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Science.

Higher Local.

(a) ELEMENTARY CHEMISTRY, Physics, AND BIOLOGY ; (6) CHE

MISTRY ; (c) PHYSICS ; (d) BOTANY ; (e) ZOOLOGY ; (f) PhySIOLOGY ; (9) PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY AND GEOLOGY.

All Students are expected to satisfy the Examiners in (a) and in one at least of

the subjects (b) to (9). No Student will be examined in more than three of the subjects (6) to (9) in one year.

(a) 1. What are the chief forms in which silica exists ? What are silicates, and how are they employed in manufacture ?

2. What is “ fire-damp"? How would you prepare it, and how determine its composition ?

3. What is flame? Describe fully a candle flame, and show how it differs from that of a blow-pipe.

4. Find the degree in Fahrenheit's scale which corresponds to 30° below zero in the Centigrade scale, and that which corresponds to 40° below zero.

5. A gallon of air, that is 277.25 cubic inches, is heated under constant pressure from 0° C. to 60° C. : calculate the volume of the air at the latter temperature.

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6. Explain the system of the circulation and respiration in a Fresh-water Mussel, with special reference to the use of the mantle.

7. Describe the exo-skeleton, the muscles, and the position of the nerve ganglia.

(6) 8. Give a brief account of the principal compounds of Magnesium. How would you test for the base in any or all of these ?

9. Describe the various oxides of Manganese, and the action of heat upon each.

10. Give an account of the manufacture of (i) cast iron, (ii) porought iron, (iii) steel.

11. Given chrome ironstone, how could the different chromates of potassium be prepared from it ?

(c) 12. The volume of a glass vessel is 450 cubic inches at 32° F. Find the volume of 177° F., the co-efficient of cubical expansion being taken at •000014.

13. If 50 cubic inches of air at 5° C. below 0° C. are raised to 50° C., under the same pressure, find the volume.

14. A mixture is made of 4 pounds of water at 7° C. with 6 pounds of water at 12° C. Find the temperature of the mixture.

15. If equal weights of hydrogen at 0° C., and of oxygen at 100° C., be mixed, find the resulting temperature.

(d) 16. Enumerate the various effects of light upon the growing organs of plants.

17. Describe the mechanism by which the movement of the sensitive plant is brought about, and state some instances in which similar movement causes fertilization.

18. Give examples of Vegetative, Asexual, and Sexual reproduction, carefully distinguishing between them.

19. Explain, with an example from Thallophytes and Cormophytes respectively, the meaning of the term Alternation of Generations.

(e) 20. Contrast the structure of a sea-urchin with that of a starfish.

21. What are the organs known as nephridia ?

22. Describe fully, compare, and contrast the skulls of a codfish, of a frog, of any bird you know, and of a sheep or dog. Explain clearly what is meant by cartilage bones and membrane bones, and indicate in your diagrams which bones belong to each class,

23. Describe the bony parts of a tortoise or any other chelonian.

(f) 24. Mention the uses of fat, and discuss the method of its formation in the body.

25. How is the temperature of the human body maintained and regulated ?

26. Briefly describe the structure of the kidney.

27. Give an account of (i) the structure, (ii) the functions of the liver.

(9) 28. Describe the Pre-Cambrian rocks of Great Britain as accurately as possible, and co-relate them with those of North America.

29. What forms of life set in with the Lower Cambrian (Lyell) rocks ? Describe and classify them.

30. Trace the appearance of the principal types of mollusca through the stratified rocks. Note especially the first occurrence of the lowest and highest types.

31. Give the principal glassy forms of the acid and basic rocks. Describe their structure and mode of occurrence.

Logic.

Higher Local. 1. Distinguish between the two sorts of progressive effects, and give examples of each.

2. Illustrate the following statement :

“ Most uniformities of succession which are not cases of causation are cases of progressive effects.'

3. Explain exactly what is meant by an empirical law? What is the scientific value of empirical laws ?

4. A is in need of advice; the only person capable of giving it is C. Carrives unexpectedly. B, “What was the reason that C arrived at the moment when he was most needed ?” A. "There was no reason ; his arrival was entirely a matter of chance.” Define chance, and criticise the answer of A to B.

5. Explain the method taken in determining whether any given conjunction of phenomena is casual or the result of some law. Give examples.

6. Explain the following :

“ It is only to cases which in point of time, place, or circumstances are adjacent to those which we have actually observed, that any derivative law, not of causation, can be extended with an assurance equivalent to certainty.'

7. Explain the following terms :- likeness, examples, simile, metaphor, analogy, and give examples of each.

8. Upon what does the value of an argument from analogy depend, and what is the use of analogy in scientific inquiry ?.

9. What answer does Mill give to the question, “Upon what evidence is the universality of the law of causation based ?” Give and discuss any other answers that have been given to this question.

10. What are the considerations which lead us to believe in the absolute truth of the law of causation? Should we be justified in proclaiming it true for all times and for all planets ?

French History.

(a) GENERAL, 1628–1713 ; (6) SPECIAL, REIGN OF CHARLES VI.

(a) 1. Give some account of the Richelieu ministry. Sketch the chief events of the reign of Louis XIII.

2. Name the chief battles of the Thirty Years' War, its leaders, results, and the peace and treaty which terminated it as regards France.

3. Trace the proceedings of the Crown which led to the war of the Fronde. Discuss Mazarin's ministry and policy. Give some account of the Spanish war.

4. Compare Colbert's and Fouquet's administrations. Give some account of Turenne, Condé, Tellier, Madame de Maintenon.

5. What were the League of Augsburg, and the Grand Alliance? Write a short account of affairs in Spain on the death of Charles II., and of the two Partition Treaties ; also give the chief dates of battles preceding, and articles included in the Treaty of Utrecht.

(6) 6. Contrast the social condition and struggles of the people in France and in England at the time of Charles VI.

7. Trace the causes of the Anglo-French rupture from 13801396.

Constitutional History.

а

1. What were monopolies ?
2. Give a full account of the trial of Strafford.

3. Why was the Petition of Right necessary ? How did Charles I. evade its regulations ?

4. When did the action of the Long Parliament cease to be constitutional ? Give reasons for your answer.

5. Enumerate the parliaments of Charles I. Give an outline history of each.

N.B.—Period for next month, 1649–1688.

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