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LETTER CXCII. To R. Mayor, Esq.: Whitehall, 4 May 1654 . .

Dare not undertake the Purchase recommended.

CXCIII. To Lord Fleetwood: Whitehall, 16 May 1654 .

To dismiss Col. Alured.

CXCIV. To Col. Alured: Whitehall, 16 May 1654 . .

Official Order to the Colonel.

CXCV. To Sir T. Vyner: Whitehall, 5 July 1654 . .

A City Preacher.

SPEECH II. Meeting of the First Protectorate Parliament, 4 Sept.

1654 . . . . . . . . .

Goodwin's Sermon, On the Deliverance out of Egypt,
and Pilgrimage towards Canaan through the Wilderness.
Our difficulties: Antichrist; Levellers, Fifth-Monarchists,
Jesuits. Our attainments : Some Reform of Law; Reform
of Church; Peace, with almost all Nations. Finance ;

necessity of Concord.

III. To the First Protectorate Parliament, 12 Sept. 1654

Cannot have the Foundations of Government submitted

to debate in this Assembly. A free Parliament they; but
he also, in virtue of whom they sit, must be an unques-
tioned Protector. His history since he entered on these
Public Struggles : Dismissal of the Long Parliament;
Abdication of the Little Parliament; Protectorship, on
what founded, by whom acknowledged. To proceed no

farther, till they acknowledge it.

LETTER CXCVI. To R. Bennet, Esq.: Whitehall, 12 Jan. 1654-5.

Virginia and Maryland.

- CXCVII. To Captain Crook: Whitehall, 20 Jan. 1654-5.

To watch Adjutant-Gen. Allen.

SPEECH IV. Dissolution of the First Protectorate Parliament,

22 Jan. 1654-5 . . . . . . .

Regrets that they have not communicated with him:
he was not unconcerned with them; has been struggling
and endeavouring for them, keeping Peace round them;
- does not know, on their part, whether they have been
alive or dead. Of trees that foster only things poisonous
under their shadow. Of disturbances, once well asleep,
awakened into new perilous activity during these de-
bates. Necessary that they be dissolved.

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LETTER CCXIV. To Generals Blake and Montague: Whitehall,

28 Aug. 1656 . . . . . . .

Montague to come home and advise.
SPEECH V. Meeting of the Second Protectorate Parliament, 17 Sept.

1656 . . . . . . . . .
Our difficulties : Spain, and why we have gone to war
with Spain; Papists, Cavaliers, Levellers, Fifth-Mon.
archists; – the need there was of Major-Generals. Our
remedies : To prosecute the War with vigour; to maintain

steadily the aim of all these struggles, Liberty of Con-

science and a pure Gospel Ministry; to reform the Law:

- to reform Manners; that will be the grand remedy of

all. Finance. Exhortation; Divine encouragement and

hope: Eighty-fifth Psalm.

OLIVER CROMWELL'S

LETTERS AND SPEECHES.

PART VI.
WAR WITH SCOTLAND.

1650-1651.
(Continued.)

LETTERS CL.—CLXI. Haste and other considerations forbid us to do more than glance, timidly from the brink, into that sea of confusions in which the poor Scotch people have involved themselves by soldering Christ's Crown to Charles Stuart's! Poor men, they have got a Covenanted King; but he is, so to speak, a Solecism Incarnate: good cannot come of him, or of those that follow him in this course; only inextricability, futility, disaster and discomfiture can come. There is nothing sadder than to see such a Purpose of a Nation led on by such a set of persons; staggering into ever deeper confusion, down, down, till it fall prostrate into utter wreck. Were not Oliver here to gather up the fragments of it, the Cause of Scotland might now die; Oliver, little as the Scots dream of it, is Scotland's Friend too, as he was Ireland's: what would become of Scotch Puritanism, the one great feat hitherto achieved by Scotland, if Oliver were not now there! Oliver's Letters out of Scotland, what will elucidate Oliver's footsteps and utterances there, shall alone concern us at present. For sufficing which object, the

Carlyle, Cromwell. III.

main features of these Scotch confusions may become conceivable without much detail of ours.

The first Scotch Army, now annihilated at Dunbar, had been sedulously cleared of all Hamilton Engagers and other Malignant or Quasi-Malignant Persons, according to a scheme painfully laid down in what was called the Act of Classes, -a General-Assembly Act, defining and classifying such men as shall not be allowed to fight on this occasion, 'lest a curse overtake the Cause on their account. Something other than a blessing has overtaken the Cause:- and now, on rallying at Stirling with unbroken purpose of struggle, there arise in the Committee of Estates and Kirk, and over the Nation generally, earnest considerations as to the methods of farther struggle; huge discrepancies as to the ground and figure it ought henceforth to take. As was natural to the case, Three Parties now develop themselves: a middle one, and two extremes. The Official Party, Argyle and the Official Persons, especially the secular portion of them, think that the old ground should as much as possible be adhered to: Let us fill up our old ranks with new men, and fight and resist with the Covenanted Charles Stuart at the head of us, as we did before. This is the middle or Official opinion.

No answers an extreme Party. Let us have no more to do with your covenanting pedantries; let us sign your Covenant one good time for all, and have done with it; but prosecute the King's Interest, and call on all men to join us in that. An almost openly declared Malignant Party this; at the head of which Lieutenant-General Middleton, the Marquis of Huntly and other Royalist Persons are raising forces, publishing manifestos, in the Highlands near by. Against whom David Lesley himself at last has to march. This is the one extreme; the Malignant or Royalist extreme. The amount of whose exploits was this: They invited the poor King to run off from Perth and his Church-and-State Officials, and join them; which he did, – rode out as if to hawk, one afternoon, softly across the South Inch of Perth, then galloped some forty miles; found the appointed place, - a villanous hut among the Gram

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