## Elements of Surveying: With a Description of the Instruments and the Necessary Tables, Including a Table of Natural Sines |

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### Common terms and phrases

adjusted angle of elevation axis azimuth back-sights base line called centre clamp-screw coincide column comp compass Cosine D Cosine Sine Cotang course curve decimal degrees determined difference of level direction divided double meridian distance draw east elongation error example feet field notes figure given angle given line given point ground Gunter's chain hence horizontal angle horizontal distance horizontal plane hypothenuse inches instrument intersection LatDegDegDegDeg Distance latitude and departure length line AC line of collimation logarithm M.
M. Sine marked measure multiplied natural sines object opposite station paper parallel passing perpendicular plane of reference protractor radius right angles right-angled triangle rods scale of equal secant side sights similar triangles Sine Sine spider's lines square chains staff subtract surface survey Tang tangent theodolite true meridian vernier plate vertical limb yards

### Popular passages

Page 12 - FRACTION is a negative number, and is one more than the number of ciphers between the decimal point and the first significant Jigure.

Page 41 - In any triangle, the sum of the two sides containing either angle, is to their difference, as the tangent of half the sum of the two other angles, to the tangent of half their difference.

Page 73 - Being on a horizontal plane, and wanting to ascertain the height of a tower, standing on the top of an inaccessible hill, there were measured, the angle of elevation of the top of the hill 40°, and of the top of the tower 51° ; then measuring in a direct line 180 feet farther from the hill, the angle of elevation of the top of the tower Cway 33° 45' ; required the height of the tower.

Page 113 - B, from B to C, from C to D, from D to E, and from E to A ; and measure the distances AB, BC, CD, DE, and E.1.

Page 19 - ... perimeter of the polygon. 14. The polygon of three sides, the simplest of all, is called a triangle; that of four sides, a quadrilateral; that of...

Page 34 - The circumference of every circle is supposed to be divided into 360 equal parts, called degrees ; each degree into 60 equal parts, called minutes ; and each minute into 60 equal parts, called seconds.

Page 21 - If equals be added to equals, the wholes will be equal. 3. If equals be taken, from equals, the remainders will be equal. 4. If equals be added to unequals, the wholes will be unequal.

Page 20 - And lastly, the trapezoid, only two of whose sides are parallel. 18. A diagonal is a line which joins the vertices of two angles not adjacent to each other. Thus, AF, AE, AD, AC, are diagonals.

Page 11 - The minutes in the left-hand column of each page, increasing downwards, belong to the degrees at the top ; and those increasing upwards, in the right.hand column, belong to the degrees below.

Page 35 - The secant of an arc is the line drawn from the centre of the circle through one extremity of the arc, and limited by the tangent passing through the other extremity. Thus, OC is the secant of the arc AB.