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The destruction of
-, ISAIAH .
Babylon foretold. A. M. cir. 3290. at the hearing of it ; I was dis- 8 And he cried, A lion: My A M. cir. 3290. Olymp. XVI. 3. mayed at the seeing of it. lord, I stand continually upon the Olymp. XVI. 3. Numæ Pompilii,
4 My heart panted, fearful- watchtower in the day-time, and Numæ Pompilii, R. Roman., 2.
R. Roman., ness affrighted me; b,the night I am set in my ward • whole nights: of my pleasure hath he i turned into fear 9 And, behold, here cometh a chariot of men, unto me.
with a couple of horsemen. And he answered 5. k Prepare the table, watch in the watch- and said, Babylon is fallen, is fallen ; and tower, eat, drink: - arise, ye' princes, and all the graven images of her gods he hath anoint the shield.
broken into the ground. 6. For thus hath the Lord said unto me, Go, 10 O my threshing, and the scorn of my set a watchman, let him declare what he secth. floor : that which I have heard of the Lord of
7 ? And he saw a chariot with a couple of hosts, the God of Israel, have I declared unto you. horsemen, a chariot of asses, and a chariot of 11 • The burden of Dumah. He calleth to camels; and he hearkened diligently with me out of Seir, Watchman, what of the night? much heed :
Watchman, what of the night?
i Heb. put.
& Or, my mind wandered, k Dan. v. 5. Ver. 9. XX. 24 ; ver. 5; Hab. i. 1.
h Deut, xxviii. 67.-
ÞJer. li. 8; Rev. xiv. 8; xviii. 2.- Chap. xlvi. I; Jer. 1. 2; _n 2 Chron. li. 44. Jer. li. 33. -- Heb. son. Chron. i. 30; Jer,
xlix. 7, 8; Ezek. xxxv. 2; Obad. I.
have put an end to all her vexations"] Heb. “ Her gage from the camels, and mounted his horsemen upon
Verse 9. Here cometh a chariot of men; $0.—"A
to separate the chaff from the wheat !” The image of Arise, ye princes, and anoint the shield.) Kimchi threshing is frequently used by the Hebrew poets, with observes that several of the rabbins understood this of great elegance and force, to express the punishment Belshazzar's impious feast and death. The king of a of the wicked and the trial of the good, or the utter people is termed the shield, because he is their defence. dispersion and destruction of God's enemies. Of the The command, Anoint the shield, is the same with Anoint different ways of threshing in use among the Hebrews, a new king. Belshazzar being now suddenly slain, and the manner of performing them, see the note on while they were all eating and drinking, he advises the chap. xxviii. 27. princes, whose business it was, to make speed and Our translators have taken the liberty of using the anoint another in his stead.
word threshing in a passive sense, to express the obVerse 7. And he saw a chariot, fc.-" And he saw ject or matter that is threshed ; in which I have fola chariot with two riders; a rider on an ass, a rider lowed them, not being able to express it more properly, on a camel") This passage is extremely obscure from without departing too mueh from the form and letter the ambiguity of the term 237 recheb, which is used of the original. “ Son of my floor," Heb. It is an three times, and which signifies a chariot, or any other idiom of the Hebrew language to call the effect, the vehicle, or the rider in it; or a rider on a horse, or any object, the adjunct, any thing that belongs in almost other animal ; or a company of chariots, or riders. The any way to another, the son of it. • “O my threshing." prophet may possibly mean a cavalry in two parts, with The prophet abruptly breaks off the speech of God; two sorts of riders ; riders on asses or mules, and riders and instead of continuing it in the form in which he on camels; or led on by two riders, one on an ass, and had begun, and in the person of God, “This I declare one on a camel. However, so far it is pretty clear, unto you by my prophet," he changes the form of adthat Darius' and Cyrus, the Medes and the Persians, dress, and adds, in his own person, " This I declare are intended to be distinguished by the two riders on the unto you from God.” two sorts of cattle. It appears from Herodotus, i. 80, Verse 11. The burden of Dumah—" The oracle that the baggage of Cyrus' army was carried on camels. concerning Dumah.") Pro 77917 Dumah, Codex R. In his engagement with Cræsus, he took off the bag- / Meiri habet 178 Edom; and so the Septuagint; Vid
concerning Arabra. A. M. cir. 3290.
12 The watchman said, The 'in Arabia shall ye lodge, Oye 4. M. cir. 329. B. C. cir. 714. Olymp. XVI. 3. morning cometh, and also the travelling companies of De- Olymp. XVI. 3. Numæ Porapilii, night: if ye will inquire, inquire danim.
Numæ Pompilii, R. Roman., 2. ye: return, come.
14 The inhabitants of the land R. Roman., 2. 13 - The burden upon Arabia. In the forest of Tema w brought water to him that was Jer. xlix. 28. 1 Chron. i. 9, 32.
w Or, bring yeu Kimchi ad h. I. Biblia. Michaelis, Halæ, 1720, not. now appears : and also the night-the time in which ad l. See also De Rossi. Bishop Lowth translates God will no longer wait to be gracious, but will cut the prophecy thus :
you off as cumberers of the ground. 2. But if you 11. THE ORACLE CONCERNING DƯMAH.
will inquire seriously how you are to escape. God's A voice crieth to me from Seir:
judgments, inquire ye. 3, There is still a door of Watchman, what from the night?
hope ; continue to pray for mercy. 4. Return from Watchman, what from the night?
your iniquities. 5. Come to God, through Christ, 12. The watchman replieth :
that ye may obtain salvation. The morning cometh, and also the night. Verse 13. The burden upon Arabia—" The ora
If ye will inquire, inquire ye : come again. cle concerning Arabia") This title is of doubtful This differs very little from our common Version. authority. In the first place, because it is not in One of Kennicott's MSS., and one of my own, omit many of the MSS. of the Septuagint; it is in MSS, the repetition, “ Watchman, what from the night ?” Pachom. and 1. D. 11. only, as far as I can find with
This prophecy, from the uncertainty of the occasion certainty. Secondly, from the singularity of the on which it was uttered, and from the brevity of the phraseology; for en massa is generally prefixed to expression, is extremely obscure. The Edomites as its object without a preposition, as 720 xvn massa well as the Jews were subdued by the Babylonians. babel ; and never but in this place with the preposition They inquire of the prophet how long their subjec- 12 beth. Besides, as the word gwa baarab occurs at tion is to last: he intimates that the Jews should the very beginning of the prophecy itself, the first be delivered from their captivity ; not so the Edom-word but one, it is much to be suspected that some ites. Thus far the interpretation seems to carry with one, taking it for a proper name and the object of the it some degree of probability. What the meaning of prophecy, might note it as such by the words aya nun the last line may be, I cannot pretend to divine. In massa baarah written in the margin, which he might this difficulty the Hebrew MSS. give no assistance. easily transfer to the text. The Septuagint did not The MSS. of the Septuagint, and the fragments of take it for a proper name, but render it şv ow oguuw the other Greek Versions, give some variations, but no oppas, “ in the forest, in the evening," and so the light. This being the case, I thought it best to give Chaldee, which I follow; for otherwise, the forest in an exact literal translation of the whole two verses, Arabia is so indeterminate and vague a description, which may serve to enable the English reader to judge that in effect it means nothing at all. This observain some measure of the foundation of the various in- tion might have been of good use in clearing up the terpretations that have been given of them.
foregoing very obscure prophecy, if any, light had The burden of Dumah.—R. D. Kimchi says, “ His arisen from joining the two together by removing the father understood this of the destruction of Dumah separating title; but I see no connexion between them. (one of the cities of the Ishmaelites) by the inhabit- | The Arabic Version has, “ The prophecy concerning ants of Seir; and that they inquired of the prophet to the Arabians, and the children of Chedar.” know the particular time in which God had given them This prophecy was to have been fulfilled within a a commission against it. The prophet answered : The year of the time of its delivery, see ver. 16; and it morning—the time of success to you, cometh, is just was probably delivered about the same time with the at hand; and the night—the time of utter destruction rest in this part of the book, that is, soon before or to the inhabitants of Dumah, is also ready."
after the 14th of Hezekiah, the year of Sennacherib's I have heard the words applied in the way
invasion. In his first march into Judea, or in his return ral exhortation. 1. Every minister of God is a watch from the Egyptian expedition, he might perhaps overrun man. He is continually watching for the safety and these several clans of Arabians; their distress on some interests of his people, and looking for the counsel of such occasion is the subject of this prophecy.-L. God that he may be properly qualified to warn and to Verse 14. The land of Tema-"The southern comfort. 2. Such are often called to denounce heavy country") Daiuav, Sept.; Austri, Vulg. They read judgments ; they have the burden of the word of the rain leiman, which seems to be right; for probably Lord to denounce against the impenitent, the back the inhabitants of Tema might be involved in the slider, the lukewarm, and the careless. 3. When the same calamity with their brethren and neighbours of watchman threatens judgments, some are awakened, Kedar, and not in a condition to give them assistance, and some mock: Watchman, what of the night ? and to relieve them, in their flight before the enemy, " What are the judgments thou threatenest, and when with bread and water. Tó bring forth bread and are they to take place ?" 4. To this question, whether water is an instance of common humanity in such seriously or tauntingly proposed, the watchman answers: cases of distress ; especially in those desert countries 1. The morning cometh—there is a lime of repentance in which the common necessaries of life, more pargranted; a morning of God's long-suffering kindness ticularly water, are not easily to be met with or pro,
_b Heb. borus.
against Jerusalem. 4. M. cir: 3200 thirsty, they prevented with their Within a year, according to the 4. M. cir. 3290. Olymp. XVI. 3. bread him that fed.
years of a híreling, and all the Olymp. XVI. 3. Numa Pompilii, 15 For they fled from y the glory of a Kedar shall fail : Numa Pompilii, R. Roman., 2.
swords, from the drawn sword, 17 And the residue of the R. Romàn., 2. and from the bent bow, and from the grievous- number of barchers, the mighty men of the ness of war.
children of Kedar, shall be diminished : for 16 For thus hath the LORD said unto me, the LORD God of Israel hath spoken it. » Or, for fear. y Heb. from the face.- Chap. xvi. 14.
a Psa. cxx. 5; chap. Ix. 7.cured. Moses forbids the Ammonite and Moabite to For the Lord—hath spoken it—« For Jehovah hath be admitted into the congregation of the Lord to the spoken it.”] The prophetic Carmina of Marcius, foretenth generation. One reason which he gives for this telling the battle of Cannæ, lib. xxv. 12, conclude reprobation is their omission of the common offices of with the same kind of solemn form : Nam, mihi ita humanity towards the Israelites; " because they met Jupiler fatus est; “ Thus hath Jupiter spoken to them not with bread and water in the way, when they me.” Observe that the word Diu naam, to pronouce, came forth out of Egypt,” Deut. xxiii. 4.
to declare, is the solemn word appropriated to the Verse 17. The archers, the mighty men of the delivering of prophecies : “Behold, I am against the children of Kedar" The mighty bowmen of the sons prophets, saith (DN) naam, pronounceth) JEHOVAH, of Kedar") Sagittariorum fortium, Vulg.; trans- who use their tongues, DRI IDJ'y vaiyinamu neum, posing the two words, and reading nup 120 gibborey and solemnly pronounce, He hath pronounced it;" Jer. kesheth; which seems to be, right. 'The strong men xxiii. 31, What God says shall most assuredly come of the bow, the most excellent archers.
to pass ; he cannot be deceived.
Prophecy concerning Jerusalem, 1-14. Sentence against Shebna,' who was over the household, 15-19.
Prophecy concerning Eliakim, the son of Hilkiah, 20, 21. From Eliakim, Isaiah, (agreeably to the mode universally adopted in the prophetical writings, of making the things then present, or which were shortly to be accomplished, types or representations of things to be fulfilled upon a larger scale in distant futurity,) makes a transition to the Messiah, of whom Eliakim was a type, to whom the words will best apply, and to whom some passages in the prophecy must be solely restrained, 20-24. The sentence against Shebna
again confirmed, 25. A. M. cir. 3292.
A. M. cir. 3292. B. C. cir. 712. THE burden of the valley of | 2 Thou that art full of stirs, a
B. C. cir. 712. Olymp. XVII. I vision: What aileth thee now, tumultuous city, * a joyous city: Olymp. XVII.. Numæ Pompilii, that thou art wholly gone up to thy slain men are not slain with Numæ Pompilii, R. Roman., 4. the housetops?
R. Roman., 4. the sword, nor dead in battle.
This prophecy; ending with the fourteenth verse of for the defence of the city, ver. 8-11. Compare 2 this chapter, is entitled, “ The oracle concerning the Chron. xxxii. 2–5.-L. valley of vision,” by which is meant Jerusalem, because, says Sal. ben Melech, it was the place of pro
NOTES ON CHAP. XXII. phecy. Jerusalem, according to Josephus, was built Verse 1. Art-gone up to the house-tops—“ Are upon two opposite hills, Sion and Acra, separated by gone up to the house-tops '} The houses in the east a valley in the midst.
He speaks of another broad were in ancient times, as they are still, generally, built valley between Acra and Moriah, Bell. Jud. v. 13, in one and the same uniform manner. The roof or top vi. 6. It was the seat of Divine revelation ; the place of the house is always flat, covered with broad stones, where chiefly prophetic vision was given, and where or a strong plaster of terrace, and guarded on every God manifested himself visibly in the holy place. side with a low parapet wall ; see Deut. xxii. 8. The The prophecy foretells the invasion of Jerusalem by terrace is frequented as much as any part of the house. the Assyrians under Sennacherib ; or by the Chal. On this, as the season favours, they walk, they eat, deans under Nebuchadnezzar. Vitringa is of opinion they sleep, they transact business, (1 Sam. ix. 25, see that the prophet has both in view : that of the Chal- also the Septuagint in that place,) they perform their deans in the first part, ver. 1-5, which he thinks re- devotions, Acts x. 9. The house is built with a court lates to the flight of Zedekiah, 2 Kings xxv. 4, 5; within, into which chiefly the windows open : those that and that of the Assyrians in the latter part, which open to the street are so obstructed with lattice-work agrees with the circumstances of that time, and par- that no one either without or within can see through ticularly describes the preparations made by Hezekiah them. Whenever, therefore, any thing is to be seen
A. M. cir. 3292.
R. Roman., 4.
R. Roman, 4.
against Jerusalem. 3. All thy rulers are fled to-1 q And it shall come to pass, that A M. cir. 3292. Olymp. XVII. i. gether, they are bound b by the kthy choicest valleys shall be full Olymp. XVII. 1. Numæ Pompilii, archers : all that are found in thee, of chariots, and the horsemen Numæ Pompilii
, are bound together, which have shall set themselves in array fled from far.
4 Therefore, said I, Look away from me; 8 And he discovered the covering of Judah, • I d will weep bitterly, labour not to comfort and thou didst look in that day to the armour me, because of the spoiling of the daughter of of the house of the forest. my people.
9 - Ye have seen also the breaches of the 5 • For it is a day of trouble, and of tread- city of David, that they are many: and ye ing down, and of perplexity f by the Lord God gathered together the waters of the lower of hosts in the valley of vision, breaking down pool. the walls, and of crying to the mountains. 10 And ye have numbered the houses of Je
6 And Elam bare the quiver with chariots rusalem, and the houses have ye broken down, of men and horsemen, and - Kir uncovered to fortify the wall, the shield.
11 • Ye made also a ditch between the two
Heb. of the bow. c Jer. iv. 19;. ix, 1.d Heb. I will be i Heb. made naked. Heb. the choice of thy valleys. -__'01, bitter in weeping:
Chap. xxxvii. 3. - Lam. i. 5; ii. 2. toward. -m 1 Kings vii. 2; x. 17.2 Kings xx. 20; 2 Chron. & Jer. xlix. 35. -- Chap. xv. 1.
xxxii. 4, 5, 30. - Neh. iii. 16. or heard in the streets, any public spectacle, any alarm man; which seems to me extremely probable. The of a public nature, every one immediately goes up to conjunction 7 vau, and, prefixed to DVD parashim, the house-top to satisfy his curiosity. In the same horsemen, seems necessary in whatever way the senmanner, when any one has occasion to make any thing tence may be taken; and it is confirmed by five MSS., public, the readiest and most effectual way of doing it one ancient,) four of De Rossi's, and two ancient of is to proclaim it from the house-tops to the people in my own ; one by correction of Dr. Kennicott's, and the streets. “What ye hear in the ear, that publish three editions. Kir was a city belonging to the Medes. ye on the house-top," saith our Saviour, Matt. x. 27. The Medes were subject to the Assyrians in Hezekiah's The people running all to the tops of their houses gives time, (see 2 Kings xvi. 9, and xvii. 6 ;) and so perhaps a lively image of a sudden general alarm. Sir John might Elam (the Persians) likewise be, or auxiliaries Chardin's MS. note on this place is as follows : “ Dans to them.. les festes pour voir passer quelque chose, et dans les Verse 8. The armour—"The arsenal"] . Built by maladies pour
annoncer aux voisins en aHumant des Solomon within the city, and called the house of the lumieres, le peuple monte sur les terrasses.” “In fes- forest of Lebanon ; probably from the great quantity tivals, in order to see what is going forward, and in of cedar from Lebanon which was employed in the times of sickness, in order to indicate them to neigh- building. See 1 Kings vii. 2, 3. bours by lighting of candles, the people go up to the Verse 9. Ye gathered together the waters_" And ye house-tops.”
shall collect the waters ") There were two pools in Verse 3. All thy rulers—are bound by the archers or near Jerusalem, supplied by springs: the upper pool, “All thy leaders—are Aed from the bow"). There or the old pool, supplied by the spring called Gihon, 2 seems to be somewhat of an inconsistency in the sense Chron. xxxii. 30, towards the higher part of the city, according to the present reading. If the leaders were near Sion, or the city of David, and the lower pool, bound, 170x usseru, how could they flee away? for probably supplied by Siloam, towards the lower part. their being bound, according to the obvious construc- When Hezekiah was threatened with a siege by Sention and course of the sentence, is a circumstance prior nacherib, he stopped up all the waters of the fountains to their flight. I therefore follow Houbigant, who reads without the city; and brought them into the city by a 1700 huseru, remoti sunt, “ they are gone off.” 150 conduit, or subterranean passage cut through the rock; galu, transmigraverunt, Chaldee ; which seems to con- those of the old pool, to the place where he had a doufirm this emendation.
ble wall, so that the pool was between the two walls. Verse 6. Chariots of men—“The Syrian ") . It is This he did in order to distress the enemy, and to supnot easy to say what 098 397 recheb adam, a chariot ply the city during the siege. This was so great a of men, can mean. It seems by the form of the sen- work that not only the historians have made particular tence, which consists of three members, the first and mention of it, 2 Kings xx. 20 ; 2 Chron. xxxii. 2, 3, the third mentioning a particular people, that the second 5, 30; but the son of Sirach also has celebrated it in should do so likewise. Thus DVD DW 2270 be- his encomium on Hezekiah. “ Hezekiah fortified his recheb aram uparashim, " with chariots the Syrian, and city, and brought in water into the midst thereof; he with horsemen :" the similitude of the letters 7 daleth digged the hard rock with iron, and made wells for and 7 resh is so great, and the mistakes arising from water," Ecclus. xlviii. it are so frequent, that I readily adopt the correction of Verse 11. Unto the maker thereof—“To him that Hloubigant, ass aram, Syria, instead of DIX adam, hath disposed this ") . That is, to God the Author and
against Jerusalem. A M. cir. 3292. walls for the water of the old drinking wine ; , * let us eat and 4: M. cir: 3292. Olymp. XVII. 1. pool : but ye have not looked drink, for to-mòrrow we shall Olymp. XVII. 1. Numæ Pompilii, unto p the maker thereof, nei- die.
Numæ Pompilii, R. Roman., 4. ther had respect. unto him that
14. And it was revealed in R. Roman., 4. fashioned it long ago. :
mine ears by the Lord of hosts, Surely this 12 And in that day did the Lord God of iniquity u shall not be purged from you till hosts 9 call to weeping, and to mourning, and ye die, saith the Lord God of hosts. "to baldness, and to girding with sackcloth: 15 Thus saith the Lord God of hosts, Go,
- 13 And behold joy and gladness, slaying get thee unto this treasurer, even unto "Shebna,
P See ch ap. xxxvii. 26.—1 Joel i, 13. See Ezra ix. 3; xv. 32. Chap. v. 9.] Sam. iii. 14; Ezek. xxiv. 13.
Verse 14. It was revealed in mine ears—"The “ Hast thou not heard of old, that I have disposed it; voice of Jehovah ") The Vulgate has vox Domini ; And of ancient times, that I have formed it ?" as if in his copy he had read 17in yıp kol Yehovah ; and
in truth, without the word Sup kol, voice, it is not easy Verse 13. Let us eat and drink, for to-morrow we.
to make out the sense of the passage ; as appears from shall die.] This has been the language of all those the strange versions which the rest of the ancients, who have sought their portion in this life, since the (except the Chaldee,) and many of the moderns, have foundation of the world. So the poet :
given of it; as if the matter were revealed in or to Heu, heu nos miseri! quam totus homuncio nil est ! the ears of Jehovah : &v sous Wor. Kugou, in the ears Sic erimus cuncti, postquam nos auferet orcus. of the Lord, Séptuagint. Vitringa translates it, ReErgo vivamus, dum licet esse, bene.
velatus est in auribus meis JehovAH, “ Jehovah hath Alas, alas! what miserable creatures are we, only the revealed it in mine ears ;” and refers to 1 Sam. ii. 27;
semblances of men! And so shall we be all when ii. 21 : but the construction in those places is different, we come to die. Therefore let us live joyfully while and there is no speech of God added ; which here seems we may.
to want something more than the verb obod nigleh to
introduce it. Compare chap. v. 9, where the text is Domitian had an image of death hung up in his di.
still more imperfect. ning-room, to show his guests that as life was uncer
The Lord God of hosts]
Adonar. tain, they should make the best of it by indulging them
Yehovah tsebaoth. But 97Adonai, Lord, is omitted selves. On this Martial, to flatter the emperor, whom by two of Kennicott's and De Rossi's MSS., and by he styles god, wrote the following epigram :
two of my own; by three editions, and the Septuagint, Frange thoros, pete vina, tingere nardo.
Syriac, and Arabic. Ipse jubet mortis te meminisse Deus.
Verse 15. Gorunto Shebna] The following proSit down to table—drink heartily—anoint thyself with phecy concerning Shebna seems to have very little re
spikenard; for God himself commands thee to re- lation to the foregoing, except that it might have been member death.
delivered about the same time, and Shebna might be
a principal person among those whose luxury and proSo the adage :
faneness is severely reprehended by the prophet in the Ede, bibe, lude : post mortem nulla voluptas. conclusion of that prophecy, ver. 11-14. “ Eat, drink, and play, while here ye may:
Shebna the scribe, mentioned in the history of HeNo revelry, after your dying day.”
zekiah, chap. xxxvi., seems to have been a different
person from this Shebna, the treasurer or steward of St. Paul quotes the same heathen sentiment, 1 Cor. the household, to whom this prophecy relates. The xv. 32 : “ Let us eat and drink, for to-morrow we die." Eliakim here mentioned was probably the person who,
Anacreon is full in point, and from him nothing bet- at the time of Sennacherib's invasion, was actually ter can be expected :
treasurer, the son of Hilkiah. If so, this prophecy
was delivered, as the preceding, (which makes the for“Ως ουν εσ’ ευδι' εστιν,
mer part of the chapter,) plainly was, some time beΚαι πινε και κυβευε
fore the invasion of Sennacherib. As to the rest, Και στενδε σω Λυαιω". ,
history affords us no information. Μη νουσος, ην τις ελλη,
“And say unto him") · Here are two words lost Λεγη, σε μη δει πινειν.
out of the text, which are supplied by two of Dr. KenANAC. Od. xv., 1. 11.
nicott's MSS., one ancient, which read 58 nos “ While no tempest blots your sky,
veamarla elaiv, and thou shalt say unto him; by the Drink, and throw the sportful dye :
Septuagint, x0, EITTOV AUTQ), and in the same manner But to Bacchus drench the ground,
by all the ancient versions. It is to be observed that