Page images

A. M. cir. 3290.
B. C. cir. 714.

cir. annum

R. Roman., 2.

The desolations

of Egypt. 2 And I will d set the Egyp- and the brooks of defence shall A. M. cir. 3290. Olymp. XVI. 3. tians against the Egyptians : and be emptied and dried up: the Olymp. XVI. 3. Namæ Pompili, " they shall fight every one against reeds and flags shall wither.

Numa Pompilii, R. Roman,, 2. his brother, and every one against 7 The paper - reeds by the his neighbour; city against city, and kingdom brooks, by the mouth of the brooks, and every against kingdom.

thing sown by the brooks, shall wither, be 3 And the spirit of Egypt & shall fail in the driven away, and be no more. midst thereof; and I will destroy the counsel 8 The fishers also shall mourn, and all they thereof; and they shall i seek to the idols, and that cast angle into the brooks shall lament, to the charmers, and to them that have familiar and they that spread nets upon the waters spirits, and to the wizards.

shall languish. 4 And the Egyptians will I k give overlinto 9 Moreover they that work in Pfine flax, the hand of a cruel lord; and a fierce king and they that weave a networks, shall be conshall rule over them, saith the Lord, the LORD founded. of hosts.

10 And they shall be broken in the pur5. m And the waters shall fail from the sea, poses thereof, all that make sluices and ponds and the river shall be wasted and dried up. $ for fish. 6 And they shall tum the rivers far away; 11 Surely the princes of Zoan are fools,

& Heb. mingle. Judg. vii. 22; 1 Sam. xiv. 16, 20; 2 Chron. m Jer. li. 36; Ezek. xxx. 12.-12 Kings xix. 24.- Lo Heb. xx. 23.- Ezek. xxxix. 21. -Heb. shall be emplied.- h Heb. and shall not Kings x.28; Prov. vii. 16. Or, while Chap. viii. 19; xlvii. 12. - Or, shut


works. - Heb. foundations. Heb.of living things.-Num. iChap. xx. 4; Jer. xlvi. 26; Ezek. xxix. 19.

xiii. 22.

swallow up.

These worshipped the God of their fathers; and their in that place seems plainly to require. The form of example and influence must have had a great effect in the verb here is very irregular; and the rabbins and spreading the knowledge and worship of the true God grammarians seem to give no probable account of it. through the whole country. See Bp. Newton on the Verse 8. The fishers also“And the fishers'] Prophecies, Dissert. xii.

There was great plenty of fish in Egypt; see Num.

xi. 5. “ The Nile,” says Diodorus, lib. i., " abounds NOTES ON CHAP. XIX.

with incredible numbers of all sorts of fish.” And Verse 1. The burden of Egypt.) That is, the pro-much-more the lakes. So Egmont, Pococke, &c. phet's declaration concerning Egypt.

Verse 9. They that work in fine flar) nipvFOD Verse 3. They shall seek to the idols, and to the pishtim sericoth, heckled flax, i. e., fax dressed on charmers, and to them that have familiar spirits, and the heckle, or comb used for that purpose. The Vul to the wizards.] and thei schul asken their spmus gate uses the word pectentes, combing. lacres, and their debpnouris, and their debpl clepers, They that weave networks shall be confounded and their debpl sacrifters.--Old Bible. The import And confounden schul ben that wrogten far, plats of the original words has already been given where tinge and webpnge sotel thingis.-- Old MS. Bible. they occur in the Pentateuch. See Deut. xviii. 10, &c. Verse 10. And they shall be broken, &c.-" Her

Verse 4. A cruel lord—“ Cruel lords”) Nebuchad- stores”] ninnu shathotheyha, amonxas, granaries.-nezzar in the first place, and afterwards the whole Aquila. succession of Persian kings, who in general were hard All that make sluices and ponds for fish_" All that masters, and grievously oppressed the country. Note, make a gain of pools for fish.”] This obscure line is that for nup kasheh, lord, a MS. reads Dup kashim, rendered by different interpreters in very different manlords, agreeable to which is the rendering of 'the Sep- ners. Kimchi explains 'agmey as if it were the tuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate.

same with Diy agemah, from Job xxx. 25, in which Verse 5. The river shall be wasted and dried up.] he is followed by some of the rabbins, and supported The Nile shall not overflow its banks ; and if no inun- by the Septuagint : and viv secher, which I translate dation, the land must become barren. For, as there gain, and which some take for nets or inclosures, the is little or no rain in Egypt, its fertility depends on the Septuagint render by Sudov, strong drink or beer, which overflowing of the Nile.

it is well known was much used in Egypt; and so Verse 6. Shall turn the rivers far away—“Shall likewise 'the Syriac, retaining the Hebrew word 470 become putrid”] N'INIT heeznichu. This sense of sekra. . I submit these very different interpretations the word, which Simonis gives in his Lexicon, from to the reader's judgment. The Version of the Septuathe meaning of it in Arabic, suits the place much bet- gint is as follows : Kau Fautes O ROSOUVTES FOv qulov ter than any other interpretation hitherto given; and λυπηθησονται, και τας ψυχας πονεσoυσι. «And all they that the word in Hebrew had some such signification, that make barley wine shall mourn, and be grieved in is probable from 2 Chron. xxix. 19, where the Vul- soul.” gale renders it by polluit, polluted, and the Targum, Verse 11. The counsel, of the wise counsellors of by profaned, and made abominable, which the context Pharaoh is become brutish 4" Have counselled a

A. M. cir. 3290.

cir. annum

The desolations

of Egypt. A. M. cir. 3290. the counsel of the wise counsel

15 Neither shall there be any B.C. cir. 114. B. C. cir. 714. Olymp. XVI. 3. lors of Pharaoh is become brut- work for Egypt, which a the head Olymp. XVI. 3. Numa Pompilii, ish : how say ye unto Pharaoh, or tail, branch or rush, may do. Numæ Pompilii, R. Roman., 2. I am the son of the wise, the 16 In that day shall Egypt

R. Roman., 2. son of ancient kings?

b be like unto women: and it shall be afraid 12 Where are they? where are thy wise and fear because of the shaking of the hand men ? and let them tell thee now, and let of the Lord of hosts, which he shaketh them know what the Lord of hosts hath pur- over it. posed upon Egypt.

17 And the land of Judah shall be a terror 13 The princes of Zoan are become fools, unto Egypt, every one that maketh mention the princes of Noph are deceived; they have thereof shall be afraid in himself, because of also seduced Egypt, even w they *that are the the counsel of the Lord of hosts, which he stay of the tribes thereof.

hath determined against it. 14 The LORD hath mingled Ya ? perverse 18 In that day shall five cities in the land spirit in the midst thereof: and they have of Egypt d speak the language of Canaan, caused Egypt to err-in every work thereof, as and swear to the Lord of hosts; one shall. a drunken man staggereth in his vomit. be called, The city of destruction. u 1 Cor. i. 20. -Jer. ii. 16. Or, governors.

—Heb. Chap. ix. 14. — b Jer. Ji. 30'; Nah. ii. 13. — Chap. xi. corners. Heb. a spirit of perverseness. 1 Kings xxii. 22 ; | 15.- Zeph. iij. 9. Heb. the lip. - Or, of Heres, or of chap. xxix. 10.

the sun.

brutish counsel") The sentence as it now stands in the bam ; so the Septuagint, and perhaps more correctly." Hebrew, is imperfect : it wants the verb. Archbishop -Secker. So likewise the Chaldee. Secker conjectures that the words 7nd 'Byl yoatsey Verse 15. The head or tạil, branch or rush] R. pharoh should be transposed ; which would in some D. Kimchi says, there are some who suppose that degree remove the difficulty. But it is to be observed, these words mean the dragon's head and tail ; and rethat the translator of the Vulgate seems to have found fer to all those who are conversant in astronomy, asin his copy the verb 18y' yaatsů added after nyno trology, &c. pharoh : Sapientes consiliarii Pharaonis dederunt con- Verse 16. Shall Egypt bem- The Egyptians silium insipiens, “ The wise counsellors of Pharaoh shall be") i'nde yihyu, they shall be; plural, MS. gave unwise counsel.” This is probably the true read- Bodl. Septuagint, and Chaldee. This is not ing: it is perfectly agreeable to the Hebrew. idiom, proposed as an emendation, for either form is makes the construction of the sentence clear, and ren- proper. ders the transposition of the words above mentioned Verse 17. And the land of Judah] The threatenunnecessary.-L..

ing hand of God will be held out and shaken over Verse 12. “Let them come") Here too a word, Egypt, from the side of Judea ; through which the seems to have been left out of the text. After Toon Assyrians will' march to invade it. It signifies that chachameycha, thy wise men, two MSS., one ancient, kind of terror that drives one to his wit's end, that add 182' yibu, let them come ; which, if we consider causes him to reel like a drunken man, to be giddy the form and construction of the sentence, has very through astonishment. Such is the import of an chag, much the appearance of being genuine : otherwise the and in chagah. Five MSS. and two editions have connective conjunction at the beginning of the next nins lechagah. member is not only superfluous but embarrassing. See Verse 18. The city of destruction—"The city of also the Version of the Septuagint, in which the same the sun'] ornn ny ir hacheres. This passage is atdeficiency is manifest.

tended with much difficulty and obscurity: First, in Let them tell thee now" And let them declare") regard to the true reading. It is well known that For wyt' yidu, let them know, perhaps we ought to Onias applied it to his own views, either to procure read 1'71' yodiu, let them make known.-Secker. The from the king of Egypt permission to build his temple Septuagint and Vulgate favour this reading, Eiratwav, in the Hieropolitan Nome, or to gain credit and aulet them declare.

thority to it when built ; from the notion which he inVerse 13. Are deceived—“They have caused,” dustriously propagated, that Isaiah had in this place &c.] The text has ynni vehitha, AND they have prophesied of the building of such a temple. He precaused to err. Fifty of Kennicott's MSS. fifty-three tended that the very place where it should be built of De Rossi's, and one of my own, ancient, thirty- was expressly named by the prophet, bono ny ir hatwo editions, and the Vulgate and Chaldee, omit the cheres, the city of the sun. This possibly may have 1 vau, and.

been the original reading. The present text has Stay—“Pillars”) no pinnath, to be pointed as onon ir haheres, the city of destruction ; which plural pinnoth, without doubt. So Grotius, and so the some suppose to have been introduced into the text by Chaldee.

the Jews of Palestine afterwards, to express their deVerse 14. In the midst thereof ] “ Obapa bekir- / testation of the place, being much offended with this 98

(7* )

A. M. cir. 3290.
B. C. cir: 714.

R. Roman., 2.

Promises of the conversion


and happiness of Egypt. 19 In that day 6 shall there be shall smite and heal it : and they 4 M. cir

. 3290. Olymp. XVI. 3. an altar to the LORD in the midst shall return even to the LORD, Olymp. XVI. 3. Nuniæ Pompilii

, of the land of Egypt, and a pillar and he shall be intreated of Namæ Pompilii, at the border thereof to the LORD. them, and shall heal them.

R. Roman., 2. 20 And hit shall be for a sign and for a wit- 23 In that day shall there be a highway ness unto the LORD of hosts in the land of out of Egypt to Assyria, and the Assyrian Egypt: for they shall cry unto the LORD shall come into Egypt, and the Egyptian into because of the oppressors, and he shall send Assyria, and the Egyptians shall serve with them a Saviour, and a great one, and he shall the Assyrians. deliver them.

24 In that day shall Israel be the third with 21 And the Lord shall be known to Egypt, Egypt and with Assyria, even a blessing in the and the Egyptians shall know the Lord in midst of the land : that day, and ishall do sacrifice and oblation; 25 Whom the LORD of hosts shall bless, yea, they shall vow a vow unto the Lord, and saying, Blessed be Egypt my people, and perform it.

Assyria the work of my hands, and Israel 22 And the LORD shall smite Egypt: he mine inheritance. 6 Gen. xxviii. 18; Exod. xxiv. 4; Josh. xxii. 10, 26, 27. See Mal. i. 11.-Chap. xi. 16.- Psa. c. 3; chap. xxix. 23; Josh. iv. 20; xxii. 27.

Hos. ii. 23; Eph. ii. 10.

.paraphrase takes in both readings | איש : beith EZ בית אל beith auen pro בית און scribitur

schismatical temple in Egypt. Some think the latter that of Jerusalem. Upon the whole, the true reading to have been the true reading, and that the prophet of the Hebrew text in this place is very uncertain ; himself gave this turn to the name out of contempt, fifteen MSS. and seven editions have onn cheres, the and to intimate the demolition of this Hieropolitan city of Hacheres, or, of the sun. So likewise Symtemple ;, which in effect was destroyed by Vespasian's machus, the Vulgate, Arabic, Septuagint, and Compluorders, after that' of Jerusalem, “ Videtur propheta tensian. On the other hand, Aquila, Theodotion, and consulto scripsisse. Din heres, pro ou cheres, ut alibi the Syriac read on heres, destruction ; the Chaldee

aven El : . nga ish bosheth pro Sya v'X ish baal, &c. Vide Lowth. The reading of the text being so uncertain, no one in loc."-Secker. " It seems that the prophet de- can pretend to determine what the city was that is signedly wrote 0907 heres, destruction, for din cheres, here mentioned by name ;, much less to determine what the sun: as elsewhere ;n'y beith aven the house of the four other cities were which the prophet does not iniquity, is written for rx n'a beith El, the house of name. I take the whole passage from the 18th verse God; na v'x ish bosheth for Sya o'x ish baal,” &c. to the end of the chapter, to contain a general intimaBut on the supposition that 0170 my air haheres is. tion of the future propagation of the knowledge of the the true reading, others understand it differently. The true God in Egypt and Syria, under the successors of word on heres in Arabic signifies a lion; and Con- Alexander ; and, in consequence of this propagation, rad Ikenius has written a dissertation (Dissert. Philol. of the early reception of the Gospel in the same counTheol. XVI.) to prove that the place here mentioned tries, when it should be published to the world.

See is not Heliopolis, as it is commonly supposed to be, more on this subject in Prideaux's Connect. An. 145; but Leontopolis in the Heliopolitan Nome, as it is in- Dr. Owen's Inquiry into the present state of the Sepdeed called in the letter, whether real or pretended, tuagint Version, p. 41; and Bryant's Observations on of Onias to Ptolemy, which Josephus has inserted in Ancient History, p. 124.-L. his Jewish Antiquities, lib. xii. c.-3. And I find that Verse 19. An altar to the Lord] nixgy tsebaoth, several persons of great learning and judgment think " of hosts,” or Yehovah tsebaoth, is added by eight that Ikeniuş has proved the 'point beyond contradic- MSS. of good repute, and the Syriac Version. tion. See Christian. Muller. Satura Observ. Philolog. Verse 23. Shall there be a highway) Under the Michaelis Bibliotheque Oriental, Part v., p. 171. But, latter kings of Persia, and under Alexander, Egypt, after all, I believe that neither Onias, Heliopolis, nor Judea, and Assyria lived peaceably under the same Leontopolis has any thing to do with this subject. government, and were on such friendly terms that The application of this place of Isaiah to Onias's pur- there was a regular, uninterrupted intercourse between pose seems to have been a mere invention, and in them, so that the Assyrian came into Egypt and the consequence of it there may perhaps have been some Egyptian into Assyria, and Israel became the third, unfair management to accommodate the text to that i. e., was in strict union with the other two; and was purpose ; which has been carried even farther than the a blessing to both, as affording them some knowledge Hebrew text ; for the Greek version has here been of the true. God, ver. 24. either translated from a corrupted text, or wilfully mis- Verse 25. Blessed be Egypt-Assyriaand Israel) translated or corrupted, to serve the same cause. The All these countries shall be converted to the Lord. place is there called modis ADEDEX, the city of right- Concerning Egypt, it was said, chap. xviii, 7, that it eousness ; a name apparently contrived by Onjas's par- should bring gifts to the Lord at Jerusalem. Here it ty to give credit to their temple, which was to rival! is predicted, ver. 19, that there shall be an altar to

The Assyrians


shall oppress Egypt. the Lord in Egypt itself; and that they, with the countries shall be all, and perhaps åt nó very distant Assyrians, shall become the people of God with the time from this, converted to the faith of our Lord Jesus Israelites. This remains partly to be fulfilled. These Christ.

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The Prophet Isaiah a sign to Egypt and Cush or Ethiopia, that the captives and exiles of these countries.

shall be indignantly treated by the king of Assyria, 1-6. A. M. cir. 3290.


that a Tartan came B.C. cir. 714.

4 So shall the king of Assyria A. M. cir. 3290. Olymp. XVI. 3. unto Ashdod, (when Sargon lead away f the Egyptians prison- Olymp. XVI. 3. Numa Pompilii, the king of Assyria sent him,) and ers, and the Ethiopians captives, Numæ Pompilii, R. Roman., 2.

fought against Ashdod, and took it; young and old, naked and bare- R. Roman., 2. 2 At the same time spake the LORD b by foot, s even with their buttocks uncovered, Isaiah the son of Amoz, saying, Go and loose the h shame of Egypt, the sackcloth from off thy loins, and put off 5 And they shall be afraid and ashamed of thy shoe from thy foot. And he did so, Ethiopia their expectation, and of Egypt their d walking naked and barefoot.

glory: 3. And the LORD said, Like as my-servant 6' And the inhabitant of this kisle shall say Isaiah hath walked naked and barefoot three in that day, Behold, such is our expectation, years for a sign and wonder upon Egypt and whither we flee for help to be delivered from upon Ethiopia ;

the king of Assyria : and how shall we escape ? * 2 Kings xviii. 17.- -b Heb. by the hand of Isaiah.-Zech. 62 Sam. x. 4; chap. iij. 17; Jer. xiii. 22, 26; Mic. i. 11. xiii. 4.-d1 Sam. xix. 24; Mic. i. 8, 11.- –ỳ Chap. vui. 18. | Heb. nakedness.- 12 Kings xvu. 21; chap. XXX, 3, 5, 7; (Heb. the captivity of Egypt.

xxxvi. 6. Or, country; Jer. xlvii. 4. NOTES ON CHAP. XX.

probable that the prophet 'walked uncovered and bareTartan besieged Ashdod or Azotus, which probably foot for three years; his appearing in that manner belonged at this time to Hezekiah’s dominions ; see was a sign that within three years the Egyptians and 2 Kings xviii. 8. The people expected to be relieved Cushites should be in the same condition, being conby the Cushites of Arabia and by the Egyptians. quered and made captives by the king of Assyria. The Isaiah was ordered to go uncovered, that is, without time was denoted as well as the event ; but his appearhis upper garment, the rough-mantle commonly worn ing in that manner for three whole years could give by the prophets, (see Zech. xiii. 4,) probably three no premonition of the time at all. It is probable, days, to show that within three years the town should therefore, that the prophet was ordered to walk so for be taken, after the defeat of the Cushites and Egyp- three days to denote the accomplishment of the event tians by the king of Assyria, which event should make in three years; a day for a year, according to the their case desperate, and induce them to surrender. prophetical rule, Num. xiv. 34; Ezek. iv. 6. The Azotus was a strong place ; it afterwards held out words Dipi who shalosh yamim, three days, may postwenty-nine years against Psammitichus, king of Egypt, sibly have been lost out of the text; at the end of the Herod. ii. 157. Tartan was one of Sennacherib's second yerse, after a yacheph, barefoot; or after the generals, 2 Kings xviii. 17, and Tirhakah, king of the same word in the third verse, where, in the AlexanCushites, was in alliance with the king of Egypt drine and Vatican copies of the Septuagint, and in against. Sennacherib. Thesë, circumstances make it MSS. Pachom. and 1. D. 11. the words Tpia Etn, three probable that by Sargon is meant Sennacherib. It years, are twice expressed. Perhaps, instead of uhu might be one of the seven names by which Jerome, on D'rg' shalosh yamim, three days, the Greek translator this place, says he was called. He is called Sacher- might read Dis who shalosh shanim, three years, by donus and Sacherdan in the book of Tobit. The taking his own mistake, or by that of his copy, after ano of Azotus must have happened before Sennacherib's yacheph in the third verse, for which stands the first, attempt on Jerusalem; when he boasted of his late feia etn, three years, in the Alexandrine and Vatican conquests, chap. xxxvii

. 25. And the warning of the Septuagint, and in the two MSS. above mentioned. prophet had a principal respect to the Jews also, who It is most likely that Isaiah's walking naked and were too much inclined to depend upon the assistance barefoot was done in a vision; as was probably of Egypt. As to the rest history and chronology. af- that of the Prophet Hosea taking a wife of fording us no light, it may be impossible to clear either whoredoms. None of these things can well be taken this or any other hypothesis, which takes Sargon to be literally. Shalmaneser or Asarhaddon, &c., from all difficulties. From thy foot] Than ragleycha, thy feet, is the -L. Kimchi says, this happened in the fourteenth reading of thirty-four of Kennicott's and De Rossi's year of Hezekiah.

MSS., four ancient editions, with the Septuagint, SyVerse 2. Walking naked and barefoot.] It is not riac, Vulgate, and Arabic.

The destruction of


Babylon foretold.

cir. annum

CHAPTER XXI. Prediction of the taking of Babylon by the Medes and Persians at the time of a great festival, 1–9. Short applicatim of the

prophecy to the Jews, parity in the person of God, and partly in his own, io. Obscure prophecy respecting Dumah, 11, 12. Prophecy concerning the Arabians to be fulfilled in a very short time after its delivery, 13–17. B. M. cir. 99. THE burden of the desert of j and the spoiler spoileth.' a Go A. M. cir

. 3290

. Olymp. XVI. 3. the sea. As a whirlwinds in up, 0 Elam : besiege, O Media ; Olymp. XVI. 3. Numæ Pompilii, the south pass through ; so it all the sighing thereof have I Numa Pompilii

, R. Roman.. 2. cometh from the desert, from a made to cease.

R. Roman., 2. terrible land.

3. Therefore are © my loins filled with pain: 2 A grievous vision is declared unto me; 'pangs have taken hold upon me, as the pangs the treacherous dealer dealeth treacherously, of a woman that travaileth: I was bowed down Zech, ix. 14. Heb. hard. Chap. xxxiii. I. - Chap. xiii. 17; Jer. xlix. 34. e Chap. xv.5; xvi. 11. - Chap. xiii. 8.

The first ten verses of this chapter contain a pre- country like a sea." And Abydenus, (quoting Megasdiction of the taking of Babylon by the Medes and thenes, apud Euseb. Præp. Evang. IX. 41,) speaking Persians. It is a passage singular in its kind for its of the building of Babylon by Nebuchadonosor, says, brevity and force, for the variety and rapidity of the "it is reported that all this part was covered with water, movements, and for the strength and energy of co- and was called the sea ; and that Belus drew off the louring with which the action and event are painted. waters, conveying them into proper receptacles, and It opens with the prophet's seeing at a distance the surrounded Babylon with a wall.”. When the Euphradreadful storm that is gathering and, ready to burst tes was turned out of its channel by Cyrus, it was sufupon Babylon. The event is intimated in general fered still to drown the neighbouring country; and, the terms, and God's orders are issued to the Persians Persian government, which did not favour the place, and Medes to set forth upon the expedition which he taking no care to remedy this inconvenience, it behas given them in charge. Upon this the prophet en- came in time a great barren morassy desèrt, which ters into the midst of the action; and in the person of event the title of the prophecy may perhaps intimate. Babylon expresses, in the strongest terms, the astonish- Such it was originally ; such it became after the takment and horror that seizes her on the sudden surprise ing of the city by Cyrus ; and such it continues to this day. of the city at the very season dedicated to pleasure As- whirlwinds in the south—“ Like the southern and festivity, ver. 3, 4. Then, in his own person, tempėsts”) The most vehement storms to which Judea describes the situation of things there, the security of was subject came from the desert country to the south the Babylonians, and in the midst of their feasting the of it. “ Out of the south cometh the whirlwind,” Job sudden alarm of war, ver. 5. The event is then de- xxxvii. 9. "And there came a great wind from the clared in a very singular manner. God orders the wilderness, and smote the four corners of the house,” prophet to set a watchman to look out, and to report Job i. 19. For the situation of Idumea, the country what he sees; he sees two companies marching on- (as I suppose) of Job, see Lam. iv. 21 compared with ward, representing by their appearance the two nations Job i. 1, was the same in this respect with that of that were to execute God's orders, who declare that Judea : Babylon is fallen, ver. 6-9.

“ And Jezovah shall appear over them, But what is this to the prophet, and to the Jews, And his arrow shall go forth as the lightning ; the object of his ministry? The application, the end, And the Lord JEHOVAH shall sound the trumpet ; and design of the prophecy are admirably given in a And shall march in the whirlwinds of the south." short, expressive address to the Jews, partly in the per

Zech. ix. 14. son of God, partly in that of the prophet: “O my thresh- Verse 2. The treacherous dealer dealeth treacher. ing—” “O my people, whom for your punishment Iously, and the spoiler spoileth—The plunderer is shall make subject to the Babylonians, to try and to plundered, and the destroyer is destroyed.") 7212 73120 prove you, and to separate the chaff from the corn, the 1710 771vni hábboged boged vehashshoded shoded. The bad from the good, among you; hear this for your MSS. vary in expressing or omitting the 1 vau, in these consolation : your punishment, your slavery, and op-four words. Ten MSS. of Kennicott are without the pression will have an end-in the destruction of your op- 1 vau in the second word, and eight MSS. are without pressors.”—L.

the i vau in the fourth word; which justifies SymmaŅOTES ON CHAP. XXI.

chus, who has rendered them passively: 8 adetu Verse 1. The desert of the sea] This plainly means adeTEITAI" xou ó samastwpis w Tanaitwpss. He read Babylon, which is the subject of the prophecy. The 7190 rida bagud shadud. Cocceius (Lexicon in voce) country about Babylon, and especially below it to observes that the Chaldee very often renders the verb. wards the sea, was a great flat morass, overflowed by 782 bagad, by 113 bazaz, he spoiled ; and in this place, the Euphrates and Tigris. It became habitable by and in xxxiii. 1, by the equivalent word OR anas, to being drained by the many canals that were made in it. press, give trouble ; and in chap. xxiv. 16 both by DJ

Herodotus, lib. i. 184, says that “Semiramis con- anas and 11a bazaz; and the Syriac in this place renfined the Euphrates within its channel by raising great ders it by dho talam, he oppressed. dams against it; for before it overflowed the whole All the sighing thereof have I made to cease_"1

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