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fore came a great wrath from the LORD of 14 But I scattered them with a whirlwind hosts.

among all the nations whom they knew not. 13 Therefore it is come to pass, that as he Thus the land was desolate after them, that cried, and they would not hear; so they no man passed through nor returned : for they cried, and I would not hear, saith the LORD laid the pleasant land desolate. of hosts :

11 Prov. !. 28. Isa. 1. 15. Jer. 11. 11, and 14. 12. 12 Heb, land of desire.

Verse 5. : When ye fasted... in the fifth and seventh month.'—This is one of several allusions in Zecharial to anniversary fast-days concerning which we cannot do better than transcribe the following from Jahn's Archæologia Biblica, iii. 357. • The Hebrews, in the early period of their history, were in the habit of fasting whenever they met with any adverse occurrences (Judg. xx. 26; 1 Sam. vii. 6; xxxi. 13; 2 Sam. iii. 35; Isa. lviii. 3-12). But it was not till about the time of the Captivity that they introduced anniversary fast-days. The days to which we allude are as follows:

I. The seventeenth day of the fourth month, namely, Tammuz, or July. This fast was instituted in memory of the capture of Jerusalem; Jer. liii. 6, et seq. ; Zech. viii. 19.

II. The ninth day of the fifth month, AB, or August, in memory of the burning of the Temple; Zech. vii. 3; viii. 19.

III. The third day of the seventh month, Tisuri, or October, in memory of the death of Gedaliah; Jer. xl. 4; Zech. vii. 5.; viii. 19.

IV. The tenth day of the tenth month, TEBETH, or January, in memory of the commencement of the attack on Jerusalem; Zech. viii. 19.'

The prophet Zechariah, in reference to inquiries which were made to him, asserted that these mournful occasions were, at some future time, to be converted into festivals of joy ; but the Jews, notwithstanding, have ever continued to observe them as fasts. They expect this change to take place in the days of the, by them, still expected Messiah.

It will be recollected that only one annual public fast, that of the day of atonement, was instituted by the Law of Moses; but several instances occur in Scripture of extraordinary public fasts, appointed by the authority of the civil magistrate (1 Sam. vii. 5, 6; 2 Chron. xx. 3; Jer. xxxvi. 9). Thus the present were the first annual fasts held in commemoration of public calamities which befel the nation. It is observable of the second, that the Jews fast on the ninth Ab, not only for the destruction of the first but of the second Temple; as they are persuaded that both events took place on the same day of the same month.

7. The south and the plain.'— The south explains it. self; the plain means the western part of Judæa, being the same as the valley of Josh. xv. 33 : see the note there.

CHAPTER VIII,

I will save my people from the east country,

and from the west country; 1 The restoration of Jerusalem. 9 They are cn- 8 And I will bring them, and they shall couraged to the building by God's favour to them.

dwell in the midst of Jerusalem: and they 16 Good works are required of them. 18 Joy and enlargement are promised.

shall be my people, and I will be their God,

in truth and in righteousness. AGAIN the word of the LORD of hosts came 9 | Thus saith the Lord of hosts; Let to me, saying,

your hands be strong, ye that hear in these 2 Thus saith the LORD of hosts ; 'I was days these words by the mouth of the projealous for Zion with great jealousy, and I phets, which were in the day that the foundation was jealous for her with great fury.

of the house of the LORD of hosts was laid, 3 Thus saith the Lord; I am returned that the temple might be built. unto Zion, and will dwell in the midst of Je- 10 For before these days 'there was no rusalem : and Jerusalemn shall be called a city hire for man, nor any hire for beast ; neither of truth : and the mountain of the LORD of was there any peace to him that went out or hosts the holy mountain.

came in because of the affliction : for I set all 4 Thus saith the LORD of hosts; There men every one against his neighbour. shall yet old men and old women dwell in the 11 But now I will not be unto the residue streets of Jerusalem, and every man with his of this people as in the former days, saith the staff in his hand 'for very age.

LORD of hosts. 5 And the streets of the city shall be full 12 For the seed shall be prosperous ; the of boys and girls playing in the streets thereof. vine shall give her fruit, and the ground shall

6 Thus saith the LORD of hosts; If it be give her increase, and the heavens shall give 'marvellous in the eyes of the remnant of this their dew; and I will cause the remnant of people in these days, should it also be marvel- this people to possess all these things. lous in mine eyes ? saith the LORD of hosts. 13 And it shall come to pass, that as ye

7 Thus saith the LORD of hosts; Behold, were a curse among the heathen, O house of I Chap. 1.14. ? Heb. for multitude of days. 3 Or, hard, or, dificult. 1 Heb. the country of the going down of the suit. 5 Or, the hire of man became nothing, &c.

Hay. 1. 6.

7 Heb. of peace.

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Judah, and house of Israel ; so will I save of the fourth month, and the fast of the fifth, you, and ye shall be a blessing : fear not, but and the fast of the seventh, and the fast of the let your hands be strong.

tenth, shall be to the house of Judah joy and 14 For thus saith the LORD of hosts; As gladness, and cheerful feasts; therefore love I thought to punish you, when your fathers the truth and provoked me to wrath, saith the Lord of hosts, 20 Thus saith the Lord of hosts ; It shall and I repented not:

yet come to pass, that there shall come people, 15 So again have I thought in these days and the inhabitants of

many

cities : to do well unto Jerusalem and to the house 21 And the inhabitants of one city shall go of Judah : fear ye not.

to another, saying, "Let us go speedily 16 These are the things that ye shall to pray before the LORD, and to seek the do; 'Speak ye every man the truth to his Lord of hosts : I will go also. neighbour; 'execute the judgment of truth 22 Yea, many people and strong nations and peace in your gates :

shall come to seek the Lord of hosts in Jeru11 And let none of you imagine evil in salem, and to pray before the LORD. your hearts against his neighbour; and love 23 Thus saith the LORD of hosts; In those no false oath : for all these are things that I days it shall come to pass, that ten men shall hate, saith the Lord.

take hold out of all languages of the nations, 18 | And the word of the LORD of hosts even shall take hold of the skirt of him that is came unto me, saying,

a Jew, saying, We will go with you : for we 19 Thus saith the LORD of hosts ; The fast I have heard that God is with

you. 8 Ephes. 4. 25. 9 Heb. judge truth, and the judgment of peace. 10 Heb, solemn, or, set times. 12 Or, continually.

18 Heb. going.

14 Heb. to intreat the face of the LORD.

11 Isa. 2. 3. Mic. 4. 1, 2.

Verse 23. Take hold of the skirt.'—This is to be under: stood as the act of one making a humble but fervent entreaty, or of claiming protection from him of whose skirt he takes hold. There is something of respectful and i

gentle violence or constraint involved, such perhaps as appears in Jacob's declaration to the angel, "I will not let thee go except thou bless me.'

CHAPTER IX.

7 And I will take away his 'blood out of

his mouth, and his abominations from between i God defendeth his church. 9 Zion is exhorted to

his teeth : but he that remaineth, even he, rejoice for the coming of Christ, and his peaceable kingdom. 12 God's promises of victory and

shall be for our God, and he shall be as a godefence.

vernor in Judah, and Ekron as a Jebusite.

8 And I will encamp about mine house beTue burden of the word of the LORD in the

cause of the army, because of him that passeth land of Hadrach, and Damascus shall be the by, and because of him that returneth: and rest thereof: when the eyes of man, as of all no oppressor shall pass through them any the tribes of Israel, shall be toward the LORD.

more : for now have I seen with mine

eyes. 2 And Hamath also shall border thereby ; 9 1 *Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion; Tyrus, and Zidon, though it be very 'wise.

shout, O daughter of Jerusalem : behold, thy 3 And Tyrus did build herself a strong King cometh unto thee: he is just, and ‘havhold, and heaped up silver as the dust, and ing salvation ; lowly, and riding upon an ass, fine gold as the mire of the streets.

and upon a colt the foal of an ass. 4 Behold, the LORD will cast her out, and 10 And I will cut off the chariot from he will smite her power in the sea ; and she Ephraim, and the horse from Jerusalem, and shall be devoured with fire.

the battle bow shall be cut off: and he shall 5 Ashkelon shall see it, and fear; Gaza speak peace unto the heathen: and his domialso shall see it, and be very sorrowful, and nion shall be 'from sea even to sea, and from Ekron; for her expectation shall be ashamed ; the river even to the ends of the earth. and the king shall perish from Gaza, and 11 As for thee also, 'by the blood of thy Ashkelon shall not be inhabited.

covenant I have sent forth thy "prisoners out 6 And a bastard shall dwell in Ashdod, of the pit wherein is no water. and I will cut off the pride of the Philistines. 12 Turn you to the strong hold, ye pri| Ezek. 28. 3, &c.

3 Isa. 62. 11. Mattb. 21.5. John 12. 15. * Or, saving himself. 6 Or, whose corenant is by blood.

Heb, bloods.
3 Psal. 72. 8.
2 s

7 lea. 61. 1.

VOL. III.

soners of hope : even to day do I declare that stones; and they shall drink, and make a I will render double unto thee;

noise as through wine; and they 'shall be 13 When I have bent Judah for me, filled filled like bowls, and as the corners of the the bow with Ephraim, and raised up thy sons, altar. O Zion, against thy sons, O Greece, and made 16 And the LORD their God shall save thee as the sword of a mighty man.

them in that day as the flock of his people : 14 And the LORD shall be seen over them, for they shall be as the stones of a crown, lifted and his arrow shall go forth as the lightning: up as an ensign upon his land. and the Lord God shall blow the trumpet, 17 For how great is his goodness, and how and shall go with whirlwinds of the south.

. great is his beauty! corn shall make the young 15 The Lord of hosts shall defend them; men cheerful, and new wine the maids. and they shall devour, and "subdue with sling 8 Or, subdue the stones of the sling.

9 Or, shall fill both the bowls, &c.

10 Or, grow, or, speak.

Verse 1. `Hadrach.'--It is doubtful whether this name is intended to denote a country, a city, or a king. The last is considered the most probable, on the ground that it is not likely that the name either of a country or its metropolis, in a region near Damascus, should have entirely disappeared from the pages of history or geography. To speak of the land of a particular king is not unexampled in Scripture; and Dr. Henderson has some grounds for his suspicion that the name 7770 is after ali but a corruption of 7777 Hadad, the common name of the kings of Syria, although, as he observes, such corruption, if it exists, must have taken place at a very early period, as it was found in the copy from which the Septuagint version was made.

2. · Hamath.'—Of this place see the note on Num. xiii. 21. In the Egyptian paintings a name read as `Hamathites' is applied to at least two distinct races of men, one of which may be judged, from analogies of dress and circumstances, to represent the inhabitants of Northern Syria, including the people of Hamath and the neighbouring district. The same analogies seem to indicate that the other race was a people of the more southern parts of

so much in the general style of that of the Canaanites, which would alone manifest that they dwelt not far from them. They wore, too, drooping ostrich feathers, and shaved the head into corners, like the Hittites; the tunie, also, is the same in shape and appearance with that most usually worn among the Canaanites. The hair was plaited over the whole head, as well as the long lock over the ear—a practice very prevalent in the ancient world. The skin was either tattooed or painted in patterns, and ear-rings were worn. The other and apparently southern race of ancient Syrians exhibits considerable personal resemblance to the

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HANATHITE OR SYRIAS. figures supposed to represent the Jebusites; and the dress, although more rich and varied in its colours, has every essential resemblance to that of the Canaanites. The tunic, which was of a sort of shawl pattern in colours of green, blue, scarlet, etc., was wrapped close around the person, and confined at the waist with a girdle, knotted in

front. The common cape or Tyrian mantle, which was HEAD OF HAMATHITE.

also worn, was inclined to the left shoulder, so as to leave

the right arm free. Like the tunic, it was fringed at the Syria. The former are those, therefore, to whom we have edge. The beard was rather long, but the whiskers and now to direct attention; indeed we strongly suspect that forehead were shaven, and the rest of the hair being they may be taken to represent generally the appearance combed back, was thick and bushy behind. A close of those nations of Northern Syria with whom David had fitting coloured cap, bound by a ribbon or fillet, completed relations of war and peace, and who are often otherwise a very fanciful and not inelegant costume. alluded to in Scripture; and some of the texts in which 5. And the king shall perish from Gaza, and Ashthe word Hamath occurs would indicate that it was kelon shall not be inhabited!' - Askelon was one of generally understood among the Hebrews for all the in- the proudest satrapies of the lords of the Philistines ; Dow habitants of Syria who were not Canaanites, and not of there is not an inhabitant within its walls, and the proDamascene Syria. The race of Hamathites, to whom our phecy of Zechariah is fulfilled: when the prophecy was attention is chiefly directed, are represented in the tomb of uttered, both of these cities were in an equally fourishing Sethos with auburn hair, blue eyes, and fair complexion, condition, and nothing but the prescience of heaven could with a European contour of the face. Yet the dress is pronounce on which of the two, and in what manner, the vial of his wrath should be poured out. Gaza is truly considered an act of humility and lowliness. In short, without a king, the lofty towers of Askelon lie scattered they had arrived at much the same ideas on the subject on the ground, and the ruins within its walls do not as are still entertained in the East, and which we have shelter a human being. How is the wrath of man made already had different opportunities of explaining. The to praise his Creator ! Hath he said, and shall he not do ass is not by any means despised; but so much dignity it? The oracle was delivered by the mouth of the pro- and consequence is attached to riding on horseback, that phet more than 500 years before the Christian era, and men of moderate means will submit to great discomforts we behold its accomplishment 1800 years after that event, in order to keep one or more horses : and hence, for one and see that the king has perished from Gaza, and that who can obtain a horse, to prefer to ride on an ass, is Askelon was not inhabited.' Universal Hist. ii. 204. considered a manifestation of great humbleness of mind.

9. * Lowly, and riding upon an ass.' – This, which was Hence, in Persia, for example, the ecclesiastics (so to call literally fulilled by Christ, affords an interesting intima- them) who have not yet attained to any high station, and tion that riding on horseback had at this time become so wish to convey the impression of their humble and selffamiliar to the Jews, that riding on an ass had come to be denying character, make it a point to ride on asses.

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ASSES FOR RIDING.-Modern Oriental, 11. The pit wherein is no water.'—Evidently a dry well sancti, sacred stones; which is the sense conveyed by all or cistern used as a prison.

the ancient versions, which appear to have understood the 13. Greece—In the original Javan (11) by which the prophet to refer to such stones, or heaps of stones, as the Greeks are usually understood. In the present instance

Hebrews were accustomed to set up in commemoration of it is generally supposed to denote the Syro-Macedonians, blessings conferred or promised, or of victories obtained. with whom the Jews had such bitter conflicts in the times

These were sometimes anointed; but at any rate were of the Maccabees. Archbishop Newcome, however, con

separated, set apart or consecrated to a particular purpose. ceives the language employed to be too strong for these

Hence, Blayney has consecrated stones;' Houbigant, events; and is therefore disposed to place this among the

after Capellus, crowned stones,' supposing them to have prophecies which remain to be fulfilled in future time, been stones set up as trophies, and crowned with garlands, But the former explanation does still seem preferable.

a practice of which we find nothing in Scripture; New15. Corners of the altar.'— The blood of the sacrifices come, crowned trophies;' Henderson, the stones of a was poured out pon the horns' or corners of the altar. crown.' The difference of these versions is less than may (Lev. iv. 25.) To this the prophet seems to allude. appear, as their authors agree that the stones in question 16. The stones of a crown.' — The Vulgate has lapides

were stones of memorial.

CHAPTER X.

2 For the 2 Sidols have spoken vanity, and

the diviners have seen a lie, and have told 1 God is to be sought unto, and not idols. 5 As he

false dreams; they comfort in vain: therevisited his flock for sin, so he will save and restore them.

fore they went their way as a flock, they

*were troubled, because there was no shepAsk ye of the LORD rain in the time of the herd. latter rain ; so the LORD shall make 'bright 3 Mine anger was kindled against the clouds, and give them showers of rain, to every shepherds, and I punished the goats: for the one grass in the field.

LORD of hosts hath visited his flock the house 1 Or, lightnings. Heb. teraphims. * Or, answered that, &c.

3

2 Jer. 10. 8. Habak, 2. 8.

5 Heb, visited upon.

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of Judah, and hath made them as his goodly 8 I will hiss for them, and gather them; for horse in the battle.

I have redeemed them : and they shall in4 Out of him came forth the corner, out of crease as they have increased. him the nail, out of him the battle bow, out 9 And I will sow them among the people: of him every oppressor together.

and they shall remember me in far countries ; 5 And they shall be as mighty men, and they shall live with their children, and which tread down their enemies in the mire of

turn again. the streets in the battle: and they shall fight, 10 I will bring them again also out of the because the Lord is with them, and the land of Egypt, and gather them out of Assy, riders on horses shall be confounded.

ria; and I will bring them into the land of 6 And I will strengthen the house of Ju- Gilead and Lebanon ; and place shall not be dah, and I will save the house of Joseph, and found for them. I will bring them again to place them; for I 11 And he shall pass through the sea with have mercy upon them: and they shall be as affliction, and shall smite the waves in the sea, though I had not cast them off: for I am the and all the deeps of the river shall dry up: LORD their God, and will hear them.

and the pride of Assyria shall be brought 7 And they of Ephraim shall be like a down, and the sceptre of Egypt shall depart mighty man, and their heart shall rejoice as

away. through wine : yea, their children shall see it, 12 And I will strengthen them in the and be glad ; their heart shall rejoice in the LORD: and they shall walk up and down in LORD.

his name, saith the LORD. 6 07, they shall make the riders on horses ashamed.

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Verse 8. • I will hiss for them.'-Rather, 'I will hist,' or 'whistle for them. The metaphor is derived from the mode of collecting swarms of bees together in the East.

Some however think that the allusion is to the shepherd's pipe or whistle, which collects the flock together. In either case the figure is equally significant.

CHAPTER XI.

shall smite the land, and out of their hand I

will not deliver them. 1 The destruction of Jerusalem. 3 The elect being 7 And I will feed the flock of slaughter,

cared for, the rest are rejected. 10 The staves, Beauty and Bands, broken by the rejection of Christ.

*even you, O poor of the flock. And I took 15 The type and curse of a foolish shepherd.

unto me two staves ; the

one I called Beauty,

and the other I called 'Bands; and I fed the Open thy doors, O Lebanon, that the fire flock. may devour thy cedars.

8 Three shepherds also I cut off in one 2 Howl, fir tree; for the cedar is fallen ; month; and my soul 'lothed them, and their because the 'mighty is spoiled : howl, O ye soul also abhorred me. oaks of Bashan; for 'the forest of the vintage 9 Then said I, I will not feed you : "that is come down.

that dieth, let it die: and that that is to be 3 There is a voice of the howling of the cut off, let it be cut off; and let the rest eat shepherds; for their glory is spoiled: a voice every one the flesh of another. of the roaring of young lions; for the pride 10 And I took my staff, even Beauty, of Jordan is spoiled.

and cut it asunder, that I might break my 4 | Thus saith the LORD my God; Feed covenant which I had made with all the the flock of the slaughter;

people. 5 Whose possessors slay them, and hold 11 And it was broken in that day: and 'so themselves not guilty : and they that sell them the poor of the flock that waited upon me say, Blessed be the Lord; for I am rich : and knew that it was the word of the LORD. their own shepherds pity them not.

12 And I said unto them, "If ye think 6 For I will no more pity the inhabitants good, give me my price; and if not, forbear. of the land, saith the LORD : but, lo, I will So they "weighed for my price thirty pieces #deliver the men every one into his neighbour's of silver. hand, and into the hand of his king: and they 13 And the LORD said unto me, Cast it | Or, gallants. 2 Or, the defenced forest. 3 Heb. make to be found. * Or, verily the

5 Or, Binders. 6 Heb. was straitened for them.

8 Heb. of his fellow, or, neighbour. 9 Or, the poor of the flock, &c., certainly knere. 10 Heb. If it be good in your eyes.

poor.

1 Jer. 15. 2.

11 Matt, 26. 15.

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