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abilities to resist those impressions which shall be made upon you,* are the natural and equitable rules of all men's judgments and consciences in your condition ;—except you had taken an oath beyond a possibility. I leave that to your consideration; and shall not seek to contest with your thoughts: only I think it may become me to let you know, You may have honorable terms for yourself and those with you; and both yourself and soldiers have satisfaction to all your reasonable desires; and those that have other employments, liberty and protection in the exercise of them.

But to deal plainly with you, I will not give liberty to you to consult your Committee of Estates; because I hear, those that are honest amongst them enjoy not satisfaction, and the rest are now discovered to seek another Interest than they have formerly pretended to. And if you desire to be informed of this, you may, by them you dare trust, at a nearer distance than St. Johnston.

Expecting your present answer, I rest,

Sir, your servant,

Oliver Cromwell.

The Governor's Reply No. 2 arrives on the morrow, Friday:

"For his Excellency the Lord General of the English Forces in Scotland.

Edinburgh, 13th December, 1650.

"My Lord,—It much concerneth me (considering my obligations) to be found faithful in the trust committed to me. And therefore, in the fear of the living God, and of His great Name called upon in the accepting of my trust, I do again press the liberty of acquainting the Estates. The time is but short; and I do expect it as answerable to your profesBion of affection to those that fear the Lord. In the meantime I am willing to hear information of late proceedings from such as he dare trust irho is,—my Lord, your humble servant,

"W. DUnDAS."

The Lord General's Reply, No. 2:

* By my cannons and mortars


For the Governor of Edinburgh Castle: These.

Sie, Edinburgh, 13th December, 1650.

Because of your strict and solemn adjuration of me, in the fear and Name of the living God, That I give you time to send to the Committee of Estates, to whom you undertook the keeping of this place under the obligation of an oath, as you affirm,—I cannot but hope that it is your conscience, and not policy, carrying you to that desire. The granting of which, if it be prejudicial to our affairs,—I am as much obliged in conscience not to do it, as you can pretend cause for your conscience' sake to desire it.

Now considering ' that' our merciful and wise God binds not His People to actions too cross one to another; but that our bands may be,* as I am persuaded they are, through our mistakes and darkness,—not only in the question about the surrendering this Castle, but also in all the present differences :—I have much reason to believe that, by a Conference, you may be well satisfied, in point of fact, of your Estates (to whom you say you are obliged) carrying on an Interest destructive and contrary to what they professed when they committed that trust to you, —having made to depart from them many honest men through fear of their own safety,f and making way for the reception of professed Malignants, both in their Parliament and Army;—and also 'that you' may have laid before you such grounds of our ends and aims to the preservation of the interest of honest men in Scotland as well as England, as will (if God vouchsafe to appear in them) give your conscience satisfaction. Which if you refuse, I hope you will not have cause to say that we are either unmindful of the great Name of the Lord which you have mentioned, nor that we are wanting to answer our profession of affection to those that fear the Lord.

I am willing to cease hostility, for some hours, or convenient time to so good an end as information of judgment, and satisfaction of conscience ;—although I may not give liberty for the time desired, to send to the Committee of Estates; or at all stay the prosecution of my attempt.

Expecting your sudden answer, I rest,

Your servant,

Oliver Cromwell4

• our perplexities are caused,
t Swinton, Strahan, Hope of Craighall, &c.
X Newspapers (in Cromwelliana, p. 97).
Vol. I. 23

The Governor's Reply, No. 3, comes out on Saturday:

For his Excellency, the Lord General of the English Forces in
Scotland: These.

"Edinburgh Castle, 14th December, 1650.

"My Lord,—What I pressed, in my last, proceeded from conscience and not from policy: and I conceived that the few days desired could not be of such prejudice to your affairs, as to bar the desired expressions of professed affection towards those that fear the Lord. And I expected that a small delay of our own* affairs should not have preponderated the satisfaction of a desire pressed in so serious and solemn a manner for satisfying conscience.

"But if you will needs persist in denial, I shall desire to hear the information of late proceedings from such as I dare trust, and ' as' have nad occasion to know the certainty of things. Such I hope you will permit to come alongst at the first convenience; and during that time all acts of hostility, and prosecution of attempts, be forborne on both sides. I am, my Lord, your humble servant,

«W. Dundas."

The Lord General's Reply, No. 3:


For the Governor of Edinburgh Castle: These.

Edinburgh, 14th December, 1650.


You will give me leave to be sensible of delays out of conscience of duty 'too.'

If you please to name any you would speak with ' who are ' now in Town, they shall have liberty to come and speak with you for one hour, if they will; provided you send presently. I expect there be no loss of time. I rest,

Your servant,


Governor Dundas applies hereupon for Mr. Alexander Jaffray and the Reverend John Carstairs to be sent to him: two official

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persons, whom we saw made captive in Dunbar Drove, who have ever since been Prisoners-on-parole with his Excellency, much meditating on him and his ways. Who very naturally decline to be concerned with so delicate an operation as this now on hand, —in the following characteristic Note, in his Excellency's Reply, No. 4:


For the Governor of Edinburgh Castle: These.

Edinburgh, 14th December, 1650.


Having acquainted the Gentlemen with your desire to speak with them, and they making some difficulty of it, have desired me to send you this enclosed. I rest,

Sir, your servant,

Oliver Cromwell.*

Here is • this enclosed:'

"For the Right Honorable the Governor of Edinburgh Castle: These

"Edinburgh, 14th December, 1650. "Right Honorable,—We now hearing that you was desirous to speak with us for your information of the posture of affairs, we would be giad, and we think you make no doubt of it, to be refreshing or use ful to you in anything; but the matter is of so high concernment especially since it may be you will lean somewhat upon our information in managing that important trust, put upon you, that we dare not take upon us to meddle: ye may therefore do as ye find yourselves clear and in capacity; and the Lord be with you. We are, Sir, your honor's humble servants, wellwishers in the Lord,

"Al. Jaffray. "Jo. Carstairs."

So that, for this Saturday, nothing can be done. On Sun day, we suppose, Mr. Stapylton, in black, teaches in St. Giles's; and other qualified persons, some of them in red with belts, teach in other Kirks; the Scots, much taken with the doctrine, 'answering in their usual way of groans,' Hum-m-m-rrh !—and

* Newspapers (in Cromwelliana,-p. 98).

on Monday, it is like, the canaons and mortar-pieces begin to teach again, or indicate that they can at once begin. Wherefore, on Wednesday, here is a new Note from Governor Dundas; which we shall call Reply No. 4, from that much-straitened Gentleman:

"Edinburgh Castle, 18th December, 1650.

"Mr Lord,—I expected that conscience, which you pretended to be your motive that did induce you to summon this house before you did attempt anything against it, should also have moved you to have expected my Answer to your Demand of the house; which I could not, out of conscience, suddenly give, without mature deliberation; it being a business of such high importance. You having refused that little time, which I did demand to the effect I might receive the commands of them that did intrust me with this place ; and " I " yet not daring to fulfil your desire,—I do demand such a competent time as may be condescended upon betwixt us, within which if no relief come, I shall surrender this place upon such honorable conditions as can be agreed upon by capitulation; and during which time all acts of hostility and prosecution of attempts on both sides may be forborne. I am, my Lord, your humble servant,

. "W. Duhdas."

The Lord General's Reply, No. 5:

For the Governor of Edinburgh Castle: These.

Edinburgh, 13th December, 1650.


All that I have to say is shortly this: That if you will send out Commissioners by eleven o'clock this night, thoroughly instructed and authorized to treat and conclude, you may have terms, honorable and safe to you, and 'to' those whose interests are concerned in the things that are with you. I shall give a safe-conduct to such whose names you shall send within the time limited, and order to forbear shooting at their coming forth, and going in. To this I expect your answer within one hour, and rest,

Sir, your servant,

Oliver Cromwelu*

* Newspapers (in Cromwelliana, p. 98).

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