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ing gardens, which were constructed by the king to gratify latter, growing thicker and crooked, resembled the claws his wife, who was a native of the hilly and wooded Media, of birds. Now the ancients called the people affected with a resemblance to her own country in the plain of with this kind of madness AukavOpwroi (wolf-men) or kuyBabylon. According to Diodorus, these gardens formed avOpwrot (dog-men); because they went abroad in the a square of 400 feet (about three acres and a half), and night imitating wolves or dogs; particularly intent upon were raised on terraces supported by walls or piers eleven opening the sepulchres of the dead, and had their legs feet asunder, ascending one above another till the upper- much ulcerated, either from frequent falls or the bites of most was brought to the level of the top of the city wall, dogs. In like manner are the daughters of Prætus related commanding a most extensive prospect. The terraces to have been mad, who, as Virgil says (Ecl. vi. 48), were covered with a deep layer of mould, in which were planted various plants, shrubs, and trees, many of the

_“Implerunt falsis mugitibus agros.” latter being of considerable girth: and as some trees are

“With mimic howlings fill'd the fields." found on this site no specimens of which exist elsewhere For, as Servius observes, Juno possessed their minds with in the country, it is not impossible that some of these may such a species of fury, that, fancying themselves cows, have been perpetuated to this day, potwithstanding the they ran into the fields, bellowed often, and dreaded the sinking of the terraces through the mouldering of the plough. Nor was this disorder unknown to the moderns; piers by which they were supported.

for Schenckius records a remarkable instance of it in a To the canals and lake we have incidentally referred husbandman of Padua, who, imagining himself a wolf, on former occasions; and have no room to enumerate all attacked and even killed several people in the fields; and the minor'wonders of ancient Babylon. What we have when at length he was taken, he persevered in declaring stated will suffice to suggest a general notion of the works himself a real wolf, and that the only difference consisted which raised the fatal pride of the Babylonian king-of in the inversion of his skin and hair. But it may be obthe scenes which were continually before the eyes of jected to our opinion that this misfortune was foretold to Daniel—and of the city whose streets were so often tra- the king, so that he might have prevented it by correcting versed by the captives of Israel.

his morals; and therefore it is not probable that it befel 33. He was driven from men, and did eat grass as him in the course of nature. But we kuow that those oxen,' etc.-The malady by which the Divine judgment things which God executes either through clemency or punished the pride of Nebuchadnezzar is a subject on which vengeance are frequently performed by the assistance of opinions have been very much divided. The principal natural causes. Thus, having threatened Hezekiah with explanations have been recapitulated in the interesting death, and being afterwards moved by his prayers, he Dissertation sur la Métamorphose de Nebuchodonosor of restored him to life, and made use of figs laid on the tuDom. Calmet, who himself gives the explanation which mour as a medicine for his disease. He ordered king is now generally received, and seems the most probable Herod, upon account of his pride, to be devoured by of any. The same view has also been taken by Dr. Mead worms. And nobody doubts but that the plague, which in his Medica Sacra, and by Dr. J. M. Good in his Study is generally attributed to Divine wrath, most commonly of Medicine. We cannot perhaps do better than tran- owes its origin to corrupted air.' scribe the opinion of the former of these learned and pious The probability therefore seems to be that the proud physicians.

mind of Nebuchadnezzar was so shattered that he fell All the circumstances of Nebuchadnezzar's case agree into a kind of monomania, which made him fancy himself so well with an hypochondriacal madness, that to me it some animal, in consequence of which it was judged adappears evident that Nebuchadnezzar was seized with this visable by his physicians to humour his fancy by treating distemper, and under its influence ran wild into the fields, him as such, and by allowing him, within certain limits, and that, faucying himself transformed into an ox, he fed to act as such. In corroboration of the view here taken, on grass, after the manner of cattle. For every sort of it may be observed, that after the seven years, the king madness is the disease of a disturbed imagination; which describes his reason as returning to him, which as clearly this unhappy man laboured under full seven years. And as possible intimates that it had previously been taken through neglect of taking proper care of himself, his hair from him. and nails grew to an uncommon length; whereby the [1'. 30. APPENDIX, No. 75.]


3 Then they brought the golden vessels | Belshazzar's impious feast. 5 A handwriting, un

that were taken out of the temple of the house known to the magicians, troubleth the king. 10 At

of God which was at Jerusalem ; and the the commendation of the queen, Daniel is brought. king, and his princes, his wives, and his con17 He, reproving the king of pride and idolatry, cubines, drank’in them. 25 readeth and interpreteth the writing. 30 The

4 They drank wine, and praised the gods monarchy is translated to the Medes.

of gold, and of silver, of brass, of iron, of BELSHAZZAR the king made a great feast to wood, and of stone. a thousand of his lords, and drank wine be- 5 In the same hour came forth fingers of fore the thousand.

a man's hand, and wrote over against the 2 Belshazzar, whiles he tasted the wine, candlestick upon the plaister of the wall of commanded to bring the golden and silver the king's palace : and the king saw the part vessels which his father Nebuchadnezzar had of the hand that wrote. 'taken out of the temple which was in Jeru- 6 Then the king's 'countenance was salem; that the king, and his princes, bis changed, and his thoughts troubled him, so wives, and his concubines, might drink that the joints of his loins were loosed, and therein.

his knees smote one against another. 1 Chald. brought forth. . Chald. brightnesses. 3 Chald. changed it. 4 Or, girdles. 5 Chald. bindings, or, knots.

hy 20 But when his heart was lifted up, and

7 The king cried 'aloud to bring in the thereof, thou shalt be clothed with scarlet, astrologers, the Chaldeans, and the sooth- and have a chain of gold about thy neck, and sayers. And the king spake, and said to the shalt be the third ruler in the kingdom. wise men of Babylon, Whosoever shall read 17 9 Then Daniel answered and said bethis writing, and shew me the interpretation fore the king, Let thy gifts be to thyself, and thereof, shall be clothed with "scarlet, and give thy ''rewards to another; yet I will read have a chain of gold about his neck, and shall the writing unto the king, and make known to be the third ruler in the kingdom.

him the interpretation. 8 Then came in all the king's wise men : 18 O thou king, the most high God gave but they could not read the writing, nor make Nebuchadnezzar thy father a kingdom, and known to the king the interpretation thereof. majesty, and glory, and honour : 9 Then was king

was king Belshazzar greatly 19 And for the majesty that he gave him, troubled, and his countenance was changed all people, nations, and languages, trembled in him, and his lords were astonied.

and feared before him : whom he would he 10 | Now the queen by reason of the slew; and whom he would he kept alive ; and words of the king and his lords came into the whom he would he set up; and whom he banquet house : and the queen spake and would he said, o king, live for ever : let not thy thoughts trouble thee, nor let thy countenance his mind hardened ''in pride, he was a deposed be changed :

from his kingly throne, and they took his 11 °There is a man in thy kingdom, in glory from him : whom is the spirit of the holy gods; and in 21 And he was 2'driven from the sons of the days of thy father light and understand- men; and his heart was made like the ing and wisdom, like the wisdom of the gods, beasts, and his dwelling was with the wild was found in him; whom the king Nebuchad- asses : they fed him with grass like oxen, and nezzar thy "father, the king, I say, thy his body was wet with the dew of heaven; till father, made ''master of the magicians, astro- he knew that the most high God ruled in the logers, Chaldeans, and soothsayers ;

kingdom of men, and that he appointeth over 12 Forasmuch as an excellent spirit, and it whomsoever he will. knowledge, and understanding, ''interpreting 22 And thou his son, O Belshazzar, hast of dreams, and shewing of hard sentences, not humbled thine heart, though thou knewest and dissolving of doubts, were found in all this; the same Daniel, whom the king named 23 But hast lifted up thyself against the Belteshazzar: now let Daniel be called, and Lord of heaven ; and they have brought the he will shew the interpretation.

vessels of his house before thee, and thou, and 13 Then was Daniel brought in before the thy lords, thy wives, and thy concubines, have king. And the king spake and said unto drunk wine in them; and thou hast praised Daniel, Art thou that Daniel, which art of the gods of silver, and gold, of brass, iron, the children of the captivity of Judah, whom wood, and stone, which see not, nor hear, nor the king my father brought out of Jewry? know : and the God in whose hand thy breath

14 I have even heard of thee, that the is, and whose are all thy ways, hast thou not spirit of the gods is in thee, and that light | glorified : and understanding and excellent wisdom is 24 Then was the part of the hand sent found in thee.

from him ; and this writing was written. 15 And now the wise men, the astrologers, 25 q And this is the writing that was have been brought in before me, that they written, MENE, MENE, TEKEL, should read this writing, and make known UPHARSIN. unto me the interpretation thereof: but they 26 This is the interpretation of the thing: could not shew the interpretation of the MENE; God hath numbered thy kingdom, thing:

and finished it. 16 And I have heard of thee, that thou 27 TEKEL; Thou art weighed in the canst make interpretations, and dissolve balances, and art found wanting. doubts : now if thou canst read the writing, 28 PERES; Thy kingdom is divided, and and make known to me the interpretation given to the Medes and Persians. 6 Chald. with might.

7 Or, purple. 8 Chald. brightnesses. 9 Chap. 2. 48. 10 Or, grandfather. 11 Or, grandfather.

19 Chap. 4. 9. 16 Or, grandfather.

17 Chald. interpret. 18 Or, foe, as chap. 2.6. 19 Or, to deal proudly.
91 Chap. 4, 3%.

24 Or, he made his heart equal, &c.

13 Or, of an interpreter, &c.

14 Or, of a dissolver. 15 Chald, knots.

20 Chald, made to come down,

29 Then commanded Belshazzar, and they 30 1 In that night was Belshazzar the clothed Daniel with scarlet, and put a chain king of the Chaldeans slain. of gold about his neck, and made a proclama- 31 And Darius the Median took the kingtion concerning him, that he should be the dom, ' being about threescore and two years third ruler in the kingdom.


23 Chald, he as the son of, &c.

24 Or, now.

Verse 1. Belshazzar.:- The name of Belshazzar does not occur in the profane historians; and it has therefore become a question, with which of the Babylonian kings mentioned by them he should be identified. The other perplexities, historical and chronological, which involve This period of Babylonian history, have also been alluded to by us on more than one occasion. Under Ezra i. we have furnished what appears to us the most probable statement on the subject, collected from Dr. Hales. That is

not, however, the account most usually followed; and as this matter is of importance to the proper understanding of this chapter, we wish here to return to it, but not further than to enable the reader to see clearly the effect of the different statements. The common account we shall collect from L'Art de Vérifier les Dates, and the other from Hales's Analysis, disposing them in opposite columns for the sake of comparison.




FROM HALES'S 'ANALYSIS.' 605 NEBUCHADNEZZAR, who was succeeded by his son 604 NEBUCHADNEZZAR, was succeeded by his son 562 EVILMERODACH, who having provoked general indig- 561 EVILMERODACH, or ILVERODAM, who was slain in a

nation by his tyranny and atrocities, was, after a battle against the Medes and Persians, and was short reign of about two years, assassinated by his succeeded by his son

brother-in-law 560 NERIGLISSAR, or NERICASSOLASSAR, who was regarded 558 NERIGLISSAR, NIRICASSOLASSAR, or BELSHAZZAR, the as a deliverer, and succeeded by the choice of the

common accounts of whom seem to combine what nation. He perished in a battle against Cyrus the is said both of Neriglissar and his son, opposite. Persian, and was succeeded by his son

He was killed by conspirators on the night of the

impious feast,' leaving a son (a boy) 555 LABOROSOARCHOD, notorious for his cruelty and op- 553 LABOROSOARCHOD, on whose death, nine months pression, and who was assassinated by two nobles,

after, the dynasty became extinct, and the kingdom Gobryas and Gadatas, whose sons he had slain. came peaceably to · Darius the Mede,' or Cyaxares, The vacant throne was then ascended by

who, on the well-known policy of the Medes and

Persians, appointed a Babylonian nobleman, named 554 NABONADIUS, the LABYNETUS of Herodotus, the NA- NABONADIUS, or LABYNETUS, to be king, or viceroy.

BOANDEL of Josephus, and the BELSHAZZAR of This person revolted against Cyrus, who had suc-
Daniel, who was the son of Evilmerodach, and who

ceeded to the united empire of the Medes and Pernow succeeded to the throne of his father. After sians. Cyrus could not immediately attend to him, 538

a voluptuous reign, his city was taken by the Per- 536 but at last marched to Babylon, and took the city, sians, under Cyrus, on which occasion he lost his

as foretold by the prophets, and as we have de life.

scribed in the notes on Jer. li.

We believe that this form of stating the question too of Nebuchadnezzar's reign; at the latter end of which, clearly exhibits the difference generally, and concerning she, as wife of Evil-merodach, who was regent during his Belshazzar in particular, to render further explanation father's alienation of mind, took an active part in the innecessary. It will be observed that the principal point is, ternal policy of the kingdom, and in the completion of the that Hales contends that the succession of Darius the great works which Nebuchadnezzar had begun at BaMede to the Babylonian throne was not attended with bylon. This she continued during the reigns of her hus. war; that Belshazzar was not the king in whose time the band and of her son, the present Belshazzar. This famous city was taken by Cyrus; and, consequently, that the queen Nitocris could not therefore but be well acquainted events which took place this night were quite distinct with the character and services of Daniel. But how hapfrom, and anterior to that siege and capture of the city by pens it that Belshazzar needed the information concerning the Persian king, which Isaiah and Jeremiah so particu- Daniel which the queen afforded : and how was it that he larly and remarkably foretold. [APPENDIX, No. 76.] should have been unacquainted even with the person (as

8. They could not read the writing.' -— The reason why it appears from v. 13_Art thou that Daniel ?'—that he the wise men of Babylon could not read the Divine in- was) of so eminent a person and important public officer scription was, that it was written in the primitive Hebrew as Daniel ? An ingenious and not improbable solution of character, which differed totally from the Chaldee. It this difficulty has been afforded by Sir John Chardin, in was the original from which the Samaritan was formed, his MS., quoted by Harmer. As mentioned by the queen, and which therefore it nearly resembled, though greatly Daniel had been made, by Nebuchadnezzar, master of superior to it in beauty, symmetry, and elegance. Some the magicians, astrologers, Chaldæans, and soothsayers.' advantageous specimens of it are fortunately preserved on Of this employment, Chardin conjectures that he had sacred shekels and Jewish coins of high antiquity, draw- been deprived on the death of that king; and obtains this ings of which may be seen in Walton's Supplementum de conclusion from the fact, that when a Persian king dies, Siclorum formis et inscriptionibus, prefixed to the first vo- both his astrologers and physicians are driven from court lume of the London Polyglott Bible, and elsewhere.' --the former for not having predicted, and the latter for Hales's Analysis, ii. 463.

not having prevented, his death. If such was the etiquette 10. · The queen.

... came into the banquet-house.'-We of the ancient Babylonian, as it is of the modern Persian are informed above, that the wives and concubines' of

court, we have certainly a most satisfactory solution of the the king were present at the banquet. It therefore seems present difficulty, as Daniel must then be supposed to have probable that the queen’ who now first appears was the relinquished his public employments, and to have lived queen-mother ; and this probability is strengthened by the retired in private life during the eight years occupied by intimate acquaintance which she exhibits with the affairs the reigns of Evil-merodach and Belshazzar.

25 MENE, MENE, TEKEL, UPHARSIN.'—The word frequently represented in the paintings and papyri of anPEREs, below in v. 28, is the singular of the word which cient Egypt, and one of them we have copied as a suitable is here as PHARSIN, with the prefixed u (1), or 'and.' illustration of the present subject. One of these scenes, Whether this singular is in exchange for the plural of the as represented on the walls of a small temple at Dayr-eltext, or whether it should be inserted before that plural, Medeeneh, has been so well explained by Wilkinson, that is doubtful. A repetition of the same words, both sin- we shall avail ourselves of his description; for although gular, as in “MENE, MENE,' or one singular and the other that to which it refers is somewhat different from the one plural, as would be · PERES, UPHARSIN,' are forms em- which we have engraved, his account affords an adequate ployed to give intensity to the sense. The words are elucidation of all that ours contains. 'Osiris, seated on Chaldæan; but being in the ancient Hebrew character, his throne, awaits the arrival of those souls that are the Chaldæans could not read them; and if they could ushered into Amenti. The four genii stand before him have done so, it would have been beyond their power to supply that interpretation which Daniel gives. We may take the following view of the inscription and interpretation from Hales :



[. Division'] AND DIVISIONS.'

MENE— God hath numbered thy reign, and
MENE— hath finished it.' The repetition emphatically

signifying that the decree was certain, and should

shortly come to pass. (See Gen. xli. 32.) TEKEL—Thou art weighed in the balance and found

wanting.' (See Job xxxi. 6; Rev. vi. 5.) PERES—“Thy kingdom is divided, [UPHARSIN?— And given to the Mede and the Persian'

[Darius and Cyrus.] 27. Thou art weighed in the balances, and art found wanting.' — The idea involved in this is sufficiently obvious in itself. But it is by no means impossible that the allusion received more force and meaning than we give to it from a reference to some opinion or custom common

ANCIENT EGYPTIAN SCALES. among the Babylonians. What that was, we cannot say precisely; but probabilities may be suggested by analogies on a lotus-blossom (ours has the lotus without the genii), derived from other sources. Thus the Egyptians enter- the female Cerberus sits behind them, and Harpocrates on tained the belief that the actions of the dead were solemnly the crook of Osiris. Thoth, the god of letters, arrives in weighed in balances before Osiris, and that the condition the presence of Osiris bearing in his hand a tablet, on of the departed was determined according to the prepon- which the actions of the deceased are noted down, while derance of good or evil. Such judgment scenes are very Horus and Aroeris are employed in weighing the good

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and Tertullian do not name that emperor, it yet appears that the emperor they indicate can be po other than Domitian. Upon the whole the evidence in favour of that date so greatly preponderates over all that can be advanced in favour of the most plausible of the other hypotheses, that it scarcely appears how any reasonable doubt on the subject can be entertained.

The immense number of the Commentaries upon the Revelations precludes us from attempting to give a complete list of them. In that which follows it is, however, believed that no English work, and no foreign work of importance, is omitted. The vast and unexampled proportion of works by English writers through the whole period which the list covers, excites attention, and clearly indicates the peculiar interest in the book which has been felt in this country. We apprehend that the separate commentaries on the book in all languages exceed three hundred in nuinber, forming no inconsiderable library by themselves. If to this were added the Treatises and Dissertations on particular passages of the book, this number would be greatly raised.

The lists we have presented in connection with the several books (and which have been prepared with considerable labour and difficulty from dispersed materials) are designed not only to furnish the student with the assistance which such lists usually afford, but to direct his attention to the labours of the great past, the mere extent of which-as instanced particularly in the present list-cannot fail to suggest many useful reflections, and may tend to check hasty impulses to crude and unsearchful writing upon subjects which have already for many generations been under constant and thorough examination.

In the following list of the works which have been produced on the Apocalypse, when the title is Commentarius in Apocalypsin, the author's name, the place of publication, and the date, alone are given :-Lamberti Exegeseos in sanctam divi Joannis Apocalypsin, Marpurgi, 1528; Chytræus, Vitembergæ, 1563, and several subsequent editions ; Biblandrus, Basileæ, 1549; Meyerus, Tiguri, 1554; Hoffinann, Auslegung der heimlichen Offenbarung Joannis, Argentor., 1530; Fulk, Prelectiones in Apocalypsin, London, 1557; Borrhausius, Basileæ, 1561 , Selneccer, Erklärung der Offenbarung Joannis, Franckf. ad Monum, 1567; Conradi In Apocalypsin Joannis Apostoli Commentarius, Basileæ, 1574; Brocardi Interpretatio et Paraphrasis libri Apocalypseos, Lugd. Bat., 1580; Firmani Enarratio in Apocalypsin, Antuerpiæ, 1581 ; De Melo, Pintiæ, 1589; Bulengeri Ecphrasis in Apocalypsin, Parisiis, 1589; De Ribera, Salmanticæ, 1591 ; Fox, Prelectiones et Meditationes in Apocalypsin Joannis, London, 1587; Junii Apocalypsis Joannis Apostoli et Erangeliste, methodica Analysi argumentorum Notisque brevibus, ad rerum intelligentiam et Catholicæ Christianæ ecclesie historiam pertinentibus, illustrata, Heidelbergæ, 1591, and other editions and translations; Galli Claris Prophetica nora Apocalypseos, Antuerpæ, 1592; Napier, A Plain Discovery of the whole Revelation of St. John, set down in two Treatises, the one searching and proving the true Interpretation thereof; the other applying the same paraphrasticallie and historicallie to the Text, Edinburgh, 1593, London, 1611, besides several editions in French, German, and Dutch ; De la Perie, Paraphrase et Exposition de l'Apocalypse, Genevæ, 1600; Richter, Buch der heimlichen. Offenbarung Joannis vom zustand der Christlichen kirche auferden, Lipsiæ, 1602; Eglini Epilysis Apocalypseos S. Joannis, Tiguri, 1601 ; Dent, The Ruine of Rome, being an Exposition of the Revelation, London, 1607 ; Viegas, Eboræ, 1607; Alcasar, l’estigatio arcani sensus in Apocalypsin, Antuerpiæ, 1614; Taffin, Exposition de l'Apocalypse de St. Jean avec deduction de l'Histoire et Chronologie, Flessing, 1609; Brightmanni Apocalypsis Apocalypseos ; sive Apocalypsis S. Joannis, analysi et scholiis illustrata, Francof., 1609, and other editions ; Lucii Notæ textuales et E.cegesis analytica in Apocalypsin, Hanoviæ, 1613; Forbes, A Commentary upon the Revelation of St. John, Lond., 1613, the same in Latin, Amsterdam, 1646; Graseri Plaga Regia, hoc est, Commentarius in Apocalypsin Joannis, Tiguri, 1614; Montacute, Paraphrasis in Apocalypsin, London, 1619; De Dieu, Apocalypsis Joannis Græce et Latine, cum Animadversionibus, Lugd. Bat., 1627; Mede, Clavis Apocalyptica ex innatis et insitis Visionum Characteribus eruta et demonstrata, una cum Commentarius in Apocalypsin, Cantabrigiæ, 1627, published also in English, under the title, The Key of the Revelation, with a Commentary thereupon, Cambridge, 1632 and 1643, and London, 1650. A translation by a Clergyman of the Established Church appeared in 1831, and another by R. Bransby Cooper, Esq., in 1833; Cooper, An Exposition of the Revelation, London, s. a., but a translation into Dutch appeared in 1656, and into German in 1671; Gerhardi Adnotationes in Apocalypsin Joannis Theologi, etc., Jenæ, 1643 ; Gravii Tabulæ Apocalypticæ, Lugd. Bat., 1667 ; Kromayerus, Lipsiæ, 1662 ; Hoffmann, Chronotaris Apocalyptica, Jenæ, 1668 ; De la Haye, Parisiis, 1644; Fromondus, Lovanii, 1657 ; De Sylveira, Lugduni, 1643 ; Kircheri Prophetia Apocalyptica S. Joannis, Coloniæ, 1676; Heldius, Erklärung über die Offenbarung Joannis und Ezechielis, 1649; Guild, London, 1656; More, Visionum Apocalypticarum ratio Synchronistica, universas Apocalypteos visiones propheticas continentibus, erime illustrata, London, 1666 ; Grellotí Prodromus in Joannis Apocalypsin in quo hactenus minus bene intellecta explicantur, Lugd. Bat., 1085; Durham, A Commentary upon the Book of Revelations, Edinburgh, 1680; Schindler, Deli



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