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The condemnation contained in two or three clauses of the ATHANASIAN CREED). belongs (as the most zealous defenders of our faith in the holy Trinity agree, and as every one who reads it considerately will soon perceive), not to all who cannot understand or cannot approve every expression in it, but only to such as deny in general the Trinity in Unity, or three persons who are one God. This alone is said to be thé Catholic faith. The words that follow, for there is one person of the Father, 8c. are designed only to set this forth more particularly. And the conclusion from the whole is not, that in all things which are aforesaid, by the use of every term above-mentioned, but in all things as is aforesaid the Unity in Trinity is to be worshipped: meaning, that, as at first it was said, that in all acts of faith we are to believe in each person, so here it is added, that in all acts of worship we are to adore each;, never considering one, even while addressed distinctly, as separated or separable from the other two. Now this Trinity in Unity we apprehend to have been, ever since it was fully revealed, a fundamental article of the Christian faith. And yet those who believe not even so much, the creed no otherwise teaches cannot be saved, or shall without doubt perish, than as our Saviour teaches concerning the whole of the Gospel: he that believeth and is baptised shall be saved, but, &c. Our condemnation is no more uncharitable than his. And neither is so, because both are to be interpreted with due exceptions and abatements. Suppose a collection of Christian duties had been drawn up, and it had been said, This is the Catholic practice, which except a man observe faithfully he cannot be saved; would not every one understand that allowance must be made for such things as a man, through involuntary ignorance, mistook, or through mere infirmity failed in, or was truly sorry for, as far as he knew he had cause? Why, then, are not the same allowances to be understood in speaking of doctrines? Indeed, for the sake of such who take these condemning clauses in too rigorous a sense, and therefore only are afraid, from a spirit of charity and humanity, to join in them, it may seem pity but either they had been originally omitted, (since, though defensible, they are not necessary to be inserted in a profession of faith,) or the limitations, with which they are to be understood, had been signified in two or three comprehensive words. Secker's Sermons, vol. vi. p. 224, 225, &c.
The creed, which contains the opinions of Athanasius, may be thus elucidated. The second, twenty-eighth, and forty-second, verses are to be taken in the same acceptation as the passage of St Mark's Gospel, xvi. 16, on which they are grounded. The implied qualifications, which are admitted in the interpretation of the Gospel-declarations, are to be admitted in the exposition of those clauses in the creed. The tenth and seven following verses contain the attributes of Deity. The object of these clauses is to guard against the idea, that Christians maintain the doctrine of three principles contrary and opposite to each other, as the Manichæans conceived of their
two principles. Perfectly consistent with each other are verses twenty-five, twentysix, and verses twenty-two, twenty-three; for they are considering the subject in a different point of view. On the one hand, they assert that the time of existence and the nature of power are the same in all; on the other, that nevertheless the origin of such existence and of such power is with the “ Father.” The Godhead was communicated from the Father to the Son; again, the same Godhead was communicated by the Father and the Son unto the Holy Ghost. Though therefore this was done from all eternity, and therefore can admit of no priority in reference to time, yet that of order must be preserved. (Pearson on the Creed, p. 322, ed. 1704.) In verses twenty-eight and forty-two, the expressions, “must thus think of the Trinity,” and “ this is the Catholic faith," apply only to the general doctrine of the Trinity, and not to the particular mode of explanation given in this creed. To the general doctrine every Christian is bound, because it is the very doctrine of his admission into the Christian covenant. Inability to account for a thing is no proof that the thing could never have existence. It is, therefore, no proof that human and divine nature may never have been united. Whoever is sincere in using the apostles creed may without scruple assent to the leading doctrines of the Athanasian creed; for most assuredly they both mean to inculcate one and the same doctrine of a Trinity in Unity; that is, of three divine Persons united in one substance of Godhead, distinguished by the appellations of Father, Son, and Holy Ghost; and the same doctrine of our Lord's Incarnation. Dr Huntingford, Bishop of Gloucester, on the Trinity.
I am ready to acknowledge, that, in my judgement, notwithstanding the authority of former times, our Church would have acted more wisely, and more consistently with its general principles of mildness and toleration, if it had not adopted the damnatory clauses of the Athanasian Creed. Though I firmly believe that the doctrines themselves of this Creed are all found in Scripture, I cannot but conceive it both unnecessary and presumptuous to say, that “ except every one do keep them whole and undefiled, without doubt he shall perish everlastingly.” Bishop Prettyman on the Articles.
With respect to the inforcing of the stÀ MP-ACT in AMERICA, Lord Chesterfield delivers himself thys, “ The administration are for some indulgence and forbearance to those froward children of their mother-country; the opposition are for taking vigorous, as they call them, but I call them violent, measures, not less than les dragonades; and to have the troops collected by the troops we have there. For my part, I never saw a froward child mended by whipping; and I would not have the mother-, country become a step-inothier. Our trade to America brings in communibus annis two millions a year, and the stamp-duty is estimated at but one hundred thousand pounds a. year, which I would by no means bring into the stock of the exchequer at the loss, or even the risk, of a million a year to the national stock. The stamp-act has proved a most pernicious measure; for, whether it is repealed or not, which is still very doubt
ful, fal, it has given such terror to the Americans, that our trade with thein will not be, for some years, what it used to be, and great numbers of our manufacturers at home will be turned a starving for want of that employment which our very profitable trade to America found them; and hunger is always the cause of tumults and sedition. The repeal of the stamp-act is at last carried through; I am glad of it, and gave my proxy for it, because I saw many more inconveniencies from the inforcing it than from the repealing it.” Letters, vol. ii. p. 496, 497, 499.
But the lords, in their protest against the repeal of the American stamp-act, amongst many other reasons, assign this as the last, which has been unhappily verified by subsequent events; and, if it had been then enforced, it might have prevented the shedding of any blood.
: “ Lastly,” say they, “ because we are convinced, from the unanimous testimony of the governors and other officers of the crown in America, that if, by a most unhappy delay and neglect to provide for the due execution of the law, and arming the government there with proper orders and powers, repeatedly called for in vain, these disturbances had not been continued and increased, they might easily have been quieted before they had attained to any dangerous height: and we cannot, without feeling the most lively sense of grief and indignation, hear arguments, drawn from the progress of evils which should and might have been stopped in their first and feeble beginnings, used for the still greater evil of sacrificing, to a present relief, the highest permanent interests, and the whole majesty, power, and reputation, of government. This afflicts us the more deeply, because it appears, from many letters, that this law, if properly supported by government, would, from the peculiar circumstances attending the disobedience to it, execute itself without bloodshed. And it is said, in one of the letters to Mr Secretary Conway, “ That the principal view is to intimidate the parliament; but that, if it be thought prudent to enforce their authority, the people dare not oppose å vigorous resolution of the parliament of Great Britain." That vigorous resolution · has not yet been found in the parliament, and we greatly fear that the want of it will certainly produce one of these two fatal consequences; either that the repeal of this law will in effect annul and abrogate all other laws and statutes relating to our colonies, and particularly the acts that restrain or limit their commerce, of which they are most impatient; or, if we should hereafter attempt to enforce the execution of those laws against their will, and by virtue of an authority they have dared to insult with impunity and success, that endeavour will bring upon us all those evils and inconveniencies to the fear of which we now sacrifice the sovereignty of this realm; and this at a time when the strength of our colonies, as well as their desire of a total independance on the legislature and government of their mother-country, may be greatly augmented; and when the circumstances and dispositions of the other powers of Europe may render the contest far more dangerous and formidable to this kingdom.”
Cette ' Cette année parut la secte de ceux auxquels on a donné le nom d'ANTINOMIENS; 1538. Ces gens-là enseignoient, que la doctrine de la pénitence ne devoit pas se tirer du Décalogue, et ils attaquoient ceux qui disoient, qu'on ne devoit prêcher l'Evangile qu'après avoir terrifié et ébranlé les esprits par l'explication de la loi. Ils soutenoient, de plus, que, quelque corrompue et impure que fût la vie des hommes, ils ne laissoient pas d'être justifiés, pourvû simplement qu'ils crussent aux promesses de l'Evangile. L'auteur de cette doctrine étoit Jean Agricola d'Islebe. Courayer's Sleidan, vol ii. p. 63.
AREOPAGUS, cujus penultimam perperam prope omnes producunt, penultimam corripere certum est; cum sit conflatum ex Agaios, martius, et rayas, collis. Vossius de Art. Gramm. lib. ii. c. 33. See also Sophocles Edip. colon, line 1002.
ARCHIMEDES, a famous mathematician, was so intent on a geometrical demonstration, during the siege of Acradina by Marcellus, that neither the noise of the soldiers nor the cries of the people drew off his attention from it. He was very calmly drawing his lines, when he saw a soldier enter his room and clap a sword to his throat. “ Hold, friend,” said Archimedes, “ one moment; and my demonstration will be finished.” Univ. Hist. vol. viii. p. 145.
Antichrist. See Devil.
Though it be possible that America may have received its first inhabitants from our continent, either by the north-west of Europe or north-east of Asia, there seems to be good reason for supposing that the progenitors of all the American nations, from Cape Horn to the southern confines of Labrador, migrated from the latter rather than the former. The Esquimaux are the only people in America, who, in their aspect or character, bear any resemblance to the northern Europeans. But the other inhabitants of America have, in their persons and dispositions, some resemblance to the rude tribes of Tartars scattered over the north-east of Asia. Robertson's Hist. vol. i. p. 280.. .
And, from the number of volcanos in this region of the globe, particularly in Kamschatka, I might suppose, that, this part of the earth having suffered violent con-, vulsions from earthquakes and volcanos, an isthmus, which may have formerly united Asia to America, has been broken, and formed into a cluster of islands by the shock. Idem, p. 459, note 41. .
And, that the natives of Mexico and Peru originally came from some parts of Asia is probable from another observation, vol. ii. p. 497, note 53. “ In the armoury of the royal palace at Madrid are shewn suits of armour, which are, called Montezuma's, (emperor of Mexico.) They are composed of thin lacquered copper plates.
In the opinion of very intelligent judges they are evidently eastern. The forms of the silver ornaments upon them, representing dragons, &c. may be considered as a confirmation of this. They are infinitely superior to any effort of American art. The Spaniards, probably, received them from the Philippine islands."
Quere. Might not there have been ages back a communication between the southeast part of Asia and the south-west coast of America, though now unknown to us ? And, might not Manco Capac and Mama Ocollo, his wife, have found their way to the Peruvian coast by this passage, who are supposed to have first instructed the men in agriculture and other useful arts, and the women to spin and weave? Vide vol. ii. p. 164.
Or, might not the Phænicians have reached by some accident the opposite shore? What favours this conjecture, is, that Buenooth Ayres, a city placed at the mouth of the River de la Plata, is, probably, so called from mua 7'), that is, the city of Venus ; for, as the authors of the Universal History observe, Succoth Benoth, 2 Kings, xvii. 30, is the shrines of Venus, by changing the B into V, and T into S; and, it is farther remarkable, that the name of Inca, which the Americans give to their kings, may be derived from pop, Anac, or Enak ; for, as Vossius observes, de Idolola, lib. i. c. 13. Non dubium quin qui prius ávaxes et postea avartes dicti sunt, genus ducebant ab Anac, sive Ænac.
Add to this, that Vossius, in his letter, p. 676, to Hugo Grotius, 'says thus, “ Est hic juvenis Eruditus, discipulus Petavii, antea minorita, qui contendit Americanos esse a Phænicibus. Nempe ut quemadmodum Carthago eorum Colonia et Gades, bonaque pars Hispaniæ possessa, ita et hi Americam tempestate, vel aliter, delati fuerint."
The southern parts of America were antiently thought to be inhabited by the Atlantii, descendants of the Phænician Atlas, who was the son of Uranus and brother of Saturn. That many of the American nations descended from Phænicians and Carthaginians is evident both from the names of Places and cities, and also from the manner of their worship. Many of them worship the sun, and moon, and Saturn, which were the most antient Phænician deities; nor were any other known in Darien, New Grenada, and Peru, nor in Florida, California, or New Mexico. Vide Horn. lib. ii. de Orig. Gent. Americ. p. 128. Jackson's Chronol. vol. ii. p350, 355.
The mode of computing time among the Americans may be considered as an evidence of their progress in improvement. They, the Mexicans, divided their year into eighteen months, each consisting of twenty days, in all, 360, to which they added five days, which they termed supernumerary or waste, and devoted them wholly to festivity and pastime. Robertson's Hist. vol. ii. p. 290.
Religion was formed among the Mexicans into a regular system, with its complete train of priests, temples, victims, and festivals. Its divinities were clothed with terror and delighted in vengeance. --- Of all offerings, human sacrifices were deemed