Verse 24. All the glory] One considerable part of them, when they like, veils and curtains.". Harmer's the magnificence of the eastern princes consisted in Observ. i., p. 191. And we may add, that they were the great quantity of gold and silver vessels which put in other places too, in order to hang up other things they had for various uses.”. “Solomon's drinking vesof various kinds ; as appears from this place of Isaiah, sels were of gold, and all the vessels of the house of and from Ezek. xv. 3, who speaks of a pin or nail, the forest of Lebanon were of pure gold; none were “ to hang any vessel thereon.” The word used here of silver; it was nothing accounted of in Solomon's for a nail of this sort is the same by which they ex- days;" 1 Kings X. 21. “ The vessels in the house press that instrument, the stake, or large pin of iron, of the forest of Lebanon,” the armoury of Jerusalem with which they fastened down to the ground the cords so called, “ were two hundred targets, and three hunof their tents. We see, therefore, that these - nails dred shields of beaten gold.” Ibid. ver. 16, 17. These

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The prophecy
CHAP. XXIII.

against Tyre. were ranged in order upon the walls of the armoury, shall arise. Hilkiah signifies The Lord my portion (see Cant. iv. 4,) upon pins worked into the walls on or lot. The key.of David, shutting and opening, &c., purpose, as above mentioned. , Eliakim is considered may intend the way of salvation through Christ alone. as a principal stake of this sort, immovably fastened For the hope of salvation and eternal life comes only in the wall for the support of all vessels destined for through Eliakim, the resurrection of Jesus Christ from common or sacred uses ; that is, as the principal sup- the dead. port of the whole civil and ecelesiastical polity. And It is said, ver. 24, “ They shall hang upon him all the consequence of his continued power will be the the glory of his father's house”—for, in Jesus Christ promotion and flourishing condition of his family and dwells all the fulness of the Godhead bodily; and the dependants, from the highest to the lowest.

offspring , ! Vessels of flagons—" Meaner vessels”) 0.523 neba- yatsa, to go out,—the suckers from the root; the sidelim seems to mean earthen vessels of common use, brit- shoots, the apostles and primitive ministers of his tle, and of little value, (see Lam. iv. 3; Jer. xlviii. 12,) word. The issue, n'ayn hatstsephioth, probably means in opposition to Midis aganoth, goblets of gold and sil- the issue's issue; so the Targum. The grandchildren, all ver used in the sacrifices. Exod. xxiv. 6.

those who believe on the Lord Jesus through their word. Verse 25. The nail that is fastened] This must be “ The nail that is fastened in the sure place shall be understood of Shebna, as a repetition and confirmation removed," ver. 25, Kimchi refers not to Eliakim, but of the sentence above denounced against him, to Shebna, ver. 17-19. By, “ They shall hang upon

him all vessels of small quantity and large quantity," What is said of Eliakim the son of Hilkiah, ver. has been understood the dependence of all souls, of all 20-24, is very remarkable; and the literal meaning is capacities, from the lowest in intellect to the most exallnot easy to be understood. From chap. ix. 6, and from ed, on the Lord Jesus, as the only Saviour of all lost Rev. ii. 7, it seems to belong to our Lord alone. The human spirits. removal of Shebna from being over the treasure of the As the literal interpretation of this prophecy has not Lord's house, ver. 19, and the investiture of Eliakim been found out, we are justified from parallel texts to with his robe, girdle; office, and government, ver. 20, consider the whole as referring to Jesus Christ, and the &c., probably point out the change of the Jewish government of the Church, and the redemption of the priesthood, and the proclaiming of the unchangeable world by him. Nor are there many prophecies which priesthood of Christ. See Psa. cx. 4. Eliakim sig- relate to him more clearly than this, taken in the above nifies The resurrection of the Lord; or, My God, he sense.

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cir. annum

cir. annum

CHAPTER XXIII. Prophecy denouncing the destruction of Tyre by Nebuchadnezzar, delivered upwards of one hundred and

twenty years before its accomplishment, at a period when the Tyrians were in great prosperity, and the Babylonians in abject subjection to the Assyrian empire; and, consequently, when an event of so great magnitude was improbable in the highest degree, 1–14., Tyre shall recover its splendour at the termination of seventy years, the days of one king, or kingdom, by which must be meant the time allotted for the duration of the Babylonish empire, as otherwise the prophecy cannot be accommodated to the event, 15-17.

Supposed reference to the early conversion of Tyre to Christianity, 18.
B. C. cir: 3289. THE burden of Tyre. Howl, land of Chittim it is revealed 4. M. cir

. 3289.

B. C. cir. 715. Olymp. XVI. 2. ye ships of Tarshish; for it to them.

Olymp. XVI. 2. Numæ Pompilii

, is laid waste, so that there is no 2 Be e still, ye inhabitants of Numa Pompilii, R. Roman., l. house, no entering in : Þfrom the the isle; thou whom the mer

R. Roman., 1. a Jer. xxv. 22 ; xlvii. 4; Ezek. xxvi., xxvii., xxviii; Amos i. 9; Zech. ix. 2, 4. b Ver. 12. Heb. silent. NOTES ON CHAP. XXIII.

sultan of Egypt; and now contains only a few huts, Verse 1. The burden of Tyre) Tyre, a city on the in which about fifty or sixty wretched families exist. coast of Syria, about lat. 32° N. was built two thousand. This desolation was foretold by this prophet and by -seven hundred and sixty years before Christ. There Ezekiel, one thousand nine hundred years before it took were two cities of this name ; one on the continent, place! and the other on an island, about half a mile from the Howl, ye ships of Tarshish] This prophecy deshore ; the city on the island was about four miles in nounces the destruction of Tyre by Nebuchadnezzar. circumference. Old Tyre resisted Nebuchadnezzar for It opens with an address to the Tyrian negotiators thirteen years ; then the inhabitants carried, so to speak, and sailors at Tarshish, (Tartessus, in Spain,) a place the city to the forementioned island, ver. 4. This new which, in the course of their trade, they greatly frecity held out against Alexander the Great for seven quented. The news of the destruction of Tyre by Nebumonths ; who, in order to take it, was obliged to fill chadnezzar is said to be brought to them from Chittim, up the channel which separated it from the main the islands and coasts of the Mediterranean; “ for the land. "In A. D. 1289 it was totally destroyed by the Tyrians," says Jerome on ver. 6, “ when they saw they

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The prophecy

ISAIAH.,

against Tyre. A. M. cir. 3289. chants of Zidon, that B C. cir. 715.

pass over the

7. Is this your fjoyous city, 4M. cir. 3289. Olymp. XVI. 2. sea, have replenished.

whose antiquity, is of ancient Olymp. XVI. 2. Numæ Pompilii,. 3. And by great waters the seed days ? her own feet shall carry Numa Pompilii, R. Roman., 1. of Sihor, the harvest of the river, her 5 afar off to sojourn.

R. Roman., 1. is her revenue ; and d she is a mart of nations. 8 Who hath taken this counsel against Tyre,

4 Be thou ashamed, 0 Zidon for the sea the crowning city, whose merchants are
hath spoken, even the strength of the sea, princes, whose traffickers are the honourable
saying, I travail, not, nor bring forth children, of the earth ?
neither do I nourish up young men, nor bring. 9 The Lord of hosts. hath purposed it, ito
up virgins.

stain' the pride of all glory, and to bring into 5.° As at the report concerning Egypt, so contempt all the honourable of the earth. shall they be sorely pained at the report of 10 Pass through thy land as a river, O Tyre.

daughter of Tarshish : there is no more 6 Pass ye over to Tarshish; howl, ye in- strength.”. habitants of the islo,

11 He stretched out his hand over the sea, Ezek. xxvij. 3. Chap. xix. 16. Chap. xxii. 2.--% Heb. See Ezek. - xxviii. 2, 12.- Heb. 10 pollule. Heb. from afar off.

girdle. had no other means of escaping, fled in their ships, and Verse 7. Whose antiquity is of ancient days took refuge in Carthage and in the islands of the Ionian" Whose antiquity is of the earliest date"] Justin, in and Ægean sea.” From whence the news would the passage above quoted, had dated the building of spread and reach Tarshish ; so also Jarchi on the same Tyre at a certain number of years before the taking of place. This seems to be the most probable interpre- Troy; but the number is lost in the present copies. Tyre, tation of this verse.

though not so old as Sidon, was yet of very high antiVerse 2, Be still "Be silent”] Silence is a mark quity : it was a strong city even in the time of Joshua. of grief and consternation. See chap. xlvii. 5. Jere- It is called 78 780 ry ir mibtsar isor, “the city of miah has finely expressed this image :

the fortress of Sor," Josh. xix. 29. Interpreters raise “ The elders of the daughter of Zion sit on the ground, it to have been so ancient; with what good reason I

difficulties in regard to this passage, and will not allow they are silent : They have cast up dust on their heads, they have fortress of Sor,” in the history of David, 2 Sam. xxiv.

do not see, for it is called by the same name, girded themselves with sackcloth. The virgins of Jerusalem hang down their heads to +7, and the circumstances of the history determine the

place to be the very same. See on ver. 1. the ground."

Lam. ii. 10.

Whose antiquity is of ancient days, may refer to Verse 3. The seed of Sihor-" The seed of the Paletyrus, or Old Tyre. Nile'] The Nile is called here Shichor, as it is Jer. Her own feet shall carry her afar off to sojourn.) ii. 18, and i Chron. xiii. 5. It had this name from This may belong to the new or insular Tyre; her own the blackness of its waters, charged with the mud feet, that is, her own inhabitants, shall carry her which it brings down from Ethiopia when it over- shall transport the city, from the continent to the flows, Et viridem Ægyptum nigra fecundat arena; island. " But the text says, it shall be carried far as it was called by the Greeks Melas, and by the off ; and the new city was founded only half a mile Latins Melo, for the same reason. See Servius on distant from the other." I answer, pinga merachok the above line of Virgil, Georg. iy. 291. It was does not always signify a great distance, but distance called Siris by the Ethiopians, by some supposed to be or interval in general ; for in Josh. iii. 4 pinnrachok is the same with Shichor. Egypt, by its extraordinary used to express the space between the 'camp and the fertility, caused by the overflowing of the Nile, supplied ark, which we know to have been only two thousand the neighbouring nations with corn, by which branch of cubits. Some refer the sojourning afar off to the extrade the Tyrians gained great wealth.

tent of the commercial voyages undertaken by the Verse 4. Be thou ashamed, o Zidon] Tyre is called, Tyrians and their foreign connexions. ver. 12, the daughter of Sidon. “ The Sidonians," Verse 10. O daughter of Tarshish] Tyre is called says Justin, xviii. 3, “when their city was taken by the daughter of Tarshish; perhaps because, Tyre bethe king of Ascalon, betook themselves to their ships, ing ruined, Tarshish was become the superior city, and and landed, and built Tyre.” Sidon, as the mother might be considered as the metropolis of the Tyrian city, is supposed to be deeply affected with the calamity people; or rather because of the close connexion and of her daughter.

perpetual intercourse between them, according to that Nor bring up virgins—Nor educated virgins.”] latitude of signification in which the Hebrews use the ny17 veromamti ; so an ancient MS. of Dr. Kenni- words son and daughter to express any sort of conjunccott's, prefixing the 1 vau, which refers to the negative tion and dependence whatever. nia mezach, a girdle, preceding, and is equivalent to XS velo. See Deut. which collects, binds, and keeps together the loose xxiii. 6 ; Prov. xxx. 3. Two of my own MSS, have raiment, when applied to a river, may mean a mound, vart in the margin.

mole, or artificial dam, which contains the waters, and

w the

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The desolation
CHAP. XXIII.

of Tyre. 4. M. cir. 3289. he shook the kingdoms: the people was not, till the Assyrian 4. M. cir. 3289. Olymp. XVI. 2. Lord hath given a commandment, founded it for a them that dwell Olymp. XVI. 2. Numa Pompilii, lagainst 'm the merchant city, to in the wilderness: they set up Numa Pompilií, R. Roman., t. destroy the strong holds thereof. the towers thereof, they raised

R. Roman., 1. 12 And he said, Thou shalt no more re- up the palaces thereof; and he brought it joice, Othou oppressed virgin, daughter of to ruin. Zidon: arise, P pass over to Chittim; there 14 Howl, ye ships of Tarshish: for

your also shalt thou have no rest.

strength is laid waste. 13 Behold the land of the Chaldeans; this 15 And it shall come to pass in that day, "Or, concerning a 'merchantman. Heb. Canaan. Or, Rev. xviii. 22. -p Ver. 1. - Psa. !xxii, 9. Ver. 1 ; strengths.

Ezek. xxvii. 25, 30. prevents them from spreading abroad. A city taken ed. They had perhaps been useful to him in his wars, by siege and destroyed, whose walls are demolished, and might be likely to be farther useful in keeping unwhose policy is dissolved, whose wealth is dissipated, der the old inhabitants of that city, and of the country whose people is scattered over the wide country, is belonging to it; according to the policy of the Assycompared to a river whose banks are broken down, rian kings, who generally brought new people into the and whose waters, let loose and overflowing all the conquered countries ;- see Isa. xxxvi. 17; 2 Kings xvii. neighbouring plains, are wasted and lost. This may 6, 24. The testimony of Dicæarchus, a Greek histopossibly be the meaning of this very obscure verse, of rian contemporary with Alexander, (apud. Steph, de which I can find no other interpretation that is at all Urbibus, in voc. Xandalos,) in regard to the fact is resatisfactory.-L.

markable, though he is mistaken in the name of the Verse 13. Behold the land of the Chaldeans) This king he speaks of. He says that.“ a certain king of verse is extremely obscure; the obscurity arises from Assyria, the fourteenth in succession from Ninus, (as the ambiguity of the agents, which belong to the he might be, if Ninus is placed, as in the common verbs, and of the objects expressed by the pronouns; chronology, eight hundred years higher than we have from the change of number of the verbs, and of gender above set him,) named, as it is said, Chaldæus, having in the pronouns. The MSS. give us no assistance, gathered together and united all the people called Chaland the ancient Versions very little. The Chaldee deans, built the famous city, Babylon, upon the Euand Vulgatè read zipo samoah, in the plural number. phrates.”—L. I have followed the interpretation which, among many Verse 14. Howl, ye ships] The Prophet Ezekiel hath different ones, seemed to be most probable, that of enlarged upon this part of the same subject with great Perizonius and Vitringa.

force and elegance : The Chaldeans, Chasdim, are supposed to have had

“ Thus saith the Lord Jehovah concerning Tyre:their origin, and to have taken their name, from Chesed,

At the sound of thy fall, at the cry of the wounded, the son of Nachor, the brother of Abraham. They were known by that name in the time of Moses, who

At the great slaughter in the midst of thee, shall not

the islands tremble ? calls Ur in Mesopotamia, from whence Abraham came, to distinguish it from other places of the same name,

- And shall not all the princes of the sea descend from Ur of the Chaldeans. And Jeremiah calls them an

their thrones, ancient nation. This is not inconsistent with what

And lay aside their robes, and strip off their embroid

ered garments ? Isaiah here says of them : “This people was not,” that

They shall clothe themselves with trembling, they is, they were of no account, (see Deut. xxxii. 21 ;)

shall sit on the ground; they were not reckoned among the great and potent nations of the world till of later times; they were a

They shall tremble every moment, they shall be as

tonished at thee. rude, uncivilized, barbarous people, without laws, with

And they shall utter a lamentation over thee, and out settled habitations; wandering in'a wide desert

shall say unto thee : country (0"y isiyim) and addicted to rapine like the

How art thou lost, thou that wast inhabited from the wild Arabians. Such they are represented to have

seas! been in the time of Job, chap. i. 17, and such they continued to be till Assur, some powerful king of Assyria,

The renowned city, that was strong in the sea, she

and her inhabitants ! gathered them together, and settled them in Babylon

That struck with terror all her neighbours ! in the neighbouring country. This probably was Ni

Now shall the coasts tremble in the day of thy fall, nus, whom I suppose to have lived in the time of the

And the isles that are in the sea shall be troubled at Judges. In this, with many eminent chronologers, I follow the authority of Herodotus, who says that the

Ezek. xxvi. 15-18.

thy departure." Assyrian monarchy lasted but five hundred and twenty Verse 15. According to the days of one king] That years. Ninus got possession of Babylon from the is, of one kingdom ; see Dan. vii. 17, viii. 20. NebuCuthean Arabians ; the successors of Nimrod in that chadnezzar began his conquests in the first year of his empire collected the Chaldeans, and settled a colony reign; from thence to the taking of Babylon by Cyrus of them there to secure the possession of the city, which are seventy years, at which time the nations subdued he and his successors greatly enlarged and ornament- I by Nebuchadnezzar were to be restored to liberty.

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