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3 And ye shall tread down the wicked ; for
they shall be ashes under the soles of your 1 God's judgment on the wicked, 2 and his blessing on the good. 4 He exhorteth to the study of the
feet in the day that I shall do this, saith the law, 5 and telleth of Elijah's coming and office.
LORD of hosts.
4 | Remember ye the ‘law of Moses my serFor, behold, the day cometh, that shall burn vant, which I commanded unto him in Horeb as an oven; and all the proud, yea, and all for all Israel, with the statutes and judgments. that do wickedly, shall be stubble: and the 5 9 Behold, I will send you "Elijah the day that cometh shall burn them up, saith the prophet before the coming of the great and LORD of hosts, that it shall leave them neither dreadful day of the LORD: root nor branch.
6 And he shall turn the heart of the fathers 2 1 But unto you that fear my name shall to the children, and the heart of the children the 'Sun of righteousness arise with healing to their fathers, lest I come and smite the in his wings ; and ye shall go forth, and grow earth with a curse. up as calves of the stall.
3 Matth. 11. 44, Mark 9. 11. Luko 1. 17.
1 Luke 1.78.
Exod. 20. 3.
Verse 2.' The Sun of righteousness (shall) arise with healing in his wings.'-We cannot withhold the following remarkable illustration of this passage, which we find in Burder's Oriental Customs (No. 367): The late Mr. Robinson of Cambridge called upon a friend just as he had received a letter from his son, who was surgeon on board a vessel then lying off Smyrna. The son mentioned to his father that every morning about sun-rise a fresh gale of air blew from the sea across the land, and, from its wholesomeness and utility in clearing the infected air, this wind is always called the Doctor. Now,” says Mr. Robinson, "it strikes me that the prophet Malachi, who lived in that quarter of the world, might allude to this circumstance, when he says that the Sun of righteousness shall arise with healing in his wings. The Psalmist mentions the wings of the wind, and it appears to me that this salubrious breeze, which attends the rising of the sun, may
properly enough be considered as the wings of the sun, which contain such healing influences, rather than the beams of the sun, as the passage has been commonly understood.”'
3.' Ye shall tread down the wicked; for they shall be ashes under the soles of your feet.'— This seems to imply that ashes were trodden under the feet. We have al. ready had occasion to explain that mortar is usually prepared in the East by treading with the feet; and as one kind of mortar is prepared with a mixture of ashes, it is not unlikely that, as Chardin suggests, this may explain the allusion. Indeed, our own plasterers and slaters, in preparing mortar for particular uses, sometimes mix ashes instead of sand with their lime: for this purpose they prefer the ashes of a furnace, and the Orientals the ashes of a bath.
NOTE 61, p. 258.—The haughty questions put into the Sennacherib (see Note 47, Appendix to vol. ii.) Evidence mouth of the Assyrian king,' Are not my princes altogether of intercourse with Egypt is also furnished by the ivories kings? Is not Calno as Carchemish? is not Hamath as which Mr Layard discovered at Nimroud during his first Arpad ? is not Samaria as Damascus ?' are seen to be visit to Nineveh. The subject and form of these ivories founded on literal truth, and to be no empty bravado, when are unmistakably Egyptian. They were not pure Egypthe light of the monuments is brought to bear upon them. tian, however, but very close imitations. The following The conclusion to which the historical records of Assyria, descriptions, taken from Mr Birch's observations on these as preserved in the inscriptions, lead in regard to the ornaments, will illustrate the above statement :nature and constitution of the kingdom, is thus expressed 1. 'Head of a man, full face, and a left cheek of style by Mr Layard (Nineveh and Babylon, p. 634) :- The peculiarly Egyptian; the eyes sunk for the purpose of empire appears to have been at all times a kind of con- inlaying; the brows incuse, and prolonged towards the federation formed by many tributary states, whose kings ears, and filled with blue colour,' &c. were so far independent, that they were only bound to 23, 24, 25. "Three panels, which represent each the furnish troops to the supreme lord in time of war, and to same subject-a monarch unbearded, wearing on his head pay him yearly a certain tribute. Hence we find succes- the Egyptian Kheprr, or helmet, which is ornamented sive Assyrian kings fighting with exactly the same nations with a series of annulations or rings
and has and tribes, some of which were scarcely more than four or in front the uraeus serpent, emblem of royalty, with an five days' march from the gates of Nineveh. On the Assyrian garment round the loins, like the Egyptian occasion of every change at the capital, these tributary shenti .....; the whole with a border of oval drops; the states seem to have striven to throw off the Assyrian yoke, legs bare and unshod, advancing to the right; holding in and to have begun by refusing to pay their customary his left hand a tall flower of the lotus, which rises out of tribute. A new campaign was consequently necessary to a clod of the earth; the whole representing the Egyptian bring them to obedience. We learn from the inscriptions, symbol for the upper country.' that when a city or kingdom was thus subdued, however 36. Four heads of most exquisite style, and in good near it might have been to Nineveh, when not actually preservation. The ears in these panels follow the forming a part of the imperial district, a new ruler was Egyptian canon, being placed above the eyes.' appointed to it with the title of "king" written in the 37. 'An imperfect panel, of large size : two winged same cuneiform characters on the monuments, as when sphinxes, placed back to back, facing outwards; their applied to the head of the empire' (the italics are ours). hair in pendent Egyptian locks, and in front of them We may add, that the representation of these petty wars palmettes.' to which Mr Layard alludes, occupies a large portion of 38. 'Part of another sphinx and emblem set from the bass-reliefs on the marble slabs of the chambers of the a similar panel.'-Layard's Nineveh and its Remains. palaces at Nineveh; and the written record of them forms Appendix ii. a prominent part of the cuneatic inscriptions. The obelisk The probable period of all the ivories lies between the found in the central palace at Nimroud by Mr Layard, 18th and 22d dynasties. To the latter dynasty belonged which we have already had occasion to mention, is covered Shishak, who besieged Jerusalem in the days of Rehoboam; on every side with sculptures and inscriptions, intended to while the Pharaoh with whom Solomon made an affinity, represent and narrate the victorious wars of the king probably belonged to the dynasty preceding. Thus have Temen-bar (?) against hostile nations, which appear to we strong evidence of intimate relations subsisting betwixt have been in great part tributary states who had thrown Egypt and Palestine on the one hand, and between the off their allegiance; whilst those tribes which he had former country and Assyria on the other, during the period subdued for the first time, are soon found again resisting within which Solomon's reign falls; and it is not improbable his authority (see Rawlinson's Outlines of Assyrian History, that political relations also subsisted betwixt Palestine and and his Commentary on the Cuneatic Inscriptions).
Assyria during the same period.
Some eminent writers, indeed, as Layard and Ferguson NOTE 62, p. 276.—We may avail ourselves of this (Palaces of Nineveh and Persepolis Restored), endeavour to opportunity of noticing the traces of intercourse between prove such a connection, by pointing out a close resemAssyria and Egypt, which have been discovered amid the blance in the materials of building, style of architecture, ruins of Nineveh, without pretending that the intercourse and ornamental work, between the palaces of Nineveh and thus shewn to exist between the two countries is that the great buildings of Solomon; particularly the house of which is alluded to in this verse. Notice has already been the forest of Lebanon, and the house where he diselt'
:'(as taken of a double seal bearing the cartouch of Sabaco, described in 1 Kings, vii. 1-12, and Josephus). One part one of the twenty-fifth dynasty of Egyptian kings, who of the description of these buildings given by Josephus is reigned at the end of the seventh century before Christ, particularly insisted on, where he states that Solomon built and of an Assyrian who is regarded with probability as some of these with stones of ten cubits, and wainscotted the VOL. III. 2 T
walls with other stones that were sawed. The latter clause account applies solely to the builder of the Khorsabad immediately reminds us of the marble slabs of the palaces palace, whom it was one of the objects of the communicaof Nineveh. The use of cedar-wood was also common to tion to shew to be Sargon: 'The king who built the palace both buildings, as Mr Layard's discoveries at Nimroud of Khorsabad, excavated by the French, is named Sargina shew. In a small temple discovered under the high mound, (the 720 of Isaiah); but he also bears, in some of the Nimroud, were found many beams of cedar, while the inscriptions, the epithet of Shalmaneser, by which title he greater part of the rubbish in which the ruin was buried was better known to the Jews. In the first year of his consisted of charcoal of the same wood. This temple, like reign, he came up against the city of Samaria (called the temple and palace of Solomon, would seem, therefore, Samarina, and answering to the Hebrew 77702) and the to have been built entirely of cedar. It is interesting to tribes of the country of Beth Homri (14py or 'Omri, being learn, as we do from the inscriptions of Sennacherib, that the name of the founder of Samaria, 1 Kings xvii, 16, są. the cedar used at Nineveh was sometimes brought from &c.) He carried off into captivity in Assyria 27,280 Lebanon. This fact, however, proves nothing regarding families, and settled in their places colonists brought from the existence of intercourse between Assyria and Judæa, Babylonia : appointing prefects to administer the country, as Lebanon was a locality whence wood was supplied to and imposing the same tribute which had been paid to all neighbouring countries.
former kings. The only tablet at Khorsabad which exhibits Still another trace of Egyptian influence in Assyria, is this conquest in any detail (Plate 70), is unfortunately much furnished by the tombs that have been discovered amongst mutilated. Should Monsieur de Saulcy, however, whom the ruins of Assyria. These tombs consisted of sarcophagi | the French are now sending to Assyria, find a duplicate either of brick or earth, and sometimes covered with an of Shalmaneser's annals in good preservation, I think it Assyrian slab. When opened, most of them contained probable that the name of the king of Israel may yet be human bones, with vases and bottles of pottery, alabaster, recovered. glass, necklaces of gems, plates, mirrors, &c. The con- 'In the second year of Shalmaneser's reign, he subjugated tents of these coffins are entirely Egyptian in character, the kings of Libnah (?) and Khazita (the Cadytis of Heroand it has been found very difficult hitherto to account for dotus), who were dependent upon Egypt; and in the their existence. They are found in all the most ancient seventh year of his reign, he received' tribute direct from ruins of Assyria, over the north-west, centre, and south-east the king of that country, who is named Pirhu, probably edifices at Nimroud, at Kalah, Sherghat, and Baasheika, for hyn, “ Pharaoh,” the title by which the kings of Egypt and not at the more recent ruins of Khorsabad and Kouyun- were known to the Jews and other Semitic nations. This jik, or the south-west palace of Nimroud. They are punishment of the Egyptians by Sargon or Shalmaneser situated above the ruins, so that they must have been is alluded to in the 20th chapter of Isaiah. deposited after the ancient palaces were destroyed. Mr Among the other exploits of Shalmaneser found in his Layard at first conjectured that the tombs belonged to an annals are the conquest of Ashdod, also alluded to in intermediate people or race, who occupied Assyria after Isaiah xx. 1; and his reduction of the neighbouring city the building of the most ancient palaces, and before the of Jamnai, called Jabneh or Jamneh in the Bible, Jamnaan foundation of the most recent. But in his more recent in Judith, and 'Iénysice by the Greeks. work he states, that he is inclined to believe that they 'In conformity with Menander's statement, that Shalmabelong to the time of the Seleucidæ, and of the Greek neser assisted the Cittaans against Sidon, we find a statue occupation of Assyria and Babylonia (p. 592).
and inscription of this king, Sargina, in the island of At all events, these various circumstances serve to Cyprus, recording the event; and to complete the chain render probable the existence, from an early period, of such of evidence, the city, built by him and named after him, mutual friendly relations between the three countries in the ruins of which are now called Khorsabad, retained question, as is described in vv. 23, 24; so that the political among the Syrians the title of Sarghun as late as the Arab connection prophesied of by Isaiah would appear to have conquest. had a historical parallel.
'I am not sure how long Shalmaneser reigned, or whether
he made a second expedition into Palestine. Ris annals NOTE 63, p. 277.--We have stated in a former note at Khorsabad extend only to the fifteenth year; and (52, Appendix to vol. ii.), that Sargon, so far from being although the names are given of numerous cities which identical with Esar-haddon, was the grandfather of the he captured in Cælo-Syria and on the Euphrates—such latter, and the father of Sennacherib. The relations sub- as Hamath, Beræa, Damascus, Bambyce, and Carchemish sisting between these kings have been satisfactorily made-I am unable to trace his steps into Judæa Proper. On out from the inscriptions. Thus, behind the bulls and a tablet, however, which he set up towards the close of his lions in the south-west palace at Nimroud, as well as on reign in the palace of the first Sardanapalus at Nimrond, baked bricks from the same building, Mr Layard found an he styles himself “conqueror of the remote Judæa ;” and I inscription containing the names of the father and the rather think, therefore, that the expedition in which, after grandfather (with another name, that of the builder of the a three years' siege of Samaria, he carried off the great north-west palace at Nimroud) of the builder of the palace. body of the tribes of Israel, and which is commemorated But these names are identical with those of the founders in the Bible as having been concluded in the sixth year of the Kouyunjik and Khorsabad palaces respectively; from of Hezekiah, must have taken place subsequently to the which it follows, that the founder of the former palace was building of the palace of Khorsabad.' the father, and the founder of the latter, the grandfather It will appear from this account, that Shalmaneser could of the builder of the south-west palace. These, the inde- not have completed the deportation of the inhabitants of pendent investigations of scholars versant in cuneiform Samaria. We must, in fact, reckon altogether four literature, have determined to be Sennacherib and Sargon; deportations of the inhabitants of the kingdom of Israel and it is important to state, that the name of the Khor- --the first under Pul, the second under Tiglath-pileser, sabad king was generally admitted to be Sargon before his the third under Shalmaneser, and the last under Sargon. relationship to the Kouyunjik king was known. Of course, The deportations by Pul and Tiglath-pileser are alluded Dr Kitto's statement in his note, that the fulfilment of to in 1 Chronicles v. 6, 26, where it is said (verse 6): the prophecy in the text was realised during the reign Beerah his son, whom Tilgath-pilneser king of Assyria and through the agency of Esar-haddon, can no longer be carried away captive: he was prince of the Reubenites;' regarded as true. The following quotation from a letter and (verse 26) the God of Israel stirred up the spirit addressed to the Athenæum, August 23, 1851, by Colonel of Pul, and Tilgath-pilneser king of Assyria, and he Rawlinson, contains the substance of all the information carried them away, even the Reubenites, and the as yet derived from the annals of Sargon, so far as these Gadites, and the half tribe of Manasseh (these formed the relate to matters mentioned in Scripture history. The part of the Israelitish kingdom east of the Jordan), and reader is reminded that Colonel Rawlinson no longer brought them unto Halah, and Habor, and Hara, and to identifies Sargon and Shalmaneser, and that the following the river Gozan, unto this day.'
NOTE 64, p. 282.-Note 56, in Appendix to vol. ii., 24 feet in diameter, and 3 feet deep, which, when opened will shew the reader that Dr Kitto's interpretation of this -their mouths were closed by large tiles-were found to verse can scarcely be correct. It was there shewn that be filled with a variety of interesting objects, such as there was a primitive Babylonian Empire, including Assyria small bronze bells-eighty in all-with iron tongues, as one of its provinces, which would appear to have con- tapering bronze rods bent into hooks, bronze cups and tinued from about 2000 B.C. till 1200 B.C. Towards the dishes, and hundreds of studs and buttons in mother-ofcommencement of that early period, probably, were founded pearl and ivory; all of which, excepting the cups and those ancient cities spoken of in Genesis x.-Babel, Erech, dishes, Mr Layard regarded as probably forming ornaments Accad, and Calneh. Colonel Rawlinson states, that in of horses and chariots. The bells, the largest of which the list of the old Chaldæan dynasty of kings, he has found was 31 inches high, and 2 inches in diameter, and the the names of Amraphel and Arioch (see Genesis xiv. 1). smallest 14 and 14, may have been worn by horses in the Subsequently, however, the Assyrian or Nineveh kings way described in Dr Kitto's note on Zechariah xiv. 20: gained the ascendancy, when Babylon sunk to the level of 'In that day shall there be upon the bells of the horses, a province, only to rise a second time to supreme power. Holiness unto the Lord,' &c. Besides the two spoken of,
It is this second rise of the Babylonian power to which ten more caldrons and jars were found in the 'bronze the passage in question seems to refer.
chamber;' also two circular flat vessels, nearly 6 feet in
diameter, which, though of much smaller dimensions, NOTE 65, p. 318.-A bass-relief from the south-west remind us of the brazen sea of Solomon's Temple. Indeed, palace at Nimroud, furnishes an exact illustration of the in some of the bass-reliefs, large caldrons are represented 2d and 7th verses of this chapter. It represents a pro- as resting on the backs of oxen; a circumstance that cession of warriors, carrying on their shoulders four constitutes a still more decided point of contact with the images. There are four to each image-two before and molten sea of Solomon.—(See Layard, Nineveh and Babylon, two behind it, at each end of the platform on which itp. 588.) rests. The first image was that of a female seated on a Some of these caldrons, or even the whole of them, high-backed chair, holding in one hand a ring, and in the may have formed part of the spoil which the Assyrians other a triangular object, which Mr Layard calls a fan. took from time to time from their enemies, since caldrons On her head was a horned cap, surmounted with a star. are frequently represented on the monuments as part of the The second was also a seated female, wearing a similar spoil or tribute brought from conquered countries. The cap, and having in one hand a ring. The third figure was frequency with which they occur, seems to prove the high nearly concealed by a screen attached to her chair; the value in which they were held by the Assyrians. This fourth was a man in the attitude of lking, holding in an high estimate appears to have been eneral amongst the elevated position an axe in one hand, and what appear to ancient nations; at all events, it prevailed amongst the be three sticks, slightly crossed, in the other; two horns Greeks of Homeric times, as is shewn by the catalogue in branched out on each side of his head, which is otherwise the Iliad of the gifts whereby Agamemnon sought to bare. What gods these were, we cannot determine with appease the wrath of Achilles :absolute certainty. But two separate coincidences between "Επτ’ απύρους τρίποδας, δέκα δε χρυσοίο τάλαντα, the representations on the bass-relief and the statements of
Αίθωνας δε λέβητας αείκοσι. . ancient history, almost certainly identify the man walking
Iliad, ix. 122. with Bel, mentioned in the first verse of the text. Diodorus Besides caldrons, Mr Layard found many other vessels Siculus states, that the three deities worshipped in the of bronze, which he classifies under four heads-dishes with great temple of Babylon, were Belus, Hera, and Rhea; and handles, plates, deep bowls, and cups. Some were plain, that the statue of the first mentioned presents the attitude others had a simple rosette, scarab, or star in the centre; of walking. In the epistle of Jeremy, the following passage while many were very elaborately ornamented on the inside occurs :-'Now shall ye see in Babylon gods of silver and -not on the outside—with figures of men and animals, &c. of gold, and of wood, borne upon shoulders. And he that The style is frequently Egyptian in character, though the cannot put to death him that offendeth him, holdeth a execution is peculiarly Assyrian. The chased surface has sceptre, as though he were a judge of the country. He been produced by the punch; and the numerous instances hath also in his right hand a dagger and an are.' These in which this art appears to have been applied, prove it two statements from different sources, when put together, to have been common. There were also found beneath contain an almost exact description of the fourth or last the caldrons, heaps of lions' and bulls' feet, of bronze, and image in the bass-relief. Bel was, however, a Babylonian the remains of iron rings and bars, which had probably god, while the gods represented on the bass-relief in formed parts of tripods or stands, for supporting vessels question are to be presumed to be Assyrian. It would and bowls. With regard to the composition of the metal
to follow, therefore, that the symbolism of the of which these various bronze vessels are made, it has Babylonians in connection with their supreme god Bel, been found that the metal of the dishes, bowls, and rings was very nearly identical with that of the Assyrians, in contains 1 part of tin to 10 of copper, the same proconnection with some one of their gods; a fact for which portion as in the best modern bronze; while that of the we are prepared, when we reflect how intimately the bells has 14 per cent. of tin. Besides vessels and two peoples were connected with each other. And this instruments in bronze, there were others of iron overa priori inference is completely verified by the Assyrian laid with bronze, and also of iron alonę. The iron was inscriptions; for amongst the lists of the twelve great gods probably overlaid with bronze, because it was found of Assyria, stands the name Bel, as the reader will perceive difficult to produce good figures in the former metal. The by consulting Note 77 of this Appendix,
arms which were found in the chamber were mostly of
iron, and consequently nearly all fell to pieces when they NOTE 66, p. 448.-It will not be out of place to were exposed to the air. append here a short notice on the caldrons and culinary Although we have now described very cursorily all the vessels of the Assyrians, with which the explorations at contents of the above interesting chamber of the Nimroud Nineveh have made us acquainted, especially as the monu- palace which in any way bear on the illustration of the ments furnish illustrations of the carrying away as spoil of text, yet we shall take the present opportunity of menvessels such as those mentioned in these verses. In this tioning briefly the other relics of the chamber, as they are department, Mr Layard has reaped the richest harvest. connected with the former by the natural association of During his second expedition, he discovered a chamber identity of place, and especially because no more suitable in the north-west palace at Nimroud, which fully com- opportunity will present itself. These relics were, for the pensated for its want of sculptured slabs, by the many most part, vessels in glass. It is a singularly interesting interesting relics of utensils, instruments, and arms of circumstance, that we should now have such abundant bronze, iron, glass, &c., found in it. Mr Layard first evidence of the general acquaintance with the manufacture discovered two plain copper vessels, or caldrons, about of glass, on the part of the ancient world, considering