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IX.

1689.

New ove

BOOK framed, in order to be redressed in parliament;

the most remarkable of which were the committee of articles, the act of supremacy, the manner and measure of the popular representation ; and in the removal of every injury which the constitution had sustained, the Scots were apparently desirous I that nothing should be left unadjusted between the people and the king.

The new sovercigns were crowned in London, claimed. and proclaimed in Sçotland on the same day, pril 11.

Argyle, Montgomery, and sir John Dalrymple, were deputed from the three temporal estates to present the crown, and to administer the oath to the king and queen. The instrument of govern. ment and the grievances were first read; to which

an address, to turn the convention into a parliaMay 11. ment, was subjoined. When the coronation oath

was administered to William, he paused at the obligation to root out heretics, and declared that he did not mean to become a persecutor; and, on the assurance of the commissioners that such was not its import, protested that in that sense only he received the oaths". The insidious toleration attempted by James had excited universal disgust; but the unaffected scruples of William were honoured and approved.

Thus the hereditary rcign of the Stuarts, in the male line, was concluded eighty-six years after their departure from Scotland. Their accession

si Life of William Hist. Rev, in Scotland.

Exclusion of the Stuarts necessary.

IX.

1689.

to the English crown was the era of their gran- BOOK deur; an event that contributed neither to their felicity, nor perhaps to the improvement of their native, hereditary kingdom. The contracted abilities of James VI. were better adapted to the government of a small state, than of divided kingdoins; but the prospect of his elevation to the throne of England, inspired a weak mind with ideas of absolute power unknown to his ancestors, to which we must primarily attribute the execution of his son, the expulsion of his grandson, and the exclusion of his male posterity for ever from the crown. Had his reign been confined to Scotland, the presence of the sovereign, and the natural progress of society, were sufficient perhaps to have introduced subordination and the arts of peace; nor with a limited authority would he have ventured, so fatally for his posterity, to invade the established religion and liberties of the nation. If the Stuarts had continued to reign in Scotland alone, the attachment of the nation to an ancient family, without a rival in dignity, and without a competitor for power, might have still preserved their descendants on the throne. But the loyalty of the nation was diminished by their absence. The immense influence acquired at the accession, was employed to crush the independence of the estates; and although they recovered and enlarged their authority during the civil wars, a jealous and cruel tyranny was introduced Vol. IV.

P

BOOK
IX.

1689.

at the restoration; aggravated by all the vexa. tious insolence of delegated power. To England the revolution was a glorious event, useful rather than absolutely necessary; for if the late king had remained, its religion and liberties, under a regency, might have been secured by proper limi . tations on the throne. The loyalty of the English was gratified, while the adherents of James were insensibly mollified, by the accession of his daughters; and the nation was gradually reconciled and prepared to adopt a more complete change in the line of succession. To this circumstance must be ascribed the apparent defects in its declaration of rights, which neither asserts the choice that was actually made of a new race, nor secures the frequency and independence of parliament against the influence of the crown. But the revolution was absolutely necessary to restore tranquillity to Scotland, and to revive the confidence of the people in government; without which the king unavoidably degenerates into a tyrant, and his subjects vibrate alternately between rebels and slaves. So various and so enormous was the tyranny which I have attempted, imperfectly, to delineate, that the people never could have dismissed their suspicion and resentment, nor the government the terrors which it felt, and sought to inspire; the uniform principle of despotism, for which we may truly affirm that there was no cure but the expulsion of the Stuarts.

THE

HISTORY

OF

SCOTLAND.

BOOK X.

Convention turned into a parliament.--Insurrection.

Dundee's Victory and Death.-Montgomery's Plots.
Redress of grievances, and Presbytery restored.
Massacre of Glencoe.-Settlement of Darien.-Na-
tional distress and despair.-Death of James.-
Death and character of William.

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X.

nistration,

T was difficult, in the choice of an administra. BOOK

tion, to gratify the unreasonable expectations Sam of claimants, and to provide for the security of the New adminew reign. The episcopal party had few pretensions : from their refusal of the oaths to govern. ment, they soon acquired the appellation of nonjurors; and of Jacobites, from their stedfast attachment to James. The presbyterians who began the revolution, assumed superior merit with the king; but the exiles who returned from Holland, enjoyed a larger share of his confidence and esteem. Lord Melville, with inferior talents, was appointed

1689.

BOOK sole secretary, in preference to Montgomery, w whose mind was estranged from the new govern

ment by disgust and neglect. The duke of Ha. milton was appointed high commissioner, the earl of Crawford president of parliament; but as the chief offices of state, the treasury and the seals, were reserved to be put in commission, the former was disappointed of the distribution of places among his children and friends. By a choice less fortunate, as it was productive of general discontent, Dalrymple created viscount Stair, was restored to the presidency of the court of session, on the assassination of Lockhart, by one who conceived himself injured by an unjust award. Sir John Dalrymple, his son, was appointed king's advocate; and though they were both presbyterians, they were unacceptable and odious to that party from their compliance with the times. Their abilities were confessedly great and transcendant; but the father had abetted the iniquitous administration of Lauderdale; the son, as king's advocate in the late reign, had revived the persecutions for the insurrection at Bothwell ; and from general dislike of the confidence unguardedly reposed in men whose characters were by no means pure, their advice was suspected of creating a separation of interests between the people and the king. But the confidence of William was soon transferred to Carstairs, his chaplain, who studied, like the carl of Nottingham in England, to pre

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