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further secured by giving an extra syllable at the end of the first two lines of each stanza.

Especially effective is the rhythm made by repeating in a fifth verse in each of the three stanzas the meaning of the first verse in the first and second stanzas. These fifth verses repeat the meaning already given, and are there only for rhythmical fullness. This is characteristic of Hebrew poetry; the last half of a line in the Psalms repeats the meaning of the first half. This element of rhythm is characteristic of both Tennyson and Longfellow. The thought becomes so highly emotional that it tends to recur in rhythmical repetition. By reading the poem omitting the last line of each stanza, the value of these lines will become apparent.

And, further, the stanzas bear an organic and rhythmical relation to each other which enhances the beauty of the poem. The whole poem thus appears as a complex, organic, rhythmical unit.

Finally, the poem is made still more concrete and effective by having the personal embodiment of the author himself — by being lyrical. The universal objective is made real and vivid in being regarded as individual and subjective. Longfellow says “my life,” but no one supposes he means merely his own life ; the reader, whoever he may be, must say “my life.” Thus the reader makes it a close personal matter with himself.

It thus appears that the analysis of this poem consists in organizing the means by which the specific emotional effect is produced. Were it a didactic selection, then all must be shown to have unity in some cognition; and were it an oration, everything must be shown in its tendency to move the will.

For a full exposition of the nature of literature and method of literary analysis, see the author's “ Literary Interpretations.”

INDEX.

Barbarism, 223.
Bascom, 192, 193.
Bathos, 325.
Biography, 73.
Blair, 209.
Boundary of subject-matter, 1.
Brevity, 200.
Byron, 206, 324.

Activity, 55.
Aesop, 119.
Aim, a definite, 16; a worthy, 19;

intense, 28.
Allegory, 318.
Alliteration, 217.
Amphibrach, 213.
Analogy, 143.
Analysis, 53.
Anapaestic foot, 213.
Angelus, II.
Antithesis, 323.
Aphaeresis, 290.
Apocope, 290.
Apostrophe, 317. -
Argumentation, 59, 137 ; general

laws of, 160; exercises in, 168.
Arguments, a priori, 148; a pos-

teriori, 152; by signs and re-
semblances, 153; by testimony,

157 ; by authority, 160.
Arrangement of the sentence, the

proper, 255.
Art of literary criticism, 22.
Aspects, two, 57.
Association, figures of, 299.
Asyndeton, 292.
Attributes of the theme, 49; of

relation, 62.
Attributive description, 62.
Author, 19.
Authority, argument by, 160.

Carlyle, 181.
Cause and effect, 62; the relation

of, 65, 97; in argumentation,

146.
Change as a whole, the, 96; in its

parts, 98.
Chaucer, 31, 66, 181.
Cicero, 21.
Circumlocution, 244.
Class unit, 56.
Classification, 38.
Classify, 35.
Clearness, 174, 177; conditions

for securing, 185.
Climax, 324.
Combination, 291.
Comparison and contrast, 117.
Composer, 33; chooses a theme,

46.
Composition, art of, 44.
Concept, 56, 58.
Conciseness, 241.
Conclusion, 335.

Concreteness, 230.

Ellipsis, 291.
Construction of description, 81; / Elocutionist, the true, 30.
· of narration, 103 ; of exposition, Emphatic ideas, 270.
128.

Enallage, 295.
Content of the class, 112; of the End, a worthy, 13.
theme, 113.

Energy, 174, 179; conditions for
Correctness, 5, 199.

securing, 191.
Critic, 23.

Enthymeme, 141.
Criticism, standard of, 28; liter- | Epanalepsis, 293.
ary, 38.

Epenthesis, 291.
Culture, all-sided, 21, 24.

Epigram, 325.

Epizeuxis, 294.
Dactylic foot, 213.

Euphemism, 302.
Deduction, 139.

Euphony, 202.
Definition, 113; law of, 114; rule

Exemplification, 118.
for making, 116.

Exercises in description, 89-92 ;
Description, 55, 59, 61; attribu-

in narration, 109, 110; in expo-
tive, 62 ; partitive, 75; outline

sition, 134; in argumentation,
of, 80; illustrations of, 81; ex-

168 ; in synonyms, 239; in par-
ercises in, 89.
Didactic discourse, 34.

onyms, 239; in poetic form,

219; in verbosity, 245; in sen-
Difference, no unity without, 48;

tence unity, 265; in classifying
likeness and, 62.

figures, 329-334.
Discourse, 6, 8; definition of, 12;

Exposition, 59, m ; outline of,
purpose in, 13 ; skill in, 21 ; lit-

128; illustrations of, 128.
erary, 34; the thought in, 41 ;

Extension, 70.
four processes in, 59.

Extent of a class, 112; of the
Distinctness, 199; of conception,

theme, 123.
263.
Effective speech, 46.

Factor, controlling, 33; invariable,
Effectiveness, 18; conditions of, 34.
19; laws of, 178.

Factors, two, 60.
Efficient means, 13.

Fallacy, 150.
Elegance, 174, 182; conditions for Familiarity, 222.
securing, 194.

Figures of speech, 289; spelling,
Elements, the organic, 8; order 290 ; syntax, 291 ; thought, 295;

of, 9; organic relation of, 10; association, 299; comparison,
unities of, 53; organization of, 304; expressed comparison,
into theme, 241; the proper 307 ; implied comparison, 309;
order of presenting, 255.

contrast, 323.

Foot, 212.

Interpreter, 19.
Form and content of language, Interrogation, 326.
172.

Irony, 327
Form and size, 71.

Irving, 37, 66, 101.
Fundamental ends of discourse
38, 59.

Judgment, 58, 137.
General, the, 58.

Language units, 2; in discourse,
General notion, 112.

171; fundamental law of, 173;
Gilmore, “Outlines of Rhetoric,"

qualities required, 174 ; inter-
293.

pretation of, 197 ; an object of
Graduating theme, 32.

perception, 198; literal, 284;
Greece, history of, 41.

figurative, 285.
Guidance, 54.

Law of unity in definition, 116;
Habit of reading, 45.

comparison and contrast, 117.
Harmony, 207 ; in discourse, 211.

Laws of partition, 77-79.
Hawthorne, 119.

Likeness and difference, 62-68;
Henry, Patrick, 29.

order of presenting, 69, 97.
High-school pupil, 32. .

Location of an object, 67.
Hill, A. S., 165, 225, 251, 310.

“ Logic,” Mill's, 146.
Hill, D. J., 244, 253, 264.

Longfellow, 288.
Humor, 328.

Lowell, 42, 181, 244.
Hyperbole, 318.

Macbeth, 290, 312.
Iambic foot, 213.

Maclaren, Ian, 73.
Idea, origin in, 55.

“ Maud Muller," 132.
Idealization, 120.

Means, 62.
Ideas, association of language) Mental state, presenting a, 66.
forms with, 222.

Metaphor, 309; exercises in, 313.
Illustrated, the process of descrip Metonymy, 302.

tion, 81; narration, 103 ; expo Milton, 21, 294.
sition, 128.

Motive, genuine, 30.
Independence, Declaration of, 44. | Movements of thought, 53.
Individual, 54, 58.
Induction, 141 ; lowest phase of, Narration, 55-59, 93 ; compared

144 ; highest phase of, 145. with description, 93; first step
Inference, 140.

in, 96; second step in, 98; out-
Interpret with efficiency, 45.

line of, 102; illustrations of law
Interpretation of description, 86; 1 of unity in, 100; exercises in,

narration, 106; exposition, 132.1 109.

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