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the fight, That they did not believe their King in his Declaration ;* and it's most evident he did sign it with as much reluctancy, and so much against his heart as could be: and yet they venture their lives for him upon this account; and publish this ' Declaration' to the world, to be believed as the act of a person converted, when in their hearts they know he abhorred the doing of it, and meant it not.

I hear when the Enemy marched last up to us, the Ministers pressed their Army to interpose between us and home; the chief Officers desiring rather that we might have way made, though it were by a golden bridge. But the Clergy's counsel prevailed,—to their no great comfort, through the goodness of God.

The Enemy took a gentleman of Major Brown's troop prisoner, that night we came to Haddington; and he had quarter through LieutenantGeneral David Leslie's means; who, finding him a man of courage and parts, labored with him to take up arms. But the man expressing constancy and resolution to this side, the Lieutenant-General caused him to be mounted, and with two troopers to ride about to view their gallant Army; using that as an argument to persuade him to their side; and, when this was done, dismissed him to us in a bravery. And indeed the day before we fought, they did express so much insolency and contempt of us to some soldiers they took, as was beyond apprehension.

Your Lordship's most humble servant,

Oliver Cromwell.:)

Which high officialities being ended, here are two glad domestic Letters of the same date.

LETTER XCIV.

For my beloved Wife, Elizabeth Cromwell, at the Cockpit: These.

Dunbar, 4th September, 1650.

Mr Dearest,

I have not leisure to write much. But I could chide thee that in many of thy letters thou writest to me, That I should not be unmindful of thee and thy little ones. Truly, if I love you not too well, I think I err not on the other hand much. Thou art dearer to me than any creature ; let that suffice.

The Lord hath showed us an exceeding mercy:—who can tell how

* Open Testimony against the sins of his Father, see p 451. f Newspapers (in Cromwelliana, p. 91).

great it is! My weak faith hath been upheld. I have been in my inward man marvellously supported;—though I assure thee, I grow an old man, and feel infirmities of age marvellously stealing upon me. Would my corruptions did as fast decrease! Pray on my behalf in the latter respect. The particulars of our late success Harry Vane or Gilbert Pickering will impart to thee. My love to all dear friends. I rest thine,

Oliver Cromwell.*

LETTER XCV.

For my loving Brother, Richard Mayor, Esquire, at Hursley:
These.

Dunbar, 4th September, 1650.

Dear Brother,

Having so good an occasion as the imparting so great a mercy as the Lord has vouchsafed us in Scotland, I would not omit the imparting thereof to you, though I be full of business.

Upon Wednesday f we fought the Scottish Armies. They were in number, according to all computation, above Twenty-thousand; we hardly Eleven-thousand, having great sickness upon our Army. After much appealing to God, the Fight lasted above an hour. We killed (as most think) Three-thousand ; took near Ten-thousand prisoners, all their train, about thirty guns great and small, besides bullet, match and powder, very considerable Officers, about two-hundred colors, above tenthousand arms;—lost not thirty men. This is the Lord's doing, and it is marvellous in our eyes. Good Sir, give God all the glory; stir up all yours, and all about you, to do so. Pray for

Your affectionate brother,

Oliver Cromwell.

I desire my love may be presented to my dear Sister, and to all your

• Copied from the Original by John Hare, Esq., Rosemount Cottage, Clifton. Collated with the old Copy in British Museum, Cole Mss., no. 5834, p. 38. 'The Original was purchased at Strawberry-Hill Sale' (Horace VValpole's), ' 30th April, 1842, for Twenty-one guineas.'

t' Wedensd.' in the Original. A curious proof of the haste and confusion Cromwell was in. The Battle was on Tuesday,—yesterday, 3d September, 1650; indisputably Tuesday; and he is now writing on Wednesday !—

Family. I pray tell Doll I do not forget her nor her little Brat. She writes very cunningly and complimentary to me; I expect a Letter of plain dealing from her. She is too modest to tell me whether she breeds or not. I wish a blessing upon her and her Husband. The Lord make them fruitful in all that's good. They are at leisure to write often;—but indeed they are both idle, and worthy of blame.*

• Harris, p. 513; one of the Pusey stock, the last now but three.

LETTERS XCVI.-XCVIII.

Of these Letters, the first Two, with their Replies and Adjuncts, Six Missives in all, form a Pamphlet published at Edinburgh in 1650, with the Title: Several Letters and Passages between his Excellency the Lord General Cromwell and the Governor of Edinburgh Castle. They have been reprinted in various quarters: we copy the Cromwell part of them from Thurloe; and fancy they will not much need any preface. Here are some words, written elsewhere on the occasion, some time ago.

'These Letters of Cromwell to the Edinburgh Clergy, treating of obsolete theologies and politics, are very dull to modern men: but they deserve a steady perusal by all such as will understand the strange meaning (for the present, alas, as good as obsolete in all forms of it) that possessed the mind of Cromwell in these hazardous operations of his. Dryasdust, carrying his learned eye >ver these and the like Letters, finds them, of course, full of " hypocrisy," &c, &c—Unfortunate Dryasdust, they are coruscations, terrible as lightning, and beautiful as lightning, from the innermost temple of the Human Soul;—intimations, still credible, of what a Human Soul does mean when it believes in the Highest; a thing poor Dryasdust never did nor will do. The hapless generation that now reads these words ought to hold its peace when it has read them, and sink into unutterable reflection,—not unmixed with tears, and some substitute for "sackcloth and ashes," if it liked. In its poor canting sniffing flimsy vocabulary there is no word that can make any response to them. This man has a living god-inspired soul in him, not an enchanted artificial "substitute for salt," as our fashion is. They that have human eyes can look upon him; they that have only owl-eyes need not.'

Here also are some sentences on a favorite topic, lightning and Ught. 'As lightning is to light, so is a Cromwell to a Shakspeare. The light is beautifuller. Ah, yes; but until, by lightning and other fierce labor, your foul Chaos has become a World, you cannot have any light, or the smallest chance for any! Honor the Amphion whose music makes the stones, rocks, and big blocks, dance into figures, and domed cities, with temples and habitations :—yet know him too; how, as Volker's in the old Nibelungen, oftentimes his "fiddlebow" has to be of "sharp steel," and to play a tune very rough to rebellious ears! The melodious Speaker is great, but the melodious Worker is greater than he. "Our Time," says a certain author, "cannot speak at all, but only cant and sneer, and argumentatively jargon, and recite the multiplication-table. Neither as yet can it work, except at mere railroads and cotton-spinning. It will, apparently, return to Chaos soon; and then more lightnings will be needed, lightning enough, to which Cromwell's was but a mild matter;—to be followed by light, we may hope !" '—

The following Letter from Whalley, with the Answer to it, will introduce this series.. The date is Monday; the Lord General observing yesterday that the poor Edinburgh people were sadly short of Sermon, has ordered the Lieutenant-General to communicate as follows:

"For the Honorable the Governor of the Castle of Edinburgh.

"Edinburgh, 9th September, 1650.

"Sir,—I received command from my Lord General to desire you to let the Ministers of Edinburgh, now in the Castle with you, know, That they have freeliberty granted them, if they please to take the pains, to preach in their several Churches; and that my Lord hath given special command both to officers and soldiers that they shall not in the least be molested. Sir, I am your most humble servant,

"edward Whallet."

To which straightway there is this Answer from Governor Dundas:

"'' To Commissary-General Whalley.'

"Edinburgh Castle,' 9th September, 166a

"Sir,—I have communicated the desire of your Letter to such of the Ministers of Edinburgh as are with me; who have desired me to return this for Answer:

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