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fitted these fragments into his tessellated work, and has thus secured an episode to give interest to the voyage from Sicily to Italy, which would otherwise have been uneventful.

INTEREA medium Aeneas iam classe tenebat
Certus iter, fluctusque atros aquilone secabat,
Moenia respiciens, quae iam infelicis Elissae
Conlucent flammis. Quae tantum accenderit ignem,
Caussa latet; duri magno sed amore dolores
Polluto, notumque, furens quid femina possit,
Triste per augurium Teucrorum pectora ducunt.
Ut pelagus tenuere rates, nec iam amplius ulla
Occurrit tellus, maria undique et undique caelum,
Olli caeruleus supra caput adstitit imber,
Noctem hiememque ferens, et inhorruit unda tenebris.
Ipse gubernator puppi Palinurus ab alta:


Heu! quianam tanti cinxerunt aethera nimbi? Quidve, pater Neptune, paras"? Sic deinde locutus Colligere arma iubet validisque incumbere remis,

1.] Medium iter' is not to be pressed, merely meaning that he had got well on his way. Tenere iter,' 2. 359.

2.] 'Certus,' unwavering, as an arrow going straight to its mark is called "certa sagitta." Atros' with 'aquilone.' Aeneas encounters the danger Dido threatened (4. 310), and we see the consequence in the next paragraph.

4.] Dido did not light her own pile, as some of the commentators have fancied: but she had a pile made to burn, as she gave out, the effigy of Aeneas: she killed herself upon it, having ascended it apparently for the purpose of lighting it: and it would naturally be made use of to burn her body.

5. Dolores' and 'notum 'nominatives to ducunt' in v. 7. 'Dolores' not the pains themselves, but the thought of the pains.

6.] Polluto: see on 3. 61. 'Notum,' the knowledge-a use of the neuter participle often found elsewhere, as in Livy 1. 53, "degeneratum in aliis," "his degeneracy in other things."

7.] Their minds are led through a sorrowful presage: that is the course their thoughts are led to take. Augurium' means no more than conjec




ture, as "augurat" 7. 273, so that it is not a full realization of Dido's wish, 4. 661.

8-11.] Nearly repeated from 3. 192 -195.

12.] 'Ipse'as in 3. 201. Things were so bad that even the pilot, &c.

13.] Quianam' 10. 6, an archaic word. Quinct. Inst. 8. 3 thinks that, like 'olli,' it lends dignity to the


14.] Sic deinde locutus' below v. 400, where, as here and in 7. 135, deinde' is out of its place, belonging not to the participle but to the verb. Comp. 2. 391, and for the transposition of 'deinde,' 1. 195.

15.] 'Arma,' of a ship's furniture, as in 6. 353, where the specific reference is to the rudder, and possibly in 3. 371., 4. 290. We have already had "armari classem" 4. 299. So önλa Od. 2.390, 423, 430., 12. 410, passages which may have suggested to Virg. this use of the word. The precise meaning however, of 'colligere arma' is not quite certain. It seems generally to be understood of taking in part of the sails. M. Jal, in his "Virgilius Nauticus' ('La Flotte de César,' &c.) explains it of stowing away those parts of the ship's furniture that the wind might take hold of, streamers, &c.



Obliquatque sinus in ventum, ac talia fatur:
Magnanime Aenea, non, si mihi Iuppiter auctor
Spondeat, hoc sperem Italiam contingere caelo.
Mutati transversa fremunt et vespere ab atro
Consurgunt venti, atque in nubem cogitur aer.
Nec nos obniti contra, nec tendere tantum
Sufficimus. Superat quoniam Fortuna, sequamur,
Quoque vocat, vertamus iter. Nec litora longe
Fida reor fraterna Erycis portusque Sicanos,
Si modo rite memor servata remetior astra.
Tum pius Aeneas: Equidem sic poscere ventos
Iamdudum et frustra cerno te tendere contra.
Flecte viam velis. An sit mihi gratior ulla,
Quove magis fessas optem demittere navis,
Quam quae Dardanium tellus mihi servat Acesten, 30

Mr. Long thinks Virg. means generally to make every thing tight' and prepare for a squall. Validis incumbite remis" 10. 294.

16.] He turns the sails so that the wind may catch them sideways. Comp. Livy 16. 39, "aliae ad incertos ventos hinc atque illinc obliqua transferentes vela in altum evectae sunt."

17.] Magnanime Aenea,' a Homeric address, like Tvdeion μeɣálvue II. 6. 145. 'Auctor' has its technical sense of guarantee, its union with 'spondeat implying that he who gives the promise is in this case the person to make it good.

18.] 'Hoc caelo="hac tempestate," as we might say 'with a sky like this.' 'Spero' with pres. inf. 4. 337 &c.

19.] Transversa' adverbially, as in E. 3. 8. The meaning seems to be, the wind is changed, and instead of being favourable blows right across our path. Comp. the metaphorical use of the word Cic. Brut. 97, "Cuius in adolescentiam per medias laudes quasi quadrigis vehentem transversa incurrit misera fortuna reipublicae." 'Vespere ab atro' is Homer's Cóbov ἠερόεντα. The west is blackening, and a wind is getting up there.'

21.] Contra' with tendere' as well as with 'obniti:' comp. v. 27 below. Tantum,' as much as is wanted. Comp. "tanto tractu" G. 2.




22.] Comp. vv. 709, 710 below; also v. 387, 388.

24.] Fraterna Erycis' = "fratris Erycis." So in v. 630 below 'fraterni' is nom. plural. Fida,' 'fraterna :' a double epithet is not common in Latin except (1) when one of the epithets may, as here, be expressed by a genitive, or (2) when a repetition of adjectives is necessary for emphasis, as in the line "Monstrum horrendum, informe, ingens, cui lumen ademptum."

25.] Rite' with 'memor' or 'remetior.' 'Servata' already observed, i. e. in their previous voyage to Sicily. Servare' of watching the stars 6. 338, G. 1. 205. With remetior astra' comp. "sidera emensae," v. 628 below.

27.] Iamdudum' probably with 'poscere' and 'tendere.'

28.] 'Flecte viam velis' like "hanc arripe velis" 3. 477, "tendit iter velis" 7. 7, velis' being nearly navigando,' so that 'flecte viam velis' "flecte navis cursum." Sit' apparently = 'esse potest."



29.] Fessas navis' 1. 168. 'Demittere of bringing into harbour. Comp. 'devenire' of reaching the end of one's journey.

30.] Than where my friend Acestes yet lives. Comp. for the thought 1. 550, for the language 1. 546. The living friend is contrasted with the dead father.

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Et patris Anchisae gremio conplectitur ossa?
Haec ubi dicta, petunt portus, et vela secundi
Intendunt Zephyri; fertur cita gurgite classis,
Et tandem laeti notae advertuntur arenae.

At procul excelso miratus vertice montis
Adventum sociasque rates occurrit Acestes,
Horridus in iaculis et pelle Libystidis ursae,
Troia Crimiso conceptum flumine mater

Quem genuit. Veterum non inmemor ille parentum
Gratatur reduces et gaza laetus agresti
Excipit, ac fessos opibus solatur amicis.

Postera cum primo stellas Oriente fugarat
Clara dies, socios in coetum litore ab omni
Advocat Aeneas, tumulique ex aggere fatur:
Dardanidae magni, genus alto a sanguine divom,

31.] Perhaps from Lucr. 1. 135, 'Morte obita quorum tellus amplectitur ossa."

32.] Virg. seems to mean that the wind, which distressed them while they were sailing against it, was now in their favour. Thus 'Zephyri' here agrees with 'vespere' v. 19. This however, as Mr. Long remarks, obliges us to suppose that Virg. had misconceived the relative position of Carthage and the west part of Sicily. So perhaps 'gurgite' may intimate that the sea was still excited (comp.. 1. 118., 3. 564 &c.).

34.] Advertere' of bringing a ship to land, G. 4. 117 &c. Comp. also A. 1. 158. Tandem:' at length after all their dangers.'

35.] Vertice' without a preposition from the top.' Comp. 1. 143., 4.


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36.] Adventum sociasque rates,' hendiadys.

37.] Horridus in iaculis et pelle,' &c. looking rough in his javelins and bear-skin so Ennius (inc. 46) "levesque sequuntur in hastis;" Stat. Theb. 4. 221, "gravi metuendus in hasta." Libystis' is an adj. peculiar to Virg., here and 8. 368, where the half-line recurs. Pliny 8. 83 denies that there are bears in Africa: but they are mentioned by Herodotus and Solinus.

38.] The story as told by Serv. on 1. 550 is that Poseidon in punishment of Laomedon's fraud sent a sea-mon




ster to ravage the Troad, that Trojan maidens were ordered to be given to it, that fathers in consequence sent their daughters away, that one Hippotas put his daughter Segesta or Egesta on board a ship which carried her to Sicily, and that there a union took place between Segesta and the river-god Crimisus, the fruit of which was Egestus or Acestes. The common construction is concipere de' or 'ex aliquo.' Pliny 8. 16 has "conceptus leone."

39.] Veterum parentum,' his mother's Trojan ancestry.

40.] No authority is quoted for this construction of 'gratatur' with an acc. Perhaps it is best to understand ' esse.' Comp. Tac. A. 6. 21, "Conplexus eum Tiberius praescium periculorum et incolumem fore gratatur," where the sense is "congratulates him on his foresight and on the safety which will be his in consequence." 'Gaza' is a Persian word transferred into Greek and Latin, and signifying royal treasure; so that with the epithet 'agresti' it produces a kind of oxymoron, like " dapibus inemptis" G. 4. 133.

42.] Primo Oriente:' comp. 3.


43.] Litore ab omni:' they would naturally be lodged near their ships. 44.] Aeneas speaks from a mound, like a Roman general.

45.] The Trojans are called the descendants of the gods, because

Annuus exactis conpletur mensibus orbis,
Ex quo reliquias divinique ossa parentis
Condidimus terra maestasque sacravimus aras.
Iamque dies, nisi fallor, adest, quem semper acerbum,
Semper honoratum-sic di voluistis-habebo.
Hunc ego Gaetulis agerem si Syrtibus exsul,
Argolicove mari deprensus et urbe Mycenae,
Annua vota tamen sollemnisque ordine pompas
Exsequerer, strueremque suis altaria donis.
Nunc ultro ad cineres ipsius et ossa parentis,
Haud equidem sine mente reor, sine numine divom,
Adsumus et portus delati intramus amicos.
Ergo agite, et laetum cuncti celebremus honorem ;

Dardanus was the son of Jupiter, 7. 219. Altus' 'lofty' in the sense of 'noble' so often of birth or country.

46.] Comp. 1. 269. 'Exactis mensibus' G. 3. 139.

47.] 3. 63.

49.] Iamque dies adest: the day on which he is speaking is the actual anniversary: comp. 104 below, "exspectata dies aderat."

50.] Sic di voluistis' is a formula of resignation.

51.]Hunc' with 'agerem,' 'were I keeping this day.' Aeneas' language is of course hyperbolical, his meaning being that he would celebrate the anniversary under the most adverse circumstances. The Gaetulian Syrtes, like the Argive (Aegaean) sea, are doubtless chosen as associated not only with natural dangers, but with human enemies.

52.] Deprensus,' surprised, not however by a storm, which is a common application of the word (see G. 4. 421), but by the arrival of the day at an inopportune time. 'Et' couples Mycenae with the Aegaean as distinguished from Aeneas' African foes. There seems to have been a nom.

singular, Mycena.' With the gen. comp. "urbem Patavi" 1. 247.

53.] Pompa' is to be understood strictly, of a funeral procession. Here as elsewhere Virg. is thinking of Roman observances. 'Sollemnis pompas' G. 3. 22. 'Ordine"="rite," as in 3. 548.


54.] Exsequi' of funerals: Dict. Struere,' to pile up: 1. 704.

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'Suis' "debitis," as in 6. 142. 'Altaria' here and in v. 93 seems to be used vaguely for 'arae,' if the view is true which restricts 'altaria' to the superior gods.

55.] Ultro' has its primitive sense of 'beyond.' 'Not only has the day returned, bringing back its obligations, which I should have discharged in any case, but more than this, a thing which we had no right to expect, we are at the very spot. on 2.145. Ipsius' virtually


See 'ipsos.' 56.] It is true that 'equidem' may be used with other persons than the 1st sing.; but that is no reason for taking it with adsumus' here, when usage is in favour of taking it with 'reor.' Comp. 6. 848, G. 1. 415, where, as here, the clause is constructed parenthetically. 'Haud' goes not with 'reor' but with 'sine mente,' &c. 'Mente' with 'divom,' like 'numine." "Deorum mente atque ratione omnem mundum administrari et regi "Cic. N. D. 1. 2. Sine numine divom' 2.777, 'numen' meaning will or purpose, as in 2. 123 note. It is the Homeric ouк aéкηtɩ Oεŵv.

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57.] "Delati portus intravimus 3. 219. Delati' brought down from the high sea to the shore, like the Greek Karéρxeσea of returning home.

58.] Laetum honorem:' Aeneas means to say, Let our service be a cheerful one: the gods have done well in bringing us here, and are intending to do well to us hereafter. The word laetus' is rather a common one in connexion with sacrifices, e. g. 8. 267, 279.

Poscamus ventos, atque haec me sacra quot annis
Urbe velit posita templis sibi ferre dicatis.
Bina boum vobis Troia generatus Acestes
Dat numero capita in navis; adhibete Penatis
Et patrios epulis et quos colit hospes Acestes.
Praeterea, si nona diem mortalibus almum
Aurora extulerit radiisque retexerit orbem,
Prima citae Teucris ponam certamina classis;
Quique pedum cursu valet, et qui viribus audax
Aut iaculo incedit melior levibusque sagittis,

59.] It is a question whether the prayer is made to the winds themselves, or to Anchises. The latter interpretation perhaps is more obviously suggested by the context, and was evidently maintained by Lactantius, who says of Anchises (Inst. 1. 15) "cui Aeneas non tantum immortalitatem, verum etiam ventorum tribuit potestatem." On the other hand offerings were made as a fact to the winds themselves at the end of the ceremonies to Anchises, v. 772 below, as we have seen done already, 3. 115 foll., where "placemus ventos" is like 'poscamus ventos' here.

60.] The abl. abs. urbe posita' really contains the gist of the prayer.

61.] Acestes, like a true son of Troy, supplies the materials for the sacrifice. 'Troia generatus' shows the spirit in which the present is made. With the division according to ships comp. 1. 193. In navis bina, two to each ship: comp. "in navis ternos iuvencos" 5. 247.

62.] Capita' of animals numerically 3. 391. Adhibete' with 'epulis, as in Hor. 4 Od. 5. 32, "Te mensis adhibet deum." "Adhibere" to invoke or invite the god, who is said "adesse." In this feast, as in the games shortly to be mentioned, Virg. follows the Roman custom. Comp. Dict. A. Funus.' "Public feasts and funeral games were sometimes given on the anniversary of funerals. Faustus, the son of Sulla, exhibited in honour of his father a show of gladiators several years after his death, and gave a feast to the people, according to his father's testament (Dio 37. 51, Cic. pro Sull. 19)."

64.] This use of 'si' where 'cum might have been expected has given



some trouble to the commentators. Serv. suggests that the contingency may lie in the word 'almum '-if the day should be fine. It would seem to be a modest, perhaps religious, way of speaking of a future event. "Nam, si luxerit, ad librariorum Curram scrinia" Catull. 14. 17. 'Nona :' the ninth day after the anniversary. Virg. is here thinking of the 'novemdiale,' the festival on the ninth day after death, when the mourning ceremonies were brought to an end. There was another festival of a different kind which bore the same name, lasting nine days, and Virg. seems to have blended the characteristics of the two: see v. 762.

65.] See 4. 119.

66.] 'Prima' doubtless means first in order, though the other games are not distinguished numerically. Ponam certamina:' note on G. 2. 530. Certamina classis' for 'certamina navium,' the collective noun for the distributive, not merely for metrical purposes, but because the race was open to the whole fleet, and, as we might say, an encouragement to the naval interest. See v. 115.

67.] Pedum cursu' 7. 807. 'Viribus audax,' Bin TеTоLOWS.

68.] In the actual games the 'caestus' precedes the archery. Iaculo' seems to point to a different kind of contest, throwing spears: comp. G. 2. 530, II. 23. 884 foll., where a dartingmatch is proposed, but not carried out.

Either Virg. has expressed himself loosely, or when he wrote this line he thought of introducing one more game. Incedit' probably is to be explained of the proud bearing of those who anticipate victory or have actually gained it. Comp. Hor. Epod. 15. 17, "quicunque es felicior atque

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