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'Hereunto my Lord immediately returned this Answer,'— which counts here as our Seventy-fourth Letter:


For the Governor of Ross: These.

19th October, 1649.


'If you like to march away with those under your command, with their arms, bag and baggage, and with drums and colors, and shall deliver up the Town to me,—I shall give caution to perform these conditions; expecting the like from you. As to the inhabitants, they shall be permitted to live peaceably, free from the injury and violence of the soldiers.

If you like hereof, you can tell how to let me know your mind, not withstanding my refusal of a cessation. By these you will see the reality of my intentions to save blood, and to preserve the place from ruin. I rest,

Your servant,

Oliver Cromwell.*

'Our batteries still continued, and made a great breach in the Wall. Our men were drawn out in a readiness to storm, Lieutenant-Colonel Ingoldsby being by lot chosen to lead them; but the Governor being willing to embrace conditions, sent out this his Reply:

"For General Cromwell: These.

"Ross, 19th October, 1649.

"Sir,—There wants but little of what I would propose:—which is, That such Townsmen as have a desire to depart, may have liberty within a convenient time to carry away themselves and goods: and liberty of conscience to such as shall stay: and that I may carry away such artillery and ammunition as I have in my command. If you be inclined to this, I will send, upon your honor as a safe-conduct, an Officer to conclude with you. To which your immediate answer is expected by,—Sir, your servant,

"Lucas Taaff." 'Hereunto my Lord gave this return,'—our Seventy-fifth Letter:

* Newspapers (in Cromwelliana, p. 68).


For the Governor of Ross: These.

19th October, 1649


To what I formerly offered,* I shall make good. As for your carrying away any artillery or ammunition, that you brought not with you, or ' that' hath not come to you since you had the command of that place,—I must deny you that; expecting you to leave it as you found it.

'As ' for that which you mention concerning liberty of conscience, I meddle not with any man's conscience. But if by liberty of conscience, you mean a liberty to exercise the Mass, I judge it best to use plain dealing, and to let you know, Where the Parliament of England have power, that will not be allowed of. As for such of the Townsmen who desire to depart, and carry away themselves and goods (as you express), I engage myself they shall have three months time so to do; and in the mean time shall be protected from violence in their persons and goods, as others under the obedience of the Parliament.

If you accept of this offer, I engage my honor for a punctual performance hereof. I rest,

Your servant,

Oliver Cromwell.!

'The Governor returned this Answer:

"For General Cromwell: These.

October 19th, 1649.

"Sir,—I am content to yield up this place upon the Terms offered in your last and first Letters. And if you please to send your safeconduct to such as I shall appoint to perfect these conditions, I shall on receipt thereof send them to you. In the interval,—To cease all acts of hostility, and that all parties keep their own ground, until matters receive a full end. And so remains, Sir, your servant,

"lucas Taaff."

'Hereunto my Lord replied thus:'—

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For the Governor of Ross: These.

October 19th, 1649.


You have my hand and honor engaged to perform what I offered in my first and last Letters; which I shall inviolably observe. I expect you to send me immediately four persons of such quality as may be hostages for your performance; for whom you have this safe-conduct enclosed, into which you may insert their names. Without which I shall not cease acts of hostility. If anything happen by your delay, to your prejudice, it will not be my fault. Those you send may see the conditions perfected. Whilst I forbear acts of hostility, I expect you forbear all actings within. I rest,

Your servant,

Oliver Cromwell.*

'This,' says the old Newspaper,' was the last message between them: the Governor sending out his four hostages to compose and perfect the Agreement, our batteries ceased; and our intentions to storm the Town were disappointed. Thus within three days we had possession of this place without the effusion of blood. A very considerable place, and a very good quarter for the refreshment of our soldiers. The Enemy marched over to the other side of the River, and did not come out of that side of the Town where we had encamped,'—which I think was a judicious movement of theirs. What English were in the Garrison, some five or six hundred here, do, as their common custom is, 'join us.' Munster Royalist Forces, poor Ormond men, they had rather live, than be slain in such a Cause as this has grown.



Here is Cromwell's official account of the same business, in a Letter to Lenthall.

Newspapers (in Cromwelliana, p. 69).

'For the Honorable William Lenthall, Speaker of the Parliament of England: These.

Ross, 25th October, 1649.


Since my last from Wexford we marched to Ross ; a walled Town, situated upon the Barrow; a port-town, up to which a ship of seven or eight hundred tons may come.

We came before it upon Wednesday, the 17th instant, with three pieces of cannon. That evening I sent a Summons; Major-General Taaff, being Governor, refused to admit my trumpet into the Town; but took the Summons in, returning me no answer. I did hear that near 1,000 foot had been put into this place some few days before my coming to it. The next day was spent in making preparations for our battery; and in our view there were boated over from the other side of the river, of English, Scots, and Irish, 1,500 more, Ormond, Castlehaven, and the Lord of Ardes, being on the other side of the water to cause it to be done.

That night we planted our battery; which began to play very early the next morning. The Governor immediately sent forth an Answer to my Summons; copies of all which I make bold herewith to trouble you 'with ;'* the rather because you may see how God pulls down proud stomachs. The Governor desired commissioners might treat, and that in the meantime there might be a ceasing of acts of hostility on both sides. Which I refused; sending in word, That if he would march away with arms, bag and baggage, and give me hostages for performance, he should. Indeed he might have done it without my leave, by the advantage of the River. He insisted upon having the cannon with him; which I would not yield unto, but required the leaving the artillery and ammunition; which he was content to do, and marched away, leaving the great artillery, and the ammunition in the stores to me.—When they marched away, at least 500 English, many of them of the Munster forces, came to us.

Ormond is at Kilkenny, Inchinquin in Munster, Henry O'Neil, Owen Roe's Son, is come up to Kilkenny, with near 2,000 horse and foot, with whom and Ormond there is now a perfect conjunction. So that now, I trust, some angry friends will think it high time to take off their jealousj t from those to whom they ought to exercise more charity.

The rendition of this Garrison was £. seasonable me- cy, as giving us * We have just read them.

t Jealousy of the Parliament's having countenanced Monk in his negotia tioni with Owen Roe and the Old-Irish of the Massacre.

an opportunity towards Munster; and is for the present a very good refreshment for our men. We are able to say nothing as to all this, but that the Lord is still pleased to own a company of poor worthless creatures; for which we desire His name to be magnified, and 'that' the hearts of all concerned may be provoked to walk worthy of such contimsd favors. This is the earnest desire of

Your most humble servant,

Oliver Cromwell.

P.S. Colonel Horton is lately dead of the Country-disease, leaving a Son behind him. He was a person of great integrity and courage. His former services, especially that of the last summer, I hope will be had in remembrance.*

Poor Horton; he beat the Welsh at St. Fagan's, and did good service ' last summer;' and now he is dead of the 'Country-disease,'—a pestilence, raging in the rear of Famine and the Spoil of War. Famine has long reigned. When the War ended, Ludlow tells us, it was found necessary to issue a Proclamation that ' no lambs or calves should be killed for one year,' the stock of cattle being exhausted. Such waste had there been, continues he, in burning the possessions of the English, many of the Natives themselves were driven to starvation; 'and I have been informed by persons deserving credit, that the same calamity fell upon them even in the first year of the Rebellion, through the depredations of the Irish; and that they roasted men, and ate them, to supply their necessities.'f Such a War is worth ending at some cost !— In the Lord Lieutenant's Army, we learn elsewhere, there was an abundant supply, the country crowding in as to a good market where sure prices were given, and fair dealing enforced; all man ner of depredators being, according to the paper Proclamation, hanged in very authentic hemp. 'Much better supplied than any of the Irish Armies had ever been.'J

• Newspapers (in Pari. History, xix., 224-6).

t Ludlow, i. 338, 9. $ Carte, ii., 90.

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