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unto the '*potter : a goodly price that I was the land, which shall not visit those that be prised at of them. And I took the thirty 'cut off
, neither shall seek the young one, pieces of silver, and cast them to the potter in nor heal that that is broken, nor feed that the house of the LORD.
that standeth still : but he shall eat the flesh 14 Then I cut asunder mine other staff, of the fat, and tear their claws in pieces. even "*Bands, that I might break the brother- 17 'Woe to the idol shepherd that leaveth hood between Judah and Israel.
the flock! the sword shall be upon his arm, 15 And the Lord said unto me, Take and
his arm shall be clean unto thee yet the instruments of a foolish shep- dried up, and his right eye shall be utterly herd.
darkened. 16 For, lo, I will raise up a shepherd in 19 Matt. 27. 9, 10. 13 Or, Binders. 14 Or, hidden.
15 Or, bear.
16 Jer. 23. 1. Ezek. 34. 2. John 10. 12.
Verse 10. • I took my staff... and cut it asunder, that I Most commentators observe that this was the cost of a slave night break my covenani.- The idea of breaking or cutting in the time of Moses (Exod. xxi. 32); and therefore infer a staff or wand, in token of the termination of an engage- the unworthiness of the price. But the inference does not ment or obligation, happens to be one that is very familiar seem to us just; and indeed we should rather draw a conto ourselves. The memory and meaning of what was an trary inference from this very circumstance. For a slave act among our fathers, is still preserved; for while the is generally costly and valuable; and if therefore they first edition of this work was in progress our readers have gave for the services of a shepherd, during one season in had occasion to learn that, at the funeral of our sovereign, which he had been out with the flock, such a sum as would the great officers of the royal household broke over the have purchased the perpetual services of a slave, they grave their wands of office, to denote the termination of must have considered that they were making him a very their functions and obligations. That their duties and fair remuneration. Their mistake probably lay in their engagements were undertaken under the sanction of an acting as in a matter of real business, without understandoath, gives the more force to this illustration, as the break-ing of, or reference to, the figurative and typical meaning ing of the staves seems, in connection with this circum- of the prophet. Thus, that which would have been sufstance, to be designed to express the final disruption of a ficient in a real affair of the nature described, would have sworn covenant. In the present text, and in the obvious been utterly unworthy—as all price must have been-when and literal acceptation, the breaking of the staff appears understood with reference to the latent and ulterior meanto express the termination of the engagement of the shep- ing. That meaning cannot be otherwise explained than as herd who had been out to the pasture grounds with the referring to the circumstances which attended the betrayal flock, .
of Christ by Judas-the price at which he was valued by 12. Give me my price.'-The price of his services as the chief priests—and the use to which that price was a shepherd. We have explained, on former occasions, finally applied. Indeed the Evangelist expressly declares that the shepherds to whom the flocks are intrusted often the present passage to be a prediction which was fulfilled remain long abroad with them in distant pastures. on the occasion mentioned. "Matt. xxvii. 9, 10.
• They weighed for my price thirty pieces of silver.'
4 In that day, saith the LORD, I will smite
every horse with astonishment, and his rider 1 Jerusalem a cup of trembling to herself, 3 and a
with madness : and I will
6 The vicburdensome stone to her adversaries,
eyes upon torious restoring of Judah. 9 The repentance of the house of Judah, and will smite every horse Jerusalem.
of the people with blindness.
5 And the governors of Judah shall say in THE burden of the word of the LORD for their heart, The inhabitants of Jerusalem Israel, saith the LORD, which stretcheth forth shall be my strength in the Lord of hosts their the heavens, and layeth the foundation of the God. earth, and formeth the spirit of man within him. 6 1 In that day will I make the governors
2 Behold, I will make Jerusalem a cup of of Judah like an hearth of fire among the trembling unto all the people round about, wood, and like a torch of fire in a sheaf; and 'when they shall be in the siege both against they shall devour all the people round about, Judah and against Jerusalem.
on the right hand and on the left : and Jeru3 And in that day will I make Jerusalem salem shall be inhabited again in her own a burdensome stone for all people : all that place, even in Jerusalem. burden themselves with it shall be cut in 7 The LORD also shall save the tents of pieces, though all the people of the earth be Judah first, that the glory of the house of gathered together against it.
David and the glory of the inhabitants of i Or, slumber, or, poison. 2 Or, and also against Judah shall he be which shall be in siege against Jerusalem, & Or, There is strength to me and to the inhabitants, &c.
Jerusalem do not magnify themselves against him, as one that is in bitterness for his firstJudah.
born. 8 In that day shall the LORD defend the 11 In that day shall there be a great inhabitants of Jerusalem; and he that is ’mourning in Jerusalem, 'as the mourning of sfeeble
among them at that day shall be as Hadadrimmon in the valley of Megiddon. David ; and the house of David shall be as
12 And the land shall mourn, every faGod, as the angel of the Lord before them. mily apart; the family of the house of David 9 And it shall come to pass in that day, apart
, and their wives apart; the family of that I will seek to destroy all the nations that the house of Nathan apart, and their wives
apart; 10 1° And I will pour upon the house of Da- 13 The family of the house of Levi apart, vid, and upon the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the and their wives apart; the family of Shimei spirit of grace and of supplications : and they apart, and their wives apart ; shall ‘look upon me whom they have pierced, 14 All the families that remain, every faand they shall mourn for him, as one mourneth mily apart, and their wives apart. for his only son, and shall be in bitterness for 4 Or, abject.
9 Heb. families, families.
5 Heb. fallen.
6 John 19. 34, 37. Revel. 1. 7.
7 Acts 2. 37.
8 2 Chron. 35, 24,
Verse 3. 'A burdensome stone.'- It is not impossible that this allusion may be explained by a custom which Jerome describes as common in his time throughout Judæa. Large and heavy round stones were kept in the towns and villages; and the youths exercised themselves in a sort of game which consisted in lifting such a stone; he who lifted it highest being the victor. This exercise differed from the common ones of the athletæ of Greece and Rome. However, something like it was not unknown; for Jerome goes on to say, that in the tower at Athens, near the statue of Minerva, he had seen a heavy globe of brass which he was himself unable to move; but on inquiring its use, he was told that it was employed for testing the strength of the wrestlers; none being admitted as combatants, till it was ascertained, by their lifting of this
weight, with whom they should be matched. This reminds us that, in the piratical states of Barbary, when European captives were brought in to be disposed of as slaves, they were often compelled by their captors, or intended purchasere, to afford evidence of their strength by raising large and most burdensome stones provided for the parpose.
11. • The mourning of Hadadrimmon.'—This was the great mourning for Josiah, 2 Chron. xxxv. 22-25. Jerome says that Hadad-rimmon was the name of a place which, in his time, went by the name of Maximianopolis, so called in honour of the emperor Maximian, and which was situated seventeen miles from Cæsarea and ten miles from Jezreel. This was perhaps the exact place, in the valley or plain of Megiddo, where Josiah was slain.
of his vision, when he hath prophesied ; neither
shall they wear a rough garment 'to deceive. 1 The fountain of purgation for Jerusalem, 2 from idolatry, and false prophecy. 7 The death of
5 But he shall say, I am no prophet, I am Christ, and the trial of a third part.
an husbandman; for man taught me to keep
cattle from my youth. In that day there shall be a fountain opened 6 And one shall say unto him, What are to the house of David and to the 'inha- these wounds in thine hands? Then he shall bitants of Jerusalem for sin and for 'unclean
answer, Those with which I was wounded in the house of my
friends. 2 | And it shall come to pass in that day, 7 9 Awake, O sword, against my shepherd, saith the LORD of hosts, that I will 'cut off and against the man that is my fellow, saith the names of the idols out of the land, and the LORD of hosts : 'smite the shepherd, and they shall no more be remembered : and also the sheep shall be scattered : and I will turn I will cause the prophets and the unclean spi- mine hand upon the little ones. rit to pass out of the land.
8 And it shall come to pass, that in all the 3 And it shall come to pass, that when any land, saith the LORD, two parts therein shall shall yet prophesy, then his father and his be cut off and die ; but the third shall be left mother that begat him shall say unto him, therein. Thou shalt not live; for thou speakest lies in 9 And I will bring the third part through the name of the LORD: and his father and his the fire, and will ørefine them as silver is remother that begat him shall thrust him through fined, and will try them as gold is tried : they when he prophesieth.
shall call on my name, and I will hear them : 4 And it shall come to pass in that day, I will say, It is my people: and they shall that the prophets shall be ashamed every one say, The LORD is my God. 1 Heb. separation for uncleanness.
8 Heb. a garment of hair.
9 Ezek. 30. 13. 5 Matt. 26. 81. Mark 14, 27.
4 Heb. to lie,
6 1 Pet. 1. 6,7.
Verse 4. · Wear a rough garment to deceive.'—It ap- was, that the false prophets, to complete their imposition pears from various passages of Scripture, that the prophets on the people, assumed the outward garb by which prousually wore a rough or hairy garment; and it would phets were distinguished. seem that the deception of which Zechariah here speaks
from Geba to Rimmon south of Jerusalem :
and it shall be lifted up, and "inhabited in 1 The destroyers of Jerusalem destroyed. 4 The
her place, from Benjamin's gate unto the place coming of Christ, and the graces of his kingdom. 12 The plague of Jerusalem's enemies. 16 The
of the first gate, unto the corner gate, and remnant shall turn to the Lord, 20 and their spoils from the tower of Hananeel unto the king's shall be holy.
11 And men shall dwell in it, and there BEHOLD, the day of the LORD cometh, and shall be no more utter destruction; but Jeruthy spoil shall be divided in the midst of thee. salem ''shall be safely inhabited.
2 For I will gather all nations against Je- 12 | And this shall be the plague whererusalem to battle; and the city shall be taken, with the LORD will smite all the people that and the houses rifled, and the women ravished; have fought against Jerusalem ; Their flesh and half of the city shall go forth into captivity, shall consume away while they stand upon and the residue of the people shall not be cut their feet, and their eyes shall consume away off from the city.
in their holes, and their tongue shall consume 3 1 Then shall the LORD go forth, and fight away in their mouth. against those nations, as when he fought in 13 And it shall come to pass in that day, the day of battle.
that a great tumult from the LORD shall be 4 And his feet shall stand in that day among them; and they shall lay hold every upon the mount of Olives, which is before Je- one on the hand of his neighbour, and his hand rusalem on the east, and the mount of Olives shall rise up against the hand of his neighshall cleave in the midst thereof toward the bour.
14 And "Judah also shall fight "Sat Jeruvery great valley; and half of the mountain salem; and the wealth of all the heathen shall remove toward the north, and half of it round about shall be gathered together, gold, toward the south.
and silver, and apparel, in great abundance. 5 And ye shall flee to the valley of 'the 15 And so shall be the plague of the horse, mountains; 'for the valley of the mountains of the mule, of the camel, and of the ass, and shall reach unto Azal : yea, ye shall flee, like of all the beasts that shall be in these tents, as ye fled from before the earthquake in the as this plague. days of Uzziah king of Judah : and the LORD 16 And it shall come to pass, that every my God shall come, and all the saints with one that is left of all the nations which came thee.
against Jerusalem shall even go up from year 6 And it shall come to pass in that day, to year to worship the King, the LORD of that the light shall not be clear, nor 'dark : hosts, and to keep the feast of tabernacles.
7 But it shall be 'one day which shall be 17 And it shall be, that whoso will not known to the LORD, not day, nor night: but come up of all the families of the earth unto it shall come to pass, that at Revening time it Jerusalem to worship the King, the LORD of shall be light.
hosts, even upon them shall be no rain. 8 And it shall be in that day, that living 18 And if the family of Egypt go not up, 'waters shall go out from Jerusalem ; half of and come not, that have no rain ; there shall them toward the ''former sea, and half of be the plague, wherewith the LORD will smite them toward the hinder sea : in summer and the heathen that come not up to keep the feast in winter shall it be.
of tabernacles. 9 And the LORD shall be king over all the 19 This shall be the punishment of Egypt, earth: in that day shall there be one LORD, and the punishment of all nations that and his name one.
come not up to keep the feast of tabernacles. 10 All the land shall be "turned as a plain 20 In that day shall there be upon the 18 bells of the horses, HOLINESS UNTO and all they that sacrifice shall come and take THE LORD; and the pots in the Lord's of them, and seethe therein: and in that day house shall be like the bowls before the altar. there shall be no more the Canaanite in the
1 Or, my mountains. 2 Or, when he shall touch the valley of the mountains to the place he separated. 3 Amos 1.1. • Heb. precious.
o Or, the day shall be one.
11 Or, compassed. 12 Or, shall abide. 14 Or, thou also, O Judah, shalt.
18 Or, against.
11 Or, sin,
5 Heb. thickness. Ezek. 47. 1. Joel 3. 18. Rev. 22, 1.
7 Rev. 22. 5.
10 Or, eastern.
8 Isa. 60. 19. Rev. 21. 23.
13 Or, shall abide.
21 Yea, every pot in Jerusalem and in Ju- house of the LORD of hosts. dah shall be holiness unto the Lord of hosts : 18 Or, bridles.
19 Isa. 35, 8. Joel 3. 17. Rev. 21. 27, and 22. 15.
Verse 5. ' Like as ye fled before the earthquake.'--See the nocturnal dews, being the sole fertilizing principles. This particulars of Syrian earthquakes given in the note on extraordinary dryness of the valley of the Nile is to be Amos i. 1. Some particulars which we have collected attributed to the heat of the sun, and to the course of the from different parts of Mr. Calman's Description of a Purt winds which, as determined by the form of the valley, of the Scene of the last great Earthquake in Syria, 1837, blow pretty constantly from the north-west. The clouds will give the reader an idea of the awful circumstances formed from the vapours of the seas, which bound Egypt on attending such visitations. The few survivors of that the north and east, are drawn into this current of air, dreadful overthrow, like men whom consternation had which drives them towards Nubia and Ethiopia, where divested of sound reason, brooding over the ruins of they speedily fall in rain upon the woods and mountains their habitations, and bemoaning the relatives who still -thus ultimately benefiting Egypt by rendering the inlay buried beneath the ruins :-of those at Safet, with crease of its river more abundant. The currents of air ghastly countenances and tattered clothes, scattered which traverse the valley of the Nile are most sensible at over the four sides of their mountain, destitute of rai- a distance from the mountains which confine that valley ment and shelter to screen them from the keen mid- on the east and west ; near these mountains the effect of the winter air of the mountains, and seeming as if they only currents is less powerful; and there it sometimes raids. survived to pine away more slowly and sufferingly than 20. “ The bells of the horses.'— Dr. Gill, who wrote those whom the earthquake had overwhelmed ;-of faith- aboat a hundred years since—when, from the bad condiful dogs trying, with indefatigable perseverance, to remove tions of the roads, goods were conveyed by pack-horses the heaps of stones which hid their owners from their far more extensively than of late years-says, that they, sight, and breaking forth, every now and then, into the as well as draught-horses, were often furnished with bells, most mournful howlings, when they found that the efforts under the notion that the animals were encouraged and of their weak paws were spent in vain ;-of the dreadful enlivened by the sound. We are not aware that packstate of many who were wounded, their poor bodies crushed, horses now wear bells in this country; but they have not broken, torn, in every possible way, beyond all hope of wholly disappeared from draught-horses. In Western cure; and of the numbers who, in this state, lay upon or Asia, where there are no draught-horses, bells are much about the ruins, with none to care for them or to provide employed on baggagc-animals, that is, in caravans, except them help or shelter ;--of those who, for the first three or in districts which, on account of danger from robbers, it four days, continued alive under the ruins, sending forth is desired to pass through in silence. When this consibitter cries and lamentations, and vain entreaties for help, the attempts to give which, in many cases, crushed them to death by the displacement of the stones and beams which had given them protection ;-of those who, after many days, were brought forth barely alive, and who opened their eyes once more upon the light of day, and by that light viewing their few surviving friends and their ruined cities, closed them again for ever ;-of the bodies of the slain drawn out and dragged about the fields hy greedy dogs, which, emboldened by their horrid fare, became at last dangerous to the living ;-or, finally, of the wild inhabitants of the desert hastening gleefully-like vultures to the scent of blood—to reap the harvests for which they did not labour, and to gather the treasures which they never deposited, digging among the ruins, and bearing joyously to their tents and caverus the wealth of the living and the dead. See Calman, pp. 3, 5, 6, 8, 9, 15, 18, 27.
18. “The family of Egypt that have no rain.' This is a very remarkable distinction made with respect to Egypt. The nations that would not go up to Jerusalem were to be punished with want of rain ; but since Egypt had no rain,' it would not be comprehended under this bann; and therefore a special clause is added for that country, denouncing on it a different punishment. The statement that Egypt had no rain is, like that of Pliny, to be understood in the qualified sense,-that Egypt had not rain so abundantly or frequently as other countries; and pos
Camel's HEAD WITH BELIS. sessed, in the periodical overflowings of the Nile, and in the means of irrigation which that river at other times supplies, deration does not prevent, the continual jingling of na. peculiar sources which would prevent even the entire depri- merous bells is a remarkable characteristic of an Oriental vation of rain from producing calamitous consequences.
The objects of this usage are alleged to be to (See the note on Exod. vii. 15.) The case is, that during encourage the beasts, to frighten animals of prey, and, the usual season of rain, which corresponds to our winter, above all, to keep the party together, enabling those who falls of rain are rather frequent, though not of long con- may have strayed or lingered to rejoin the caravan by tinuance, in the provinces which border on the Mediter- following the sound of the bells. This is an object of ranean, and in the deserts between the valley of the Nile great importance in countries where the routes pass over and the Red Sea. But in the interior of Egypt it almost trackless plains and mountain-passes, marked by no regunever rains; the inundation of the Nile, and the abundant lar roads or pathways. The bells, which are thick, are seldom very musical, are attached in various fashions, but of hewn rock. - Mr. Buckingham has given perhaps the generally as in our cut, and always under the animal's best description of it, as follows: It is a square mass throat. Frequently a single animal has but one bell; but of rock, hewn down into form, and isolated from the quarry we have seeu baggage-mules, which seem to have been out of which it is cut, by a passage of twelve or fifteen regarded as a sort of leaders, furnished with seven or eight feei wide on three of its sides; the fourth, or western side bells. The bells are in general about the size of our com- being open towards the valley and to Mount Moriah, the mon house-bells, but not so broad in proportion at the foot of which is only a few yards distant. This square base. It is singular that the Orientals do not use bells for mass is eight paces in length on each side, and about any other purpose whatever than this.
twenty feet high in the front, and ten fect high at the As to the inscription upon the bells of the horses, it is back, the hill on which it stands having a steep ascent. of course a figurative expression to denote the consecra- It has four semi-columns cut out of the same rock on each tion of the meanest things to the Divine glory. Never- of its faces, with a pilaster at each angle, all of a bastard theless, the mention of bells with pots, in this connection, Ionic order and ornamented in bad taste. The architrave, reminds us to mention that the expression might contain the full moulding, and the deep overhanging cornice an allusion to an actual practice; for nothing is more com- which finishes the square, are all perfectly after the mon than for the Orientals to have the name of God, or Egyptian manner; and the whole is surmounted by a pysome pious text or moral maxim, inscribed upon their ramid, the sloping sides of which rise from the very edges vessels of metal, generally in such a manner as to form an of the square below, and terminate in a finished point. ornamental border near the rim. We have ourselves used The square of this monument is one solid mass of rock, as cups and dishes of tinned copper thus ornamented; and well as its semi-columns on each face; but the surmountwe had almost said that we have seen the same on ing pyramid appears to be of masonry: its sides however the bells of animals; but feeling slightly doubtful as to are perfectly smooth, like the coated pyramids of Saccara the accuracy of our recollection, we abstain.
and Dashour, and not graduated by stages as the pyrainids
of Gizeh in Egypt... There is no appearance of an en. Here, at the close of Zechariah's book of prophecy, we trance to any part of it; so that it seems, if a tomb, to proceed to notice, as promised in the introductory note, have been as firmly closed as the Egyptian pyramids the sepulchral structure which stands in the valley of Je- themselves; perhaps from the same respect for the invio. hoshaphat, bearing the name of the Tomb of Zechariah; lability of the repose of the dead.' The same was the case and a representation of which is contained in the sub- with the • Tomb of Absalom' till a passage was broken joined engraving. It will be seen that, in its general into it. Pococke was informed that there was a subterracharacter, it resembles Absalom's Tomb in the same neous entrance to this tomb, known to none but the Jews; ralley (see 2 Sam. xviii.); and, like that, belongs rather and he thought this not unlikely. to sculpture than architecture, being altogether a mass