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that, not much more than thirty years ago, it was generally from the head) determines the nature of the animal. On believed that the ancients were entirely ignorant of that this principle, the eagle-headed figure, having a human useful product. At length scepticism is put to flight, and body, should have been represented in the vision of the it is now certain that glass was well known in Italy—as prophet by a human head, and not by that of an eagle. witness the ruins of Pompeii ; in Phænicia—according to Still, the departure from the rule may be accounted for in the testimony of Pliny; in Egypt—where glass has been the following way :-The bull and the lion of the monuments found which must have been manufactured 1500 years B.C., have one kind of head (human), and specifically different while representations of glass-blowing are given in the bodies; while, on the contrary, the other two figures have paintings of Beni-Hassan, executed 200 years earlier the same bodies, but different heads. On the supposition, still; and, last of all, in Assyria and Chaldæa, as we then, that the cherubim of the prophet were designed to proceed to shew. In the chamber referred to in this note, combine into one the four symbolical figures of the palaces two entire glass bowls, with fragments of others, were of Assyria, representing each being by a head, it is evident found, and also a rock-crystal lens, with opposite convex that it would be necessary to make the body determine the and plane faces. In his previous expedition, Mr Layard species when the head was the same; and, conversely, to had discovered two vases--one in alabaster, the other in make the head determine the species when the body was glass--at Nimroud, and two glass bottles at Kouyunjik; the same.

It is not necessary to enter into the difference and he subsequently discovered a variety of vessels of between the beasts of the Apocalypse and those at Nineveh, glass, both ribbed and plain, at Kouyunjik, and also at as these are apparent at a glance; and particularly as the Babel, amongst the ruins of Babylon. It is important former have evidently no direct connection with the latter, to notice that the glass vase found at Nimroud bears but are to be viewed as the resolution of one of Ezekiel's the name of Sargon, with his title of king of Assyria, living creatures into four. The other differences between in cuneiform characters, a circumstance which fixes its the figures of the present chapter and the symbolical date to the latter part of the seventh century B.C. This figures of the monuments—such as, that the former had is the most ancient known specimen of transparent glass, each a human body (they had the likeness of a man,' v. 5), as the Egyptian relics formerly mentioned were opaque. and that they had each four wings, do not require any The glass vessels found at Nineveh are of elegant form, remarks. There were only four, and not eight (4 times 2) and seem to have been used for the toilet. While the wings to each animal, because each pair of wings Fas lens of rock crystal is quite sound, all the glass vessels are supposed to move the body in two opposite directions; and covered with 'thin semi-transparent laminæ, which glow thus being set at right angles to each other, were sufficient with all the brilliant colours of the opal, the usual effect of to make it advance towards the four points of the compass. age, arising from partial decomposition. The discovery Mr Layard conjectures that the wheel within wheel, of the lens suggests the thought, that the Assyrians were mentioned in connection with the emblematic figures of probably acquainted with its uses, as a magnifying and Ezekiel], may refer to the winged circles, or wheels repreburning glass.

senting at Nimroud the supreme Deity. “These coinci

dences,' he adds, in concluding liis remarks on the present NOTE 67, p. 463.-In chapter X., where the description subject, are too marked not to deserve notice; and do given in this chapter is substantially repeated, the animals, certainly lead to the inference that the symbols chosen by here called vaguely living creatures, are denominated cheru- the prophet were derived from the Assyrian sculptures.'– bim. The cherubim of Ezekiel's visions must not, however, Nineveh and its Remains, p. 464. We may remark, in be confounded with the historical cherubim of the tabernacle conclusion, that the prophet, when he beheld this vision, and the temple; as there is no reason to suppose that the was dwelling in a district of Chaldæa where such sculptures latter had a plurality of faces, or, to speak more generally, as those of Nineveh were to be seen. At Arban, on the exhibited such a monstrous combination of heterogeneous right bank of the river Chabour (identical with the Chebar parts. It is natural for one who has read of the symbolical of Ezekiel), Mr Layard found two pair of winged humanfigures from Nineveh, to think of them as the original of headed bulls, and also one lion (the lion which, doubtless, the cherubim of Ezekiel's vision, especially as the resem- at one time formed the opposite side of the doorway haring blance between them is strikingly close. As stated else- disappeared). Of the bulls, Mr Layard remarks-and he where, the four principal figures exhibited on the monuments states that the same observations hold regarding the lion of Nineveh are—the human-headed winged bull, the human- and a mutilated human figure which he afterwards discovered headed winged lion, the winged man, and the winged man at the same place—' They resembled in general form the with eagle's head. Each of the cherubim of Ezekiel well-known winged bulls of Nineveh, but, in the style of combines the features of all of these together-each living art, they differed considerably from them. The outline and creature had four faces-namely, those of a man, of a lion, treatment was bold and angular, with an archaic feeling of an ox, and of an eagle. In the Book of Revelation conveying the impression of great antiquity. They bore (chaps. iv. and v.), we find these compound beings resolved the same relation to the more delicately finished and highly into their component animals. The apostle, in describing ornamented sculptures at Nimroud, as the earliest remains his vision of the glories of heaven, proceeds to say: 'And of Greek art do to the exquisite monuments of Phidias and before the throne there was a sea of glass like unto crystal: | Praxiteles.'—Nineveh and Babylon, p. 275. Doubtless, had and in the midst of the throne, and round about the throne, the destroying hand of time not so completely accomplished were four beasts full of eyes before and behind. And the its work on these ruins, the other symbolical sculptures of first beast was like a lion, and the second beast like a calf, the palaces of Nineveh would have been found to have their and the third beast had a face as a man, and the fourth beast representatives at Arban, as well as the bulls and the lions. was like a flying eagle.' Here we have four figures whose But, indeed, the evident identity of the two nations would description at once reminds us of the symbolical figures of lead us to expect, that not only at Arban, but in the sacred Nineveh; yet the difference between them, as also between edifices of the Babylonians generally, the symbolical figures the latter and the monstrous forms of Ezekiel, is sufficient of the Assyrians would be found. In the temple of Belus, to make us hesitate before pronouncing affirmatively on according to Berosus, there were sculptured representations their historical connection. It will be observed, that the of men with two wings, and others with four; some having figures on the monuments of Nineveh have each a human two faces; others, the legs and horns of goats, or the hoofs head, with the exception of the eagle-headed man, whereas of horses; there were bulls, also, with the heads of men, each of the ' living creatures' has four different heads. It and horses with the heads of dogs.'-Layard, Nineveh and may be said with regard to this point, by those who main- its Remains, p. 465. tain an intended resemblance, that the prophet took the heads as representative of the whole bodies; so that the NOTE 68, p. 466.—The ruins of Nineveh furnish human-headed bull is represented by the head of a bull, abundant illustrations of this text; and without attempting and the human-headed lion by the head of a lion. This to enter into great detail, we shall content ourselres with supposition takes for granted that the body (as distinct referring only to such particulars as bear directly on its elucidation. In a note on Zephaniah, ii. 13, Vol. III., Dr NOTE 69, p. 503.-Battering-rams of various forms Kitto has stated with regard to the palace at Khorsabad, are seen frequently represented on the monuments of whose ruins were explored by M. Botta, that the body Nineveh ; and they may safely be held to give an exact of the building consisted of several thick walls, with idea of the instruments employed in sieges by the Babyvarious passages leading into halls. The substance of the lonian warriors. The oldest form of the battering-ramwalls was formed of clayey earth and chalk, which was that represented on the bass-reliefs of the north-west rivetted with large slabs of gray marmoriform gypsum, palace at Nimroud-differed in some important respects known as the Mosul marble, very soft and friable, varying from those represented on the more recent bass-reliefs. from ten to twelve feet square. These slabs were sur- The Nimroud battering-ram was a heavy beam, with a mounted by rows of glazed bricks, principally white and metal head shaped like the mouth of a trumpet, attached yellow, and disposed so as to represent an architectural to a machine which moved on three pair of wheels. The örnament, with others enamelled with cuneiform charac- machine rose up so as to assume the form and serve the ters in white upon a green ground.' This description purpose of a tower, or rather two towers, the first being is applicable in the main to all the palaces of Nineveh. the lower, and the second so high as to be on a level with According to Mr Layard (Nineveh and its Remains), the the wall of the besieged city. Both were pierced with slabs used for panelling rarely exceeded twelve feet in loopholes for the discharge of arrows. The higher tower, height, while the rooms were certainly much higher, as is or what may be called the tower, is represented as occupied shewn by the height of the bulls and lions forming the door-by two warriors, of whom one discharged his arrows way, which vary from ten to sixteen feet, and above which against the besieged, while the other held up a shield to the walls were carried up some feet. The upper wall was defend his companion. They are sometimes represented built either of richly coloured baked bricks or of sun-dried as passing from the tower to the battlements. The whole bricks, covered by plaster. On these bricks were painted machine was covered with hurdles of wicker. Sometimes various ornaments, and many of them appear to have been the engine was used without the tower, the front part of enamelled—that is, the colours appear to have been laid the framework being elevated into a kind of dome, in on in a liquid state, and then exposed to the action of fire. order to the proper suspension of the beam. This latter The paintings on these brick upper walls were just a form, which appears only occasionally in the most ancient continuation of the scenes represented on the bass-reliefs. bass-reliefs, was the usual one in later periods. The The command given to Ezekiel to portray Jerusalem on a battering-rams of the Khorsabad period presented an tile, will be best illustrated by a brief description of a few essential difference from the one above described, in that of the paintings on the bricks. In the south-east corner the head of the beam was pointed like a spear. 'Hence of the quadrangle at Nimroud, Mr Layard came upon the the mode of their action was not that of shaking the wall, ruins of a chanıber in the shape of the remains of walls, and cansing it to fall by repeated heavy shocks, but rather and a pavement of baked bricks, whose under faces were that of penetrating the course of bricks of which they painted—a circumstance, by the way, from which it is were probably composed, and thus picking, if we may be inferred that these bricks had originally belonged to allowed the phrase, great holes in them, until at length the another building. Although the designs on them were in battlements would fall for want of support beneath. We most cases destroyed, yet a few fragments were collected see this result continually represented in the bass-reliefs.' which have since been placed in the British Museum, and -Gosse, Assyria. London. 1852. Sometimes there were fac-similes of which are given in Mr Layard's second series two pointed beams to one engine. The Khorsabad ram of Monuments of Nineveh. One of these bricks exhibited was borne on four wheels, and the whole machine was four captives tied together by their necks, the foremost enclosed by a canopy of leather or raw skins.

In some prisoner holding the rope and having his hands free, while þass-reliefs, the battering-ram is without wheels, having the arms of the others are bound behind. On another been apparently constructed on the spot, and not being fragment was represented a similar scene; while others, designed to be moved. again, shewed representations of Assyrian warriors on foot It cannot be determined from the sculptures how the and on horse; of chariots; of a walled tower with square battering-ram was worked; but it would appear that the battlements; of a castle with angular battlements, &c. beam was suspended by a rope fastened to the outside of More interesting than the specimens of painting found in the machine, and that men directed and impelled it from the above-mentioned locality, was one on a brick twelve

within. To frustrate the action of the ram, the besieged inches by nine, which Mr Layard discovered in the centre are represented as letting down from the battlements of the mound of Nimroud. In it was represented a king, strong chains, with which they caught the head of the followed by a eunuch, receiving his general or vizier, engine. To obviate this inconvenience, the attackinghaving over his head a fringed pavilion, and part of an party employed hooks to catch the chains, and prevent inscription, probably containing his name. Mr Layard them from catching the head of the beam. remarks, that this is a unique specimen of an entire To illustrate fully the use of the battering-ram by the Assyrian painting. The colours used in these paintings Assyrians, as well as of the other devices mentioned in are white, blue, and yellow for the figures, and a pale blue verse 22, and so frequently in other passages of Scripture and olive green for the ground. (See Layard's Nineveh (see Kitto's notes on 2 Chron. xxxii.), we cannot do better and Babylon, p. 165.)

than refer the reader to the description given by Mr In regard to the conjecture mentioned by Dr Kitto with Layard (Nineveh and Babylon, p. 149) of the bass-relief respect to the nature of the inscriptions on the bricks of discovered by him in the palace at Kouyunjik, which we Babylon, it is necessary only to state, that it is now have already quoted in Note 49 of Appendix to vol. ii. ascertained that almost every brick hitherto obtained from That description is all the more interesting, that it refers that quarter bears the same inscription, which is to the to a bass-relief which is ascertained to represent the siege effect, that Nebuchadnezzar, the son of Nabubaluchun, built of Lachish by Sennacherib. the city (see Note 1, Appendix to vol. i., and Note 75, in this Appendix). There is a marked difference observable NOTE 70, p. 509.-The 14th and 15th verses evidently between the inscriptions of Babylon and those of Nineveh, allude to and describe the sculptures wherewith the walls as regards taste and skill in the execution. While the of the palaces of Nineveh are ornamented; and the former appear, as stated by Dr Kitto, to have been im- description they contain is certainly very remarkable. pressed with a stamp, on which the whole inscription had The first particular mentioned (v. 14), is the colour in been previously cut in relief, the inscriptions of Assyria which these images' were painted—vermilion or red, give unmistakable evidence, by the careless and irregular which shashar is generally supposed to denote. See way in which they are formed and grouped together, of the Nahum ii. 3: 'The valiant men are in scarlet.' Unforcharacters having been made separately, and cut by the tunately, the colours on the monuments are very much hand. The contrast thus exhibited proves the superior obliterated, and present few materials for the illustration antiquity of the Assyrian inscriptions.

of the text. Yet even the faint traces which remain are

sufficient to indicate the prevalence of a brilliant red These facts may perhaps incline us to explain the text colour. The blue also occurs frequently, as we would as referring rather to the plaited hair which characterises expect from v. 6. The following list, by Mr Layard, of all the Assyrian figures on the monuments. The hair of articles on which colours have been found at Nimroud both the head and beard appears to have been very and Khorsabad, with the colours appropriated to each, abundant, and was elaborately plaited. The hair of the will give the readers some idea of the Assyrian usages head was parted over the forehead, and fell from behind in painting The hair, beard, eyebrows, eyelids, and the ear on the shoulders in a large bunch of ringlets. The eyeballs were black; the inner part of the eye, white; beard was allowed to grow to its full length; so that it the king's mitre, principally red; the crests of helmets, descended on the breast in a square forin, with series of blue and red; the heads of arrows, blue-the bows, red; curls occurring at regular intervals. the handles of maces, red; the harness of horses, blue It is not unlikely that the Assyrians wore false hair and and red; sandals, in oldest monuments, black, edged beards; and it is certain that they used a black pigment with red—in those of Khorsabad, striped blue and red; to stain the eyelids, eyelashes, and hair of the head the rosettes in the garlands of winged figures, red; generally. Such a hairy equipment as we have described, trees, at Khorsabad, a bluish green; flowers carried by seems to have been an indispensable requisite to a proper the winged figures, green, with red flowers occasionally; appearance among the Assyrians; and, consequently, must fire, always red. The preponderance of red and blue in have been procured at all hazards by those (if any) to whom this list will strike every one at once.

nature denied it. In v. 12, allusion is made to the gorgeous clothing of

On v. 24 we remark simply, that all the articles menthe Assyrians. This opens up the wide subject of the tioned there are abundantly represented on the monuments. costume of the Assyrians, which we cannot here enter into A conical shield generally, and a helmet always, formed a at length. It will suffice, if we adduce an illustrative part of the equipment of an Assyrian warrior. instance, in the person of an Assyrian king, from the north-west palace of Nimroud. His dress consists of a long, NOTE 71, p. 525.— The hitherto obscure allusion conflowing garment, reaching to the ankles, having the whole tained in the words : ‘They hanged their shields upon thy of the breast and a wide border richly embroidered and walls round about'(v. 11), is satisfactorily explained by bass. dyed. The designs are very elaborate, consisting of figures reliefs from Kouyunjik. The sculptures on the two slabs of men, animals, flowers, including mythological devices. which afford the illustration in question, are thus described This robe is confined at the waist by a girdle, having cords by Mr Layard: Vessels filled with warriors and females with tassels attached, the latter reaching almost to the were represented leaving a castle, built on the sea-shore, feet. Over it, another robe of about the same length and on the declivity of a mountain. A man stood at the was thrown, which was likewise embroidered and edged castle-gate which opened immediately upon the water. A with tassels. In v. 15, the girdles with which these robes woman, who had already embarked in one of the ships, were bound are specially mentioned— Girded with girdles was seen stretching out her arms to receive a child which upon their loins. These girdles were of a great variety the man was giving to her. The sea was indicated by of forms. The most common was a very broad belt, which wavy lines, carried across the slab from top to bottom, Gosse (Assyria) conjectures to have passed more than and by fish, crabs, and turtles. The vessels were of two once round the waist, the last circumvolution becoming kinds--some had masts and sails, as well as oars; others much more narrow, and each end terminating in a clasp. were impelled by rowers alone. They were furnished

The last article mentioned in these verses is dyed attire with two decks. On the upper, stood warriors armed with upon their heads' (v. 15). There has been a difference spears, and women wearing high turbans or mitres. On of opinion in regard to what is the real meaning of the the lower (which was probably divided into two compartHebrew words rendered in our version as above. (DUXE ments), were double sets of rowers-eight, and sometimes Dabar An). Thus Layard, for example, takes the

ten men sitting on a side, making sixteen or twenty in all.

The sides of the upper-deck, as well as the battlements of the words as referring to the head-dress of the Assyrian castle on the sea-shore, were hung with shields.?- Ninevek princes, while Gosse (Assyria) thinks that they probably and its Remains, vol. ii. p. 128. (The italics are ours.) allude to their copious and elaborately trimmed hair Mr Layard has shewn it to be probable, that the bassand beards. Without attempting to settle this question, reliefs in question represent a siege and capture of Tyre, we remark, that both the head-dress and the trimmed

or some other Phænician city on the sea-coast, though of hair were sufficiently prominent parts of the Assyrian course it cannot be the final siege of Tyre alluded to in costume, to entitle them to special notice in a description the text, but one much earlier by Sennacherib. He states of the latter.

that the larger galleys may be identified with the vessels It is true, indeed, that we must limit this remark, used to a comparatively late period by the inhabitants of so far as regards the head-dress, to the costume of the the great maritime cities of the Syrian coast–by the king; for, with exception of the royal tiara or mitre, people of Tyre and Sidon. They are very similar in form the head-dress of the other figures in the sculptures to the galleys represented on coins of a later period, which is exceedingly simple. The mitre of the king had a form belong to the period of the Persian supremacy in Asia, and resembling that of a truncated cone, surmounted by a which are most probably of Phænician origin. The galleys little point or peak in the centre of the crown. The base on the bass-reliefs, moreover, bear a close resemblance to was surrounded by a broad band, formed by the upturned those on the coins of Sidon of a later period, which bear on fold of the material of the mitre, and rising to a point in one side a galley, and on the other, the head of an Assyrian front. To this band, from behind, were attached two long goddess. When we take these facts into consideration, ribbons, which hung down the back, and were sometimes and reflect, moreover, that the allusion to hanging shields plain, and sometimes ornamented. Such was the head- on the walls is nowhere else found in Scripture, we will be dress of the king of the north-west palace at Nimroud. | disposed to acquiesce in Mr Layard's opinion, that the The tiara of the Kouyunjik king was more elevated and vessels on the bass-reliefs above described belonged to the graceful, and more highly ornamented. The head-dress of great cities of Phænicia. This opinion is converted into the officers of state consisted sometimes of a diadem or something like certainty, by the light thrown by the band, resembling the band on the royal mitre, and left inscriptions on the relations subsisting at different times the crown of the head uncovered. Perhaps it is in allusion between Phænicia and Assyria. Some of these inscriptions to the form of the head-dress of the Assyrian princes are as ancient as the period of Sardanapalus, the founder that the prophet Nahum speaks of them as crowned : of the north-west palace, Nimroud. In the two temples 'Thy crowned' (Nahum iii. 17). In other cases, the heads discovered in the high mound already referred to, were of the chief officers are represented as surrounded with a found, forming the pavements of two recesses, two enormous simple fillet, without ornament; and often the head monoliths, or alabaster slabs—one 21 feet by 16 feet appears altogether bare, as in hunting scenes.

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by 12 feet, with inscriptions, whose letters were carved the ornaments of stained and pure ivory, the necklaces, the with great care, written both on the upper and under plumes and coloured tassels, and the curiously wrought surfaces, and divided into two parallel horizontal columns. cloths of various dyes, the trappings would have appeared

The inscriptions were nearly the same on both; and far more splendid than our imagination depicts them.' that on the under side was in both cases substantially a -(p. 233). repetition of the contents of the upper. The record was still once more repeated on a slab, on which was carved in NOTE 73, p. 539.-In a previous note, reference was high relief an image of the Nimroud king. The principal | made to certain tombs found above the ruins of the older contents of the inscriptions consist of a full account of the palaces of Assyria; and it was stated that they bore decided various wars and campaigns of the king. In this account marks of Egyptian origin. It remains to state, that as yet occurs the following passage: 'At that time, the countries no light has been thrown by the recent discoveries on the that are upon Lebanon I took possession of, to the great mode of sepulture amongst the Assyrians-no tombs, sea of the country of Akkari-(the Mediterranean). On decidedly Assyrian, having as yet been discovered. Mr the great sea I put my servants. Sacrifices to the gods Layard did, indeed, discover a vaulted chamber in the high I offered. The tribute of the kings of the people who mound at Nimroud, which seemed adapted for no other dwelt near the sea, of the Tyrians, the Sidonians, the purpose than to be a house of the dead, but he found it Kubalians, of the city of Arvad, which is in the quite empty. From a depression in the exterior of the middle of the sea,' &c.—Layard, Nineveh and Babylon, mound, Mr Layard inferred that it had been opened and p. 356. Here, then, we find Tyre, Sidon, Aradus, besides robbed of its contents at some remote period. After other Phænician cities, tributary to a king of Assyria, who adverting to the absence of Assyrian tombs throughout the reigned in the tenth century before Christ. But more ruins of the entire country, Mr Layard naturally adds :nearly connected with the above account of the naval Did the Assyrians, like the fire-worshippers of Persia, scenes in the Kouyunjik, is the following passage from the expose their dead until nought remained but the bleached annals of Sennacherib, the founder of that palace :-'In bones, or did they burn them, and then scatter their ashes my third year,' thus proceeds the record, 'I went up to to the winds ? Not a clue is given to their customs in this the country of the Khetta, or Hittites-(used to designate manner by any bass-relief or monument hitherto discovered. all Southern Syria). Sulija, king of Sidon (the Elulæus of The Assyrians appear to have avoided all allusion to their Menander), had thrown off the yoke of allegiance. On my dead and to their funeral rites; unlike the Egyptians, who approach from Abiri, he fled to Yetnan, which was on the portrayed the ceremonies observed after death, and even sea-coast. I reduced his entire country; the places which the events of a future state, upon the walls of almost every submitted to me were Sidon the Greater, and Sidon the temple and tomb:'-Nineveh and Babylon, p. 594. Less, Beth Zitta, Saripat, Mahallat, Husuva (Tyre), Akzib, and Akka. I placed Tubaal on the throne, in the place of NOTE 74, p. 560.--Several examples of the arch were Sulija, and imposed on him the regulated amount of tribute. discovered by Mr Layard in the mound of Nimroud. In his The kings of the sea-coast all repaired to my presence first excavations, he discovered a vaulted chamber built of in the neighbourhood of the city of Husuva, or Tyre.'- baked bricks, about ten feet high, and the same in width. Rawlinson's Outlines, p. xxxii. Tyre, or indeed Phænicia "The arch was constructed on the well-known principle of generally, would thus seem to have been subject from a very vaulted roofs, the bricks being placed sideways, one against early period; and the fact, that notices of Assyrian influ- the other, and having been probably sustained by a frameence in this quarter appear in the inscriptions of different work until the vault was completed. This chamber was kings (as e.g. Sargon, by whom a monument, now in the nearly filled with rubbish, the greater part of which was Royal Museum of Berlin, was erected in Cyprus, com- filled with a kind of slag. The sides of the bricks forming memorating a campaign conducted by him in the Medi- the arched roof and the walls were almost vitrified, and had terranean), renders probable the supposition, that Assyrian evidently been exposed to very intense heat. In fact, the supremacy over Phænicia was continuous from the tenth

chamber had the appearance of a large furnace for making century.

glass, or for fusing metal.'— Nincveh and its Remains, vol. ii.,

p. 41. This chamber was buried in the centre of a thick NOTE 72, p. 527.- Whether we understand the Hebrew wall, and had no access from without, on which account Mr word as referring to chariots or to horses, the allusion to Layard thought it must have been used before the upper precious clothes is equally characteristic. The Assyrian part of the wall was built. We may just mention, that chariots, especially the later, were often covered with Gosse (Assyria) compares with this chamber the burning ornaments, while the harness and trappings of the horses fiery furnace into which Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego were extremely rich and elegant. 'Plumes waved over the were thrown. The long chamber discovered in the high head of the animals, or fancied crests rose gracefully in mound at the north-west corner of Nimroud, to which an arch above their ears, and descended in front to their reference was made in note 73, had also a vaulted roof. nostrils. To these ornaments were sometimes appended The high mound itself was discovered by Layard to be the long ribbons or streamers, which floated on the wind. remains of a square tower, of which the lower part was Large tassels of wool or silk, dyed many colours, fell on built of solid stone-masonry, the stones being carefully fitted the forehead, and were attached to many parts of the together, and bevelled with a slanting bevel, and the upper harness.'—Layard, Nineveh and its Remains. The head- part of burnt brick. The stone-work was still remaining gear and collar were elaborately ornamented with figures entire; but the bricks had fallen outwards; and by their of winged bulls, and other symbolical figures in the earlier, ruin, gave to the whole that pyramidal appearance which and with rosettes in the later sculptures. Embroidered had led previous travellers to regard the mound as actually clothes were frequently thrown over the backs of the the remains of a pyramid. The vaulted chamber within horses, nearly covering the body from the ears to the tail. the tower was about 100 feet long, 12 feet high, and 6 feet We cannot enter more particularly into this subject, but broad, and was blocked up at the two ends, without any content ourselves with remarking in the words of Mr entrance being left into it. It was vaulted with sun-dried Gosse, whose book on Assyria, her Manners and Customs, bricks, and the vault had in one or two places fallen in. Arts and Arms, published under the direction of the Mr Layard considered it probable that the ruin represented committee of general literature and education, appointed the tomb of Sardanapalus, which, according to the Greek by the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, may be geographers, stood at the entrance of the city of Nineveh. consulted with profit by all who are anxious to obtain It will be remembered, that the name of the builder of the information on these topics: 'Nothing is more remarkable north-west palace was Sardanapalus, or something similar. in the sculptures than the gorgeous magnificence in which If Layard's opinion be correct, then the arch was known the chariot-horses are arrayed; and, could we see the to the Assyrians in the tenth century B.C. Three other original colours with which they were painted, and, still examples of the arch were discovered by Layard, two of more, could we have beheld the reality, the polished metals, them being arched drains; of which one, about 5 feet wide, was built of large, kiln-burnt bricks, of a square form; so solution. We can now understand how Belshazzar, as that a space was left about the centre of the arch, which was joint king with his father, may have been governor of filled up by bricks laid longitudinally. It will be observed, Babylon, when the city was attacked by the combined that all these instances exhibit the arch only on a small forces of the Medes and Persians, and may have perished scale. It remains to state, that no examples of the arch in the assault which followed; while Nabonidus, leading on a great scale have been found in Assyria ; and this fact, a force to the relief of the place, was defeated, and obliged taken in connection with what is stated in Kitto's note to take refuge in the neighbouring town of Borsippa (or concerning the use of the arch in Egypt, would seem to Birs-i-Nimroud), capitulating after a short resistance, and point to the conclusion, that these ancients did not venture being subsequently assigned, according to Berosus, an to adopt that principle in architecture, except when the honourable retirement in Carmania. By the discovery, superincumbent weight was comparatively trifling.

indeed, of the name of Bel-shar-ezar, as appertaining to

the son of Nabonidus, we are for the first time enabled to NOTE 75, p. 589.—The discovery by Colonel Rawlinson reconcile authentic history (such as it is related by Heroof the commemorative cylinders, to which reference was dotus and Berosus, and not as we find it in the romance made in Note 55, Appendix to vol. ii., is one of great import- of Xenophon or the fables of Ctesias) with the inspired ance to the illustration of verse 30; and the account of the record of Daniel, which forms one of the bulwarks of our discovery, when published, will add greatly to our knowledge religion.' of ancient Babylon. The excavations at the Birs Nimroud, which were carried on according to a predetermined plan NOTE 77, p. 677.- Verse 14, 'house of thy gods. The of Colonel Rawlinson's, led to the discovery of a wall of ruins of Nineveh have hitherto been for the most part 190 feet in length, forming (as it appeared) one side of a regarded as the remains of palaces rather than of temples. square, 27 feet in height, and surmounted by a platform. The two small buildings discovered by Mr Layard at the From the two exposed corners of this wall were taken out high mound Nimroud, were regarded by him as the only the commemorative cylinders. In his account communi- undoubted remains of temples hitherto discovered. These cated to the British Museum, the learned colonel describes buildings appeared to be temples from the sculptures the original building as consisting of a series of square which were found in them. The entrance was formed by i platforms, rising one above the other, each dedicated to one two colossal human-headed lions, 165 feet high, and 15 of the planets, and coloured externally with the colours feet long, flanked by three small winged figures, one attributed to the seven planets in the works of the Sabæan above the other, and divided by an ornamental cornice; astrologers, and traditionally handed down from the and between them was an ornamental pavement of alabaster, Chaldæans. The inscriptions have been translated by while in front of each lion was a square stone, which seemed Colonel Rawlinson, but have not yet been published. It to be the pedestal of an altar. At the sides of a second is stated in the Athenæum (Jan. 20, 1855), from which this entrance were two singular figures. One was a monster notice is taken, that the inscriptions begin with the name of hideous aspect, and with heterogeneous members; and and usual titles of Nebuchadnezzar, and proceed with a the other was a winged man, with a long sword hanging summary of the buildings of Babylon, which the king had from his shoulder, and grasping in each hand a double repaired or erected. It then says, that the Temple of the trident resembling the thunderbolts of Greek Jove, which Planets of the Seven Spheres,' which had been built by an he was in the attitude of hurling at the monster. This early king 504 years previously (about 1100 B.c.), having group, according to Layard, represented the contest become ruinous owing to a neglect of the drainage, between the good and evil principles. Among the other which allowed the rain to penetrate, and the sun-dried sculptures were fish-gods of a form already described, and bricks causing the outer covering to bulge out, and fall various other emblematic figures, which need not be more down, the god Merodach had put it into his heart to particularly mentioned. The most interesting sculpture restore it; that he did not, however, rebuild the platform, was that of the king carved in high relief in the frame which was unimpaired, but that all the rest was restored formerly referred to. He was clothed in sacrificial robes, by his commands. The inscription ends with the usual and carried the sacred mace in his hand. On his neck expression of his aspirations for the eternal duration of were hung a crescent, a star, a trident, and a cross; while the work, and the continuation of his family on the throne above his head were the five mythic symbols—the winged for ever. This discovery is of the utmost importance, not globe, the crescent, the star, the bident, and the horned merely as determining the long agitated dispute about cap. Before him stood an altar, which seemed set, in the purport of the Birs; but chiefly for the satisfactory order to offer sacrifice to the king as a god or hero. The confirmation which it gives to the statement in verse 30, that inscription on the monolith on which the king was sculpBabylon was built by Nebuchadnezzar— built, that is, in tured, contained, towards the commencement, a list of the the sense of a thorough-going repair.

twelve great gods of Assyria, with their king, whose names

we may here append, so far as they are known. The list NOTE 76, p. 591.- The perplexing difficulty regarding on the monolith was the same as that on the black obelisk Belshazzar, of which two (false) solutions are given in the belonging to the son of the king represented on the text by Dr Kitto, has been at length definitively set at rest former, thouglı the names were differently arranged. The by a very important discovery of Colonel Rawlinson's, names, which we take from Layard's Nineveh and Babylon, announced in the Atheneum of March 18, 1854. We shall p. 629, are as follow :-1. Asshur, King of the Circle of give the reader the colonel's descriptions of his discovery the Great Gods ; 2. Anu, the Lord of the Mountains, or in his own words :- Two of these cylinders (clay cylinders, of Foreign Countries ; 3. doubtful; 4. Sau; 5. Merodach, discovered in the ruins of Um-Queer, which Rawlinson or Mars; 6. Yav (? Jupiter); 7. Bar; 8. Nebo (? Meridentifies with Ur of the Chaldees, and elsewhere] ' have cury); 9. Mylit (or Gula), called the Consort of Bel, and already reached me, and I have found them to contain the Mother of the Great Gods (? Venus); 10. (?) Dagon ; a memorial of the works executed by Nabonidus (the last 11. Bel (? Saturn), Father of the Gods; 12. Shamash (the king of Babylon) in Southern Chaldæa. They describe Sun); 13. Ishtar (the Moon). among other things the restoration of temples, originally The list given by Colonel Rawlinson differs from the built by the Chaldæan monarchs, at least 1000 years pre- one here given in some respects, and neither the one nor viously, and, further, notice the re-opening of canals dug the other can be received implicitly. The progress which by Nabopolassar and Nebuchadnezzar. The most important is being made in the interpretation of inscriptions, encoufact, however, which they disclose is, that the eldest son rages us to entertain the hope, that the Assyrian Pantheon of Nabonidus was named Bel-shar-ezar, and that he was will soon be adjusted with certainty. This is, indeed, a admitted by his father to a share in the government. This matter of great importance, because the names of the name is undoubtedly the Belshazzar (93825a) of Daniel, kings, and sometimes the names of the countries over and thus furnishes us with a key to the explanation of which they rule, are composed of the names of the gods. that great historical problem which has hitherto defied The difficulty of deciphering the latter arises from the

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