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Seu crudo fidit pugnam committere caestu,
Cuncti adsint, meritaeque exspectent praemia palmae. 70
Ore favete omnes, et cingite tempora ramis.

Sic fatus velat materna tempora myrto.
Hoc Helymus facit, hoc aevi maturus Acestes,
Hoc puer Ascanius, sequitur quos cetera pubes.
Ille e concilio multis cum milibus ibat

Ad tumulum, magna medius comitante caterva.
Hic duo rite mero libans carchesia Baccho
Fundit humi, duo lacte novo, duo sanguine sacro,
Purpureosque iacit flores, ac talia fatur:
Salve, sancte parens, iterum: salvete, recepti



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meo nunc Superbus incedis malo." 246, “annis gravis atque animi ma

Melior iaculo' like “haud furto me- turus Aletes," who is distinguished lior sed fortibus armis 10. 735. in this way from Nisus and Euryalus, “ Iaculo celerem levibusque sagittis” to whom he is speaking, and from 9. 178.

Ascanius, who follows him. Here it 69.] * Aut' and 'seu' are treated as discriminates Acestes from Ascanius, equivalents, as in 12. 685, 686. ‘Crudo and perhaps from Helymus and the caestu' G. 3. 20. 'Fidit' seems here rest cetera pubes.' = 'audet.'

74.] “Sequitur tum cetera pubes” 70.] ‘Praemia palmae' G. 3. 49. 7. 614. Sequi' of following an exHere there seems to be a confusion ample 1. 747. between two notions, the competitors 77.] 'Carchesia' G. 4. 380. For awaiting the award of the prize of these libations to the dead generally victory, which would fall to the one comp. 3. 66 (note), E. 5. 67: also who deserved it, and the competitors Il. 23. 170, 219 foll. * Mero,' a looking forward to a number of prizes solitary instance in Virg. of the use which would be awarded according of the word in its proper adjectival to their several deserts.

sense. The abl., for which the gen. 71.] 'Ore favere' as usual = evon would be more usual, may be called Meiv, 'to speak words of good omen.' material or descriptive. Comp. E. 3. The point was, that none but good 39 note. words should be uttered before a 78.] Sanguine sacro’3. 67. sacrifice, and the spectators in con- 79.] “Purpureos spargam flores” is sequence either repeated vhat the said by Anchises himself of funeral priest said or did not speak at all. offerings to young Marcellus, 6. 884. Putting on wreaths was part of the The custom was the same in Greece, ceremonial, 8. 274, 276, 286.

Aesch. Pers. 618, Soph. El. 895. 72.] Comp. G. 1. 28. Velat: see 2. 80.] It is very doubtful whether 249., 3. 174. Materna,' sacred to Venus 'iterum' refers to Aeneas' second his mother: “Paphiae myrtus” G. 2. visit to the tomb, or simply to the 64.

repetition of the address salve’--in 73.] Helymus, a companion or re- other words, whether it should be tainer of Acestes, but younger, vv. connected in pointing with the first 300, 301 below.

His name

was or the second clause in the line. connected with Sicily, as the mythic ‘Recepti nequiquam' is to be exfounder of the Elymi, a people plained of Aeneas' rescue of his father there, Thục. 6. 2. Maturus aevi' from Troy, which he calls in vain, as means merely of ripe years, not he was to lose him after all: comp. 3. necessarily implying old age: 'ma- 711 “heu tantis nequiquam erepte turus' however is frequently used of periclis,” and 6. 111 “Eripui his hu; the old, with reference either to their meris medioque ex hoste recepi.” experience or to their age, and is in * Recepti' genitive, agreeing with the effect a comparative term. . Comp. 9. notion of 'patris' in paternae:'

و وو

Nequiquam cineres, animaeque umbraeque paternae.
Non licuit finis Italos fataliaque arva,
Nec tecum Ausonium, quicumque est, quaerere Thybrim.
Dixerat haec, adytis cum lubricus anguis ab imis
Septem ingens gyros, septena volumina traxit, 85
Amplexus placide tumulum lapsusque per aras,
Caeruleae cui terga notae maculosus et auro
Squamam incendebat fulgor, ceu nubibus arcus
Mille iacit varios adverso sole colores.
Obstipuit visu Aeneas. Ille agmine longo

Tandem inter pateras et levia pocula serpens
Libavitque dapes, rursusque innoxius imo
Successit tumulo, et depasta altaria liquit.
Hoc magis inceptos genitori instaurat honores,
Incertus, Geniumne loci famulumne parentis

95 Esse putet; caedit binas de more bidentis, comp. phrases like

mea unius ope- derat auro," rather makes for the ra, vestram omnium caedem," and latter. above v. 24,"litora fraterna Erycis.” 89.] Some MSS. have 'trahit.'

81.] For 'umbrae' used of the ap- Either gives a vivid poetical image, pearance of a single person see 4. 571. 'trahit of the length of the bow, No other instance is quoted of a simi- 'iacit’ of the glancing brightness of lar use of 'animae, but Virg. may the colours. Nubibus' may = "in have been tempted by the analogy of nubibus," or may be connected with •Manes,' even if he did not distinctly 'iacit,' flings on the clouds. realize the belief in the twofold per- 90.] Agmine' = train: so of a sonality of the dead, referred to on 4. serpent G. 3. 422, “extremaeque ag610.

mina caudae;" A. 2. 212, "illi agmine 82.] ‘Non licuit,'as in 4. 550, “Why certo Laocoonta petunt." was it not permitted me?''Fataliaque 91.] · Tandem' expresses the slowarva'4. 355.

ness of the process. 83.] 'Quicumque est :' " Aut quia 92.] ‘Dapes,' probably the offerings adhuc eum nusquam vidit, aut taedio on the altars, which, though not menlongae navigationis hoc dicit,” Serv. tioned, of course must be assumed. It Virg. was thinking of Apoll. R. 3. 266. may however refer to the libations

84.] *Adytis’ is perhaps meant to and flowers. See 3. 301. indicate the sanctity of the tomb. 93.] . Depasta' is explained by

85.] It may be doubted whether libavit.” there is any special meaning in the 94.] 'Instaurat' because of 'incepseven coils of the snake, though Serv. tos. See 4. 63. thinks they indicate the seven years 95.] The "Genius loci' was the tuof Aeneas' wandering, comparing the telary god of the place. Such local portent of the serpent in Iliad 2, and deities were commonly worshipped in Heyne thinks seven is chosen as a Italy in provincial towns, and the Romystical number. 'Gyri’and 'volu- man people itself had its Genius. The mina’are probably the same. Some 'Genius' was frequently represented however explain it as a sort of hen- under the form of a serpent. “Famu. diadys,“ septem gyros in se replica- lum :'Anchises as a god.might have tos "ne tinnire inania poetam had an animal to attend him. Sil. 6. putes."

288 speaks of a serpent as “famulus 87.] Auro' might go either with sororum Naiadum," Val. F. 3. 458 of ‘maculosus' or with'incendebat :' “angues Umbrarum famuli.” but Sil. 15. 678, 'clipeumque accen- 96.] The three kinds of victims are


Totque sues, totidem nigrantis terga iuvencos;
Vinaque fundebat pateris, animamque vocabat
Anchisae magni Manisque Acheronte remissos.
Nec non et socii, quae cuique est copia, laeti
Dona ferunt, onerant aras, mactantque iuvencos;
Ordine aena locant alii, fusique per herbam
Subiiciunt veribus prunas et viscera torrent.

Exspectata dies aderat nonamque serena
Auroram Phaethontis equi iam luce vehebant,
Famaque finitimos et clari nomen Acestae
Excierat; laeto conplebant litora coetu,
Visuri Aeneadas, pars et certare parati.
Munera principio ante oculos circoque locantur
In medio, sacri tripodes viridesque coronae
Et palmae pretium victoribus, armaque et ostro
Perfusae vestes, argenti aurique talenta ;
Et tuba commissos medio canit aggere ludos.



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the same as those sacrificed at the as a name of the sun-god (e. g. Val. Fl. Suovetaurilia or Solitaurilia. Comp. 3. 213,"trepidam Phaethon adflavit 1. 634, 635.

ab alto Tisiphonen ”). This is doubt97.] Comp. 6. 153, 243 foll.

less its sense here, as a reference to 98.] This invocation seems to be the adventure of the legendary Phaeparallel to the 'inclamatio men- thon with his father's horses would tioned 3. 68., 6. 506.

be obviously out of place. 99.] Remissos,' the shade being 107.] 'Conplebant, the imperfect, assumed to be present in order to is the effect of which the pluperfect partake of the funeral offerings. 'excierat' is the cause.

100.] 'Quao cuique est copia,' pro 108.] “. Visuri Aeneadas :' expressua quisque facultate.” Serv. Laeti: sit plenissimam laudem Troianorum.' note on v. 58. above.

Donatus. We may remember that 101.1 Dona ferunt' G. 3. 22. Virg. might have said “Visuri ludos."

102.] 'Ordine,' in turn, G. 4. 376. 'Pars,' as often, with a masc. plur., For the rest of the line see 1. 213, 214, used almost adverbially. Certare where the same words occur.

parati: comp. E. 7.5. 103.).‘Put the live coals under the 109.] 'Circo:' we must either supspits' is probably a way of saying pose Virg. to have forgotten himself

hang the spits before the live coals. here, as it is not until v. 289, after Viscera' 1. 211 note. "Pinguiaque the ship-race is over, that they go in veribus torrebimus exta colurnis into the circus, or take circo' of the G. 2. 396.

concourse of people, used perhaps 104.] It may be as well to observe proleptically. once for all that the description of 110.] Tripods are given in Hom. vv. these games is closely imitated, “mu- 259, 264 &c. 'Sacri,' to be used in tatis mutandis,' even in minor par- sacrifice. ticulars, from the description of 111.] The ‘palmae' (G.3. 12 note), those at the tomb of Patroclus (I). a post-Homeric institution, were 23). The student should compare the contined to the conquerors: see betwo, as the points of resemblance are low, vv. 472, 519. much too numerous for specification. 112.] ‘Perfusae,' dyed or saturated.

105.] Φαέθων is the Homeric and “Omne genus perfusa coloribus in Hesiodic epithet of the sun (Il. 11. genere omni” Lucr. 2.821. 735 &c.), and is used by later writers 11:3.) The trumpet appears in Homer Prima

pares ineunt gravibus certamina remis Quattuor ex omni delectae classe carinae.

115 Velocem Mnestheus agit acri remige Pristim, Mox Italus Mnestheus, genus a quo nomine Memmi, Ingentemque Gyas ingenti mole Chimaeram, Urbis opus, triplici pubes quam Dardana versu Inpellunt, terno consurgunt ordine remi;

120 Sergestusque, domus tenet a quo Sergia nomen, Centauro invehitur magna, Scyllaque Cloanthus Caerulea, genus unde tibi, Romane Cluenti.

Est procul in pelago saxum spumantia contra Litora, quod tumidis submersum tunditur olim Fluctibus, hiberni condunt ubi sidera Cori ; Tranquillo silet, inmotaque attollitur unda Campus et apricis statio gratissima mergis.


only in a simile: it was however used perpendicularly. for commencing the shows at the 121.]. 'Sergestus' 1. 510. Tenet circus in Rome. Committere ludos' nomen,' derives the name it still occurs in Cic. ad Q. 3. 4.6, Fin. 3. 2.8, bears. Comp. 6. 235., 7. 412. and is to be explained of matching 123.] Scylla's dogs are spoken of the several competitors. Medio as 'caerulei’ 3. 432, and the 'inaggere,' a mound in the centre of signe' of Scylla would doubtless be the company, perhaps the same as in painted of this colour, if not the V. 44.

· whole vessel. Sen. Ep. 76 alludes to 116.] The names of the ships are all the custom of painting ships, “Navis taken from monsters.

bona dicitur, non

quae pretiosis 117.] 'Soon to be founder of an coloribus picta est sed stabilis Italian house.' The connecting of et firma," Roman families with Trojan heroes 124.] From the description it is is not a fancy of Virg.'s, but dates supposed that the race is meant to from an earlier period. Varro wrote take place in the Sinus Longuri, a book • de familiis Troianis.' Virg. under Mount Eryx. The description may or may not have derived Mnes- of the goal is modelled, mutatis mutheus from jeunotai, Memmius from tandis, upon that of the goal in meminisse:' but he evidently fol- Homer's chariot-race (II. 22. 327 foll.). lows the analogy of those words in The rock is well out at sea, 'procul his etymology, in which ‘Mnestheus' in pelago,' and faces the shore, conbecame 'Memmius,' as peuvñobac be- tra litora.' came 'meminisse.'

126.]. Condunt'with clouds; per118.] The adj. is doubled to en- haps also with foam and spray (3. hance the notion of greatness: comp.

567). "Cori: see on G. 3. 278. Homer's κείτο μέγας μεγαλωστί. 127.] Tranquillo' abl. of circum

119.]. Urbis opus' is a singular stance. Tranquillum' is frequently expression for urbis instar.' It may used as a subst., and hence tran. possibly be explained as 'opus urbe quillo' is sometimes found adver. dignum.' Versus' of a tier of oars, bially, a step beyond its use here. Livy 23. 30. Virg. has been guilty of 128.] 'Campus,' a table-land, like an anachronism, as triremes were aequor' (applied to a rock Lucr. 3. not invented till the historic period 892) or 'planities.' 'Apricis' is half (Thuc. 1. 13), about B.c. 700.

proleptic. “A pleasant standing-place 120.) Terno ordine' for “ tribus for sea-birds to sun themselves upordinibus." 'Consurgunt,' the tiers on.'

Comp. G. 4. 421, “Deprensis rising one above another, though not olim statio tutissima nautis."



Hic viridem Aeneas frondenti ex ilice metam
Constituit signum nautis pater, unde reverti
Scirent et longos ubi circumflectere cursus.
Tum loca sorte legunt, ipsique in puppibus auro
Ductores longe effulgent ostroque decori;
Cetera populea velatur fronde iuventus
Nudatosque humeros oleo perfusa nitescit.
Considunt transtris, intentaque bracchia remis;
Intenti exspectant signum, exsultantiaque haurit
Corda pavor pulsans laudumque arrecta cupido.
Inde, ubi clara dedit sonitum tuba, finibus omnes,
Haud mora, prosiluere suis; ferit aethera clamor
Nauticus, adductis spumant freta versa lacertis.
Infindunt pariter sulcos, totumque dehiscit


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129.] The meaning seems to be lean forward to take their stroke; that tree is cut down or torn up 'int i,' that while in that position, and set on the rock, leaves and all, while on the stretch, they fix their as a goal.

eyes on the coming of the signal-as 130.] It is difficult to give the force may be seen in any boat-race now. of 'pater. Perhaps on a compari- 137.] ‘ Exsultantiaque haurit Corda son of vv. 358, 424 below we may say pavor pulsans' G. 3. 105 note. that it denotes Aeneas' acting as the 138.] “Spes arrectae iuvenum " G. president and patron of the games, 3. 105. “Tantus amor laudum"ib. 110. directing the sports of those who 139.} 'Finibus,' from their respecare younger than himself, and to tive places, which were their limits whom he acts the part of an indul- until the signal was given. It is the gent parent. In v. 521 it indicates ‘limen' of v. 316, the 'carcer' of the Acestes' display of his prowess as a circus. veteran.

140.] Ferit aurea sidera clamor" 131.] They had probably to sail

2. 488. Clamor nauticus' 3. 128. round the goal; at any rate it served 141.] It is doubtful whether 'versa' as the turning-point of the race, which here and 'verso’in the parallel paswas like a Greek δίαυλος. “Longos sage 10. 208 “spumant vada marmoro et circumflectere cursus" 3. 430. verso come from 'vertere' or from

132.] They choose their places by verrere. • Verrere' is used several lot, as it was an object to secure the times of rowing (see 3. 668), while to place which as nearest to the goal support the use of ‘vertere’ in that involved the shortest turn. 'Ipsi' = sense we must perhaps look to the conspicuous among the rest: so G. 4. analogy of ploughing, 'vertere ter82 of the bee-kings, “ipsi per medias ram,' &c. But the participle 'versus' acies,&c.

from 'verrere' is exceedingly rare; 133.] ‘Ductores,' the commanders, and though 'verrere is the more as distinguished from 'rectores,' the natural word for rowing where quick pilots (v. 161).

motion is the notion intended to be 134.] The rowers are partially brought out, 'vertere' would seem naked, and wear garlands of poplar. to be fitter to express great exer*Velatur' 3. 174. Serv. says the pop- tion and disturbance of the water, lar was chosen because these were which seems to be the meaning both funeral games, that tree having been here (seeing that it is followed by brought from the shades by Hercules ‘spumant, infindunt sulcos,' ano. when he went to fetch Cerberus. ther metaphor from ploughing), and

136.] “Considunt transtris' 3. 289. in the passage from A. 10. Intenta bracchia' means that they 142.] “ Telluri infindere sulcos” E.

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