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ENCYCLOPEDIA

AN INTERNATIONAL WORK OF REFERENCE
ON THE CONSTITUTION, DOCTRINE,
DISCIPLINE, AND HISTORY OF THE

CATHOLIC CHURCH

EDITED BY
CHARLES G. HERBERMANN, PH.D., LL.D.
EDWARD A. PACE, Ph.D., D.D. CONDÉ B. PALLEN, PH.D., LL.D.
THOMAS J. SHAHAN, D.D. JOHN J. WYNNE, S.J.

ASSISTED BY NUMEROUS COLLABORATORS

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Copyright, 1912
By ROBERT APPLETON COMPANY

Copyright, iği3
..:: :: BY THE ENCYCLOPEDIA PRESS, INC.

.. The articles in this work have been written specially for The Catholic

Encyclopedia and are protected by copyright. All rights, includ.
**** ing the right of translation and reproduction, are reserved.

PRESSWORK AND DINDING BY J. B. LYON CO., ALBANY, N. Y., U. S. A.

Contributors to the Thirteenth Volume

ALBERS, P., S.J., MAASTRICHT, HOLLAND: Schaep Nullius of; Sant'Angelo de' Lombardi, Diocese man, Herman J.A.M.

of; Sant' Angelo in Vado and Urbania, Diocese

of; Santa Severina, Archdiocese of; Sardinia; ÁLDÁSY, ANTAL, Ph.D., ARCHIVIST OF THE LI Sarsina, Diocese of; Sassari, Archdiocese of;

BRARY OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM, BUDAPEST: Savona and Noli, Diocese of; Segni, Diocese of;
Rosenau, Diocese of; Roskoványi, August.

Sessa-Aurunca, Diocese of; Sicily; Siena, ArchALLARIA, ANTHONY, C.R.L., S.T.D., ABBOT OF

diocese and University of. S. THEODORO, LECTOR OF PHILOSOPHY AND THE- BERGH, FREDERICK THOMAS, O.S.B., ABBOT OLOGY, GENOA: Saint Andrews, Priory of; Sainte OF ST. AUGUSTINE'S, CARSHALTON, SURREY,

Geneviève, Abbey of; Saint-Victor, Abbey of. ENGLAND: Sarum Rite.
ALSTON, G. CYPRIAN, O.S.B., LONDON: Rood; BERTRIN. GEORGES, LITT.D., FELLOW OF THE

Saint Augustine, Abbey of; Saint-Denis, Abbey of; UNIVERSITY, PROFESSOR OF FRENCH LITERA-
Sanctuary; Schola Cantorum; Sedilia; Sherborne

TURE, INSTITUT CATHOLIQUE, Paris: Rollin,
Abbey.

Charles; Sévigné, Marie de Rabutin-Chantal, ALVAREZ, JOSÉ MARÍA, O.P., PREFECT APOS

Madame de.
TOLIC OF SHIKOKU, JAPAN: Shikoku.

BLAKELY, PAUL LENDRUN, S.J., St. Louis ALVES MARTINS, JOSÉ, S.T.D., BISHOP OF THE UNIVERSITY, St. Louis, MISSOURI: Saint Louis, CAPE VERDE ISLANDS: São Thiago de Cabo

University of.
Verde, Diocese of.

BLUME, CLEMENS, S.J., MUNICH: Rhythmical AMADO, RAMÓN RUIZ, S.J., LL.D., Ph.L., Col

Office. LEGE OF ST. IGNATIUS, SARRIA, BARCELONA: Sala- BOUDINHON, AUGUST-MARIE, S.T.D., D.C.L.. manca, Diocese and University of; Santander, DIRECTOR,'“CANONISTE CONTEMPORAIN”, PRODiocese of; Saragossa, Diocese of; Segorbe, Dio FESSOR OF CANON LAW, INSTITUT CATHOLIQUE, cese of; Segovia, Diocese of; Seville, Archdio PARIS: Sanction; Secular Clergy; Secularization. cese of; Sigüenza, Diocese of.

BOYLE, PATRICK, C.M., SUPERIOR OF THE IRISH AYMÉ, EDWARD L., M.D., New YORK: Rose of

COLLEGE, Paris: Schools, Apostolic.
Lima, Saint.
BACCHUS, FRANCIS JOSEPH, B.A., THE ORA-

BRAUN, JOSEPH, S.J., ST. IGNATIUS COLLEGE,

VALKENBURG, HOLLAND: Rochet; Sandals, Epis-
TORY, BIRMINGHAM, ENGLAND: Rhodo; Rufinus
Tyrannius; Ryder, Henry Ignatius Dudley.

copal.

BRENNAN, ANDREW J., S.T.D., CHANCELLOR OF BARNES, MGR. ARTHUR STAPYLTON, M.A.

THE DIOCESE OF SCRANTON, PENNSYLVANIA: (Oxon. AND CANTAB.), CAMBRIDGE, ENGLAND:

Scranton, Diocese of.
Saint Peter, Tomb of; Sexburga, Saint.

BROCK, HENRY M., S.J., ORE PLACE, HASTINGS, BAUMGARTEN, MGR. PAUL MARIA, J.U.D.,

ENGLAND: Riccioli, Giovanni Battista; Ruysch, S.T.D., ROME: Saint Peter, Basilica of.

John; Scheiner, Christopher; Schott, Gaspar; BAUR, CHRYSOSTOM, O.S.B., Ph.D. (LOUVAIN),

Schwarz, Berthold. COLLEGIO DI SAN ANSELMO, ROME: Severian. BROWN, CHARLES FRANCIS WEMYSS, LochBECHTEL, FLORENTINE, S.J., PROFESSOR OF

TON CASTLE, PERTHSHIRE, SCOTLAND: Samar and
HEBREW AND SACRED SCRIPTURE, ST. LOUIS

Leyte.
UNIVERSITY, ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI: Sabbath; BRUCKER. JOSEPH. S.J.. EDITOR OF “ETUDES".
Sabbatical Year.

Paris: Ricci, Matteo; Schall von Bell, Johann BEISSEL, JAMES C., C.SS.CC., HONOLULU, HA

Adam.
WAIIAN ISLANDS: Sandwich Islands, Vicariate BUCHI. ALBERT, PH.D., PROFESSOR OF HISTORY,
Apostolic of the.

UNIVERSITY OF FRIBOURG: Schinner, Matthæus. BENIGNI, MGR. UMBERTO, PROTHONOTARY BURNS. JAMES A., C.S.C., Ph.D., PRESIDENT OF APOSTOLIC PARTECIPANTE, PROFESSOR OF Ec

Holy Cross COLLEGE, WASHINGTON: Schools: CLESIASTICAL HISTORY, PONTIFICIA ACCADEMIA

In the United States. DEI NOBILI ECCLESIASTICI, ROME: Rienzi, Cola di; Rieti, Diocese of; Rimini, Council and Dio BURTON, EDWIN, S.T.D., F. R. Hist. Soc., Vicecese of; Ripatransone, Diocese of; Roman Col

PRESIDENT OF ST. EDMUND'S COLLEGE, WARE, leges; Rome; Rome, University of; Rossano, ENGLAND: Revolution, English, of 1688; ReyArchdiocese of; Rossi, Pellegrino; Rota, Sacra nolds, William; Ricardus Anglicus; Richard of Romana; Ruvo and Bitonto, Diocese of; Sabina, Cirencester; Richard of Cornwall; Richard of Diocese of; Saint Paul-without-the-walls; Sa Middletown; Ripon, George Frederick Samuel lerno, Diocese and University of; Saluzzo, Dio Robinson, Marquess of; Rishnager, William; cese of; San Marco and Bisignano, Diocese of; Rishton, Edward; Rivington, Luke; Robert of San Marino; San Martino al Cimino; San Mi Jumièges; Robertson, James Burton; Rochester, niato; Sardinia; San Severino; Sanseverino, Gae Ancient See of; Rock, Daniel; Roger, Bishop of tano; San Severo, Diocese of; Santa Agata dei Goti, Worcester; Rokewodé, John Gage; Rolle RichDiocese of; Santa Lucia del Mela, Prefecture ard; Rolph, Thomas; Russell, Charles William;

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Russell, Richard; Sadler, Thomas Vincent DE BROECK, WILLIAM, C.SS.CC., BRAINE-LE-
Faustus; Saint Asaph, Ancient See of; Saint-John, COMTE, BELGIUM: Sacred Hearts of Jesus and
Ambrose; Sala, George Augustus Henry; Salis Mary, Congregation of the.
bury, Ancient See of; Sampson, Richard; Sande-

DEDIEU, JOSEPH, LITT.D., INSTITUT CATHOLIQUE, mapians; Seekers; Sergeant, John; Sheldon, Edward; Sherwood, William; Shirwood, William;

TOULOUSE: Rusticus of Narbonne, Saint. Simeon of Durham.

DEGERT, ANTOINE, LITT.D., EDITOR OF “LA BYRNE, JOSEPH, C.S.SP., DARIEN, CONNECTICUT:

REVUE DE LA GASCOIGNE", PROFESSOR OF LATIN Sierra Leone, Vicariate Apostolic of.

LITERATURE, INSTITUT CATHOLIQUE, TOULOUSE:

Sainctes, Claude de; Saturninus, Saint; Ségur, CABROL, FERNAND, O.S.B., ABBOT OF ST. MI

Louis-Gaston de.
CHAEL'S, FARNBOROUGH, ENGLAND: Rubrics;
Sext.

DELAMARRE, LOUIS N., Ph.D., INSTRUCTOR IN CAHILL, JAMES A., S.J., WOODSTOCK COLLEGE,

FRENCH, COLLEGE OF THE CITY OF NEW YORK:

Rochette, Désiré-Raoul; Ronsard, Pierre de; MARYLAND: Schoenberg, Matthias von; Schrader, Clement.

Rousseau, Jean-Baptiste; Scarron, Paul. CALLAN, CHARLES J., O.P., S.T. L., PROFESSOR

DELANY, FRANCIS X., S.J., WOODSTOCK COLOF PHILIOSOPHY, DOMINICAN HOUSE OF STUDIES,

LEGE, MARYLAND: Scheffmacher. John James; WASHINGTON: Sacchoni, Rainerio; Silvester,

Schneemann, Gerard. Francis.

DELANY, JOSEPH, S.T.D., NEW YORK: Sacrilege; CAMPBELL, WILLIAM, EDITOR OF "THE SOUTH Scruple; Secret; Seduction.

ERN MESSENGER”, SAN ANTONIO, TEXAS: San DERACHES. JULES. SANTA FE. NEW MEXICO: Antonio, Diocese of.

Santa Fe, Archdiocese of. CATHREIN, VICTOR, S.J., PROFESSOR OF MORAL DEVITT, E. J., S.J., PROFESSOR OF PSYCHOLOGY, PhiloSOPHY, ST. IGNATIUS COLLEGE, VALKEN

GEORGETOWN, WASHINGTON: Sestini, Benedict. BURG, HOLLAND: Right.

DE WULF, MAURICE, Ph.D., LL.D., J.U.D., CHABOT, JEAN-BAPTISTE, S.T.D., DIRECTOR

PROFESSOR OF THE UNIVERSITY OF LOUVAIN, OF THE “CORPUS SCRIPTORUM CHRISTIANORUM

MEMBER OF ROYAL BELGIAN ACADEMY, EDITOR ORIENTALIUM”, Paris: Semitic Epigraphy.

OF THE “REVUE NÉO-SCHOLASTIQUE DE PHILOSOCHANDLERY, PETER JOSEPH, S.J., MANRESA PHIE”, BRUSSELS: Rocelin; Siger de Brabant. HOUSE, ROEHAMPTON, LONDON: Shrines of Our

DONOVAN, STEPHEN M., O.F.M., St. BONAVENLady and the Saints in Great Britain and Ireland.

TURE'S SEMINARY, ST. BONAVENTURE, NEW CHAPMAN, JOHN, O.S.B., B.A. (Oxon.), PRIOR OF

YORK: Saint Bonaventure, College of. ST. THOMAS's ABBEY, ERDINGTON, BIRMINGHAM, DOYLE. JAMES. EDITOR OF "THE CATHOLIC REGENGLAND: Semi-Arians and Semi-Arianism.

ISTER", SAN THOMÉ, MADRAS, INDIA: Saint CHARLES, BROTHER, PRINCIPAL, CATHEDRAL

Thomas of Mylapur, Diocese of.' SCHOOL, NATCHEZ, MISSISSIPPI: Sacred Heart, DRISCOLL. JAMES F.. S.T.D.. NEW ROCHELLE. Brothers of the.

New YORK: Sabaoth; Sadducees; Salome; SamCHOQUETTE, MGR. CHARLES PHILIPPE

Bon; Sara; Saul; Scribes: Simeon; Simeon, Holy; CANON, M.A., L.Sc., PRESIDENT OF THE SEM

Simon of Cremona. INARY, ST. HYACINTHE, PROVINCE OF QUEBEC, DRISCOLL, JOHN THOMAS, M.A., S.T.L., CANADA: Saint Hyacinthe, Diocese of.

FONDA, NEW YORK: Shamanism. CLAYTON, JOSEPH, HAMPSTEAD, LONDON: Sam- DRUM. WALTER, S.J., PROFESSOR OF HEBREW

son, Abbot of St. Edmunds; Savaric; Simon of AND SACRED SCRIPTURE, WOODSTOCK COLLEGE, Sudbury.

MARYLAND: Rhymed Bibles; Salmeron, AlCLEARY, GREGORY, O.F.M., J.C.D., J.Cıv.D.

phonsus; Seven-Branch Candlestick; Shammai

the Elder. S.T.L., SOMETIME PROFESSOR OF CANON Law AND MORAL THEOLOGY, ST. ISIDORE'S COLLEGE, DUBRAY, C.A., S.M., S.T.B., Ph.D., PROFESSOR OF ROME: Roch, Saint; Rose of Viterbo, Saint; PHILOSOPHY, MARIST COLLEGE, WASHINGTON: Scarampi, Pierfrancesco.

Scalimoli; Secularism. CLUGNET, JOSEPH-LÉON-TIBURCE, LITT.L., DUBRUEL, MARC, S.J., BORDEAUX, FRANCE: Paris: Rocamadour.

Sacred Heart of Jesus, Society of the. CORMACK, GEORGE, I.C., RECTOR, ST. JOSEPH'S DUHEM, PIERRE, PROFESSOR OF THEORETICAL MONASTERY, CLONMEL, IRELAND: Rosmini and

Physics, UNIVERSITY OF BORDEAUX: Saxe, Jean Rosminianism (Antonio Rosmini-Serbati).

de; Saxony, Albert of. CRIVELLI, CAMILLUS, S.J., PROFESSOR OF PAI DUHIG, JAMES, S.T.D., BISHOP OF ROCKHAMPTON, LOSOPHY AND HISTORY, INSTITUTO CIENTÍFICO

AUSTRALIA: Rockhampton, Diocese of.
DE SAN JOSÉ, GUADALAJARA, MEXICO: Saltillo,
Diocese of.

ELDER, SUSAN B., New ORLEANS, LOUISIANA:

Rouquette, Adrian. CUTHBERT, FATHER, O.S.F.C., ST. ANSELM's HOUSE, OXFORD: Rites: Friar Minor Capuchin. ELLIS, JOHN HENRY, SACRAMENTO, CALIFORNIA:

Sacramento, Diocese of. D'ALTON, E. A., Canon, LL.D., M.R.I.A., BALL

LINROBE, IRELAND: Rinuccini, Giovanni Battista; ENGELHARDT, ZEPHYRIN, O.F.M., Santa Roman Catholic Relief Bill: In Ireland; Sars BARBARA, CALIFORNIA: Sánchez, José Bernardo; field, Patrick

Señan, José Francisco de Paula; Serra, Junípero

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