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king tell his servants the dream, and we will | kings: he giveth wisdom unto the wise, shew the interpretation of it.

and knowledge to them that know under8 The king answered and said, I know of standing : certainty that ye would gain the time, because 22 He revealeth the deep and secret ye see the thing is gone from me.

things : he knoweth what is in the darkness, 9 But if ye will not make known unto me and the light dwelleth with him. the dream, there is but one decree for you : 23 I thank thee, and praise thee, O thou for

ye have prepared lying and corrupt words God of my fathers, who hast given me wisdom to speak before me, till the time be changed : and might, and hast made known unto me therefore tell me the dream, and I shall now what we desired of thee: for thou hast know that ye can shew me the interpretation now made known unto us the king's matter. thereof.

24 9 Therefore Daniel went in unto Arioch, 10 q The Chaldeans answered before the whom the king had ordained to destroy the king, and said, There is not a man upon the wise men of Babylon : he went and said thus earth that can shew the king's matter : there- unto him ; Destroy not the wise men of Bafore there is no king, lord, nor ruler, that bylon: bring me in before the king, and I asked such things at any magician, or astro- will shew unto the king the interpretation. loger, or Chaldean.

25 Then Arioch brought in Daniel before 11 And it is a rare thing that the king the king in haste, and said thus unto him, requireth, and there is none other that can 1*I have found a man of the "captives of shew it before the king, except the gods, Judah, that will make known unto the king whose dwelling is not with flesh.

the interpretation. 12 For this cause the king was angry and 26 The king answered and said to Daniel, very furious, and commanded to destroy all whose name was Belteshazzar, Art thou able the wise men of Babylon.

to make known unto me the dream which I 13 And the decree went forth that the have seen, and the interpretation thereof? wise men should be slain ; and they sought 27 Daniel answered in the presence of the Daniel and his fellows to be slain.

king, and said, The secret which the king 14 1 Then Daniel "answered with counsel hath demanded cannot the wise men, the asand wisdom to Arioch the ? @captain of the trologers, the magicians, the soothsayers, shew king's guard, which was gone forth to slay unto the king ; the wise men of Babylon :

28 But there is a God in heaven that re15 He answered and said to Arioch the

nd said to Arioch the vealeth secrets, and maketh known to the king's captain, Why is the decree so hasty king Nebuchadnezzar what shall be in the from the king ? Then Arioch made the latter days. Thy dream, and the visions of thing known to Daniel.

thy head upon thy bed, are these; 16 Then Daniel went in, and desired of 29 As for thee, Oking, thy thoughts the king that he would give him time, and came into thy mind upon thy bed, what that he would shew the king the interpretation should come to pass hereafter : and he that

17 Then Daniel went to his house, and revealeth secrets maketh known to thee what made the thing known to Hananiah, Mishael, shall come to pass. and Azariah, his companions :

30 But as for me, this secret is not re18 That they would desire mercies 'of the vealed to me for any wisdom that I have God of heaven concerning this secret ; ''that more than any living, but for their sakes that Daniel and his fellows should not perish with shall make known the interpretation to the the rest of the wise men of Babylon.

king, and that thou mightest know the thoughts 19 Then was the secret revealed unto of thy heart. Daniel in a night vision. Then Daniel blessed 31 4 Thou, O king, sawest, and behold the God of heaven.

a great image. This great image, whose 20 Daniel answered and said, "Blessed be brightness was excellent, stood before thee; the name of God for ever and ever : for and the form thereof was terrible. wisdom and might are his:

32 This image's head was of fine gold, his 21 And he changeth the times and the breast and his arms of silver, his belly and seasons : he removeth kings, and setteth up his 'thighs of brass, 5 Chald. buy.

7 Or, chief marshal. • Chald. chief of the executioners, or, slaughtermeu. . Chald. from before God.

10 Or, that they should not destroy Daniel, &c. 1x Chald. that I hare found. 13 Chald. children of the captivity of Judah.

14 Chald. hath made known. 17 Or, sides.

6 Chald. returned.

11 Psal. 113. 2, and 115. 18.

15 Chald. came up.

16 Chald. wast seeing.

33 His legs of iron, his feet part of iron | iron, and part of clay, so the kingdom shall be and part of clay.

partly strong, and partly ''broken. 34 Thou sawest till that a stone was cut 43 And whereas thou sawest iron mixed out ''without hands, which smote the image with miry clay, they shall mingle themselves upon his feet that were of iron and clay, and with the seed of men : but they shall not brake them to pieces.

cleave zoone to another, even as iron is not 35 Then was the iron, the clay, the brass, mixed with clay. the silver, and the gold, broken to pieces to- 44 And in the days of these kings shall gether, and became like the chaff of the the God of heaven set up a kingdom, which summer threshingfloors; and the wind carried shall never be destroyed : and the kingdom them away, that no place was found for them : shall not be left to other people, but it shall and the stone that smote the image became a break in pieces and consume all these kinggreat mountain, and filled the whole earth. doms, and it shall stand for ever.

36 This is the dream ; and we will tell 45 Forasmuch as thou sawest that the stone the interpretation thereof before the king. was cut out of the mountain 2*without hands,

37 Thou, O king, art a king of kings : for and that it brake in pieces the iron, the brass, the God of heaven hath given thee a kingdom, the clay, the silver, and the gold ; the great power, and strength, and glory.

God hath made known to the king what shall 38 And wheresoever the children of men come to pass ashereafter : and the dream is dwell, the beasts of the field and the fowls of certain, and the interpretation thereof sure. the heaven hath he given into thine hand, and 46 | Then the king Nebuchadnezzar fell hath made thee ruler over them all. Thon upon his face, and worshipped Daniel, and art this head of gold.

commanded that they should offer an oblation 39 And after thee shall arise another and sweet odours unto him. kingdom inferior to thee, and another third

47 The king answered unto Daniel, and kingdom of brass, which shall bear rule over said, Of a truth it is, that your God is a all the earth.

God of gods, and a Lord of kings, and a re40 And the fourth kingdom shall be strong vealer of secrets, seeing thou couldest reveal as iron : forasmuch as iron breaketh in pieces this secret. and subdueth all things : and as iron that 48 Then the king made Daniel a great breaketh all these, shall it break in pieces man, and gave him many great gifts, and and bruise.

made him ruler over the whole province of 41 And whereas thou sawest the feet and Babylon, and chief of the governors over all toes, part of potters' clay, and part of iron, the wise men of Babylon. the kingdom shall be divided; but there 49 Then Daniel requested of the king, and shall be in it of the strength of the iron, for he set Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego, asmuch as thou sawest the iron mixed with over the affairs of the province of Babylon : miry clay.

but Daniel sat in the gate of the king. 42 And as the toes of the feet were part of 18 Or, which was not in hand; as verse 45.

21 Chald. their days. 22 Chap. 4. 3, 34; and 6. 26; and 7, 14, 27. Mich. 4. 7. Luke 1. 33.

23 Chald, kingdom thereof. 25 Chald. after this. 96 Chap. 4. 9.

19 Or, brittle.

20 Chald, this with this.

24 Or, which was not in hand.

Verse 2. The magicians, and the astrologers, and the Diodorus Siculus (b. ii. chap. 3); and although he speaks sorcerers, and the Chaldeans.'- It is no use to distinguish of it with respect, it is easy enough, from his account, to these various professors of what seems to have formed the see its false foundations and delusive character. He menboasted learning and science of the Babylonians, and which tions the Chaldæans, as so called by the Babylonians appears to have consisted in the neglect of really prac- themselves, and intimates the distinction by describing tical and useful knowledge, for the vain pursuit, and not them as “the more ancient Babylonians.' They seem, in very humble profession, of that which must ever be un- fact, to have formed the learned caste, occupying the attainable to man, and which would be useless and mis- same station as the priests did in Egypt. They spent all chievous could it be attained. The present was made the their time in the study of philosophy,' and were espehandmaid of the future; and the abilities which might cially famous in the art of astrology. They were greatly have profited for the existing time, were exhausted in the given to divination, and the foretelling of future events, attempt to unveil the secrets of the time to come. Their and employed themselv either by purifications, sacriboasted cultivation of astronomy was merely an accident fices, or enchantments, in averting evils and in procuring resulting from the attempt to read the future in the stars. good fortune and success. They were also skilful in the Astronomy, as it ever has been in the East, was attended art of divination by the flying of birds, and in the interto so far, and no farther, than the vain science of astrology | pretation of dreams and prodigies : and the presages which made it necessary. The best account we possess of the they derived from the exact and diligent inspection of the learning and science of the Chaldæans is that given by entrails of sacrifices, were received as oracles by the people. Diodorus makes some approving observations on of them even upon their own principles: because the same their method of study, stating that their knowledge and divine power which could communicate to them the inscience were traditionally transmitted from father to son, terpretation as they professed, could also communicate to thus proceeding on long established rules : and he then them the dream itself. He did not forget the dream, as proceeds to inform us, that the Chaldæans held the world generally imagined, from the expression “ the thing is gone to be eternal, that it had no certain beginning and should from me,” and which may rather be rendered, with the have no end. But they all agreed that all things were Septuagint and Arabic, " the decree is gone forth from me,ordered, and the beautiful fabric of the universe supported, and shall not be reversed; or with the Syriac version, by a divine providence; and that the motions of the the decree which I have pronounced is certain," or unalterheavens were not performed by chance, or of their own able; namely, for putting them all to death, if they could accord, but by the determinate will and appointment of not tell the dream. And this surely was a more conthe gods. Therefore, from long observation of the stars, sistent reason, why the wise men wished to gain time, or and an exact knowledge of the motions and influences of suspend the execution of it (verse 8); and why Daniel, every one of them in which they excelled all other who was involved in their danger, complained, "why is nations), they professed to foretell things that should the decree so hasty from the king ?" Analysis, ii. 456. come to pass. The five planets, the Sun, Mars, Venus, 31. A great image.'-In ancient coins and medals, Mercury, and Jupiter, they called 'Interpreters,' as being nothing is more common than to see cities and nations principally concerned in making known to man the will represented by human figures, male or female. According of the gods. Future events they held to be foreshewn by to the ideas which suggested such symbols, a vast image their rising, their setting, and their colour, presaging in the human figure was, therefore, a very fit emblem of hurricanes, tempestuous rains, droughts, the appearance sovereign power and dominion, while the materials of of comets, eclipses, earthquakes, and all other circum- which it was composed did most significantly typify the stances which were thought to bode good or evil not only character of the various empires, the succession of which to nations in general, but to kings and private persons in was foreshewn by this vision. This last idea, of exparticular. The planets also, in their courses through the pressing the condition of things by metallic symbols, was twelve signs, into which the Chaldæans divided the visible prevalent before the time of Daniel. Hesiod, who lived heavens, were held, as by more modern astrologers, to about two centuries before Daniel, characterizes the suchave a great influence, either good or bad, on men's na- cession of ages (four) by the very same metals—the ages tivities, so that, from a consideration of their several of gold, silver, brass, and irou. natures, and respective positions, it might be foreknown The vision which follows is so clear—as explained by what should befall people in after life. The following is Daniel and with the illustration derived from his own remarkable :— As they foretold things to come to other future visions—that it has been explained with little difkings formerly, so they did to Alexander who conquered ference of opinion in essential points, except in that Darius, and" to his successors Antigonus and Seleucus portion which is still considered to remain to be fulfilled. Nicator; and accordingly things fell out as they declared. Daniel himself declares the head of gold to represent the

They also tell private men their fortunes, so certainly, Babylonian empire ; and the other parts, downward, the that those who have found the thing true by experience, great empires which should successively arise. The have esteemed it a miracle, and beyond the art of man to breast and arms of silver must therefore denote the emperform.' After giving some account of their astrono- pire of the Persians: the belly and thighs of brass, the mical system, Diodorus adds:- This we may justly and empire of Alexander and his successors: the third kingtruly say, that the Chaldæans excel all men in astrology, dom of iron, which broke in pieces and subdued all things, having studied it more than any other art or science. But must mean that of the Romans; and the toes, partly iron the number of years during which the Chaldæans allege and partly clay, cannot but denote the several kingdoms, that their predecessors have been devoted to this study is some strong and some weak, which arose upon the ruin incredible: for when Alexander was in Asia, they reckoned of their magnificent empire. The last empire, typified up four hundred and seventy thousand years since they by the stone cut out without hands from the mountain, first began to observe the motions of the stars.' Cicero and breaking in pieces the iron, the brass, the clay, the also ridicules this pretension. The Chaldæans did, cer- silver, and the gold --subduing all kingdoms and enduring tainly, make and record astronomical observations from for ever-is by the Jews referred to the kingdom of their very ancient times, since Calisthenes, the philosopher who still expected Messiah. Christians also apply it to the accompanied Alexander, found at Babylon such observa- kingdom of Christ, but under various modifications of tions, extending backwards for 1903 years; and the above explanation and hypothesis, which it is not our object to preposterous statement will be within this account, if we follow : there can, however, be no question that this part understand that the number (as corrected) of 473,040 of the vision can refer to nothing else than to our Saviour's years was, as Dr. Hales concludes, produced by the mul- dominion upon earth, whatever form or character that tiplication of two factors—the square of the Chaldæan dominion may be considered to bear. Saros (a period of lunar inequalities), 18 X 18 = 324, and 33. · Part of iron and part of clay:'-The following senthe Nabonassarean or Sothiacal period of 1460 years. sible observation on the description of the component Whether the statement of the result as 'years,' arose from parts of the image is by Professor Bush :—There is a misconception of their statement, or from an intention usually an obvious and striking congruity in the proto deceive, is not very clear; but it does appear that the phetic and parabolic images of the Scriptures. In the later Chaldæans were in the habit of turning days into present case there would seem to be an exception; for who years, to give to themselves an antiquity somewhat more can conceive of the manner in which iron and clay could commensurate than the truth could be to their belief that be made to combine in the same mass? In respect to the the world had no beginning.

other materials, the gold, the silver, the brass, they are Such were the principles and practices of the men who sufficiently homogeneous in their nature to allow of being now appeared before Nebuchadnezzar, and over whom united in the manner supposed in the vision. But how a Daniel was ultimately appointed to preside.

soft yielding substance like clay could form a constituent 5. The dream, with the interpretation thereof. —Dr. part of the same image, and that too of the very base and Hales observes on this :-— The king's requisition to the pediment upon which it rested, is by no means obvious. wise men of Babylon, to tell him his dreain, in the first We see not, therefore, why the definition given to the instance, before they attempted to interpret it, though, as original Chaldaic word by Cocceius, Buxtorf, Gesenius, they alleged in excuse for not doing so, unusual and im- Simonis, Gibbs, and others, viz., potter's ware, or burnt possible for mere mortals, was yet founded on profound baked clay, is not decidedly to be preferred. And of the policy. He justly considered their telling the dream original phrase subsequently occurring, “miry clay,” v. itself, as a sure test of the truth of the interpretation 41, 12, the first of these lexicographers says expressly, afterwards, and which it was not unreasonable to require “ Non igitur lutum vel limum notat, sed opus coctum ex

limo, vel limum excoctum;it does not therefore signify clay The latter office is the same as that which is designated or mud in its soft state, but something formed by baking from by the title of Rab-mag, or Archimagus, in Jer. xxxii

. 3, clay. This interpretation gives consistency to the whole and the offices together formed two of the highest civil imagery, and, if needs be, can be abundantly confirmed and scientific employments in the state. It seems from from the frequent use of the same term by the Chaldee the next verse that Daniel's three friends were appointed Targums.'

to conduct under him the affairs of his provincial govern48. Ruler over the whole province of Babylon, and ment, while he himself took a high place, if not the very chief of the governors over all the wise men of Babylon.'— | first place, in the civil councils of the king.

had set up.

CHAPTER III.

9 They spake and said to the king Ne1 Nebuchadnezzar dedicateth a golden image in Dura.

buchadnezzar, O king, live for ever. 8 Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego are accused 10 Thou, o king, hast made a decree, for not worshipping the image. 13 They, being that every man that shall hear the sound of threatened, make a good confession. 19 God de

the cornet, flute, harp, sackbut, psaltery, and livereth them out of the furnace. 26 Nebuchad

dulcimer, and all kinds of musick, shall fall nezzar seeing the miracle blesseth God.

down and worship the golden image: NEBUCHADNEZZAR the king made an image

11 And whoso falleth not down and worof gold, whose height was threescore cubits, shippeth, that he should be cast into the and the breadth thereof six cubits: he set it midst of a burning fiery furnace. up in the plain of Dura, in the province of 12 There are certain Jews whom thou hast, Babylon.

set over the affairs of the province of Babylon, 2 Then Nebuchadnezzar the king sent to Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego; these gather together the princes, the governors, men, O king, "have not regarded thee: they and the captains, the judges, the treasurers, serve not thy gods, nor worship the golden the counsellors, the sheriffs, and all the rulers image which thou hast set up. of the provinces, to come to the dedication of 13 9 Then Nebuchadnezzar in his rage the image which Nebuchadnezzar the king and fury commanded to bring Shadrach,

Meshach, and Abed-nego. Then they brought 3 Then the princes, the governors, and these men before the king. captains, the judges, the treasurers, the coun- 14 Nebuchadnezzar spake and said unto sellors, the sheriffs, and all the rulers of the them, Is it ®true, O Shadrach, Meshach, and provinces, were gathered together unto the Abed-nego, do not ye serve my gods, nor dedication of the image that Nebuchadnezzar worship the golden image which I have set up? the king had set up; and they stood before 15 Now if ye be ready that at what time the image that Nebuchadnezzar had set up. ye

hear the sound of the cornet, flute, harp, 4 Then an herald cried 'aloud, To you sackbut, psaltery, and dulcimer, and all kinds ’it is commanded, O people, nations, and lan- of musick, ye fall down and worship the guages,

image which I have made; well: but if 5 That at what time ye hear the sound of worship not, ye shall be cast the same hour the cornet, flute, harp, sackbut, psaltery, into the midst of a burning fiery furnace; and

*dulcimer, and all kinds of musick, ye fall who is that God that shall deliver you out of down and worship the golden image that Nebuchadnezzar the king hath set up:

16 Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego, 6 And whoso falleth not down and wor- answered and said to the king, O Nebuchadshippeth shall the same hour be cast into the nezzar, we are not careful to answer thee in midst of a burning fiery furnace.

this matter. 7 Therefore at that time, when all the 17 If it be so, our God whom we serve is people heard the sound of the cornet, flute, able to deliver us from the burning fiery harp, sackbut, psaltery, and all kinds of furnace, and he will deliver us out of thine musick, all the people, the nations, and the hand, O king. languages, fell down and worshipped the 18 But if not, be it known unto thee, O golden image that Nebuchadnezzar the king king, that we will not serve thy gods, nor

worship the golden image which thou hast 8 Wherefore at that time certain Chaldeans came near, and accused the Jews.

19 | Then was Nebuchadnezzar "full of i Chald. with might.

ye

3

my hands?

had set up:

set up.

3 Or, singing.

4 Chald. symphony, 5 Chald, have set no regard upon thee. 6 Or, of purpose ; as Exod. 21. 13.

7 Chald. filled.

2 Chald. they command.

fury, and the form of his visage was changed

26 Then Nebuchadnezzar came near to against Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego : the "mouth of the burning fiery furnace, and therefore he spake, and commanded that they spake, and said, Shadrach, Meshach, and should heat the furnace one seven times more Åbed-nego, ye servants of the most high God, than it was wont to be heated.

come forth, and come hither. Then Sha20 And he commanded the most mighty drach, Meshach, and Abed-nego, came forth men that were in his army to bind Shadrach, of the midst of the fire. Meshach, and Abed-nego, and to cast them 27 And the princes, governors, and capinto the burning fiery furnace.

tains, and the king's counsellors, being ga21 Then these men were bound in their thered together, saw these men, upon whose 'coats, their hosen, and their ''hats, and their bodies the fire had no power, nor was an hair other garments, and were cast into the midst of their head singed, neither were their coats of the burning fiery furnace.

changed, nor the smell of fire had passed on 22 Therefore because the king's 'com- them. mandment was urgent, and the furnace ex- 28 Then Nebuchadnezzar spake, and said, ceeding hot, the 'Aame of the fire slew those Blessed be the God of Shadrach, Meshach, men that took up Shadrach, Meshach, and and Abed-nego, who hath sent his angel, and Abed-nego.

delivered his servants that trusted in him, and 23 And these three men, Shadrach, Me-, have changed the king's word, and yielded shach, and Abed-nego, fell down bound into their bodies, that they might not serve nor the midst of the burning fiery furnace. worship any god, except their own God.

24 | Then Nebuchadnezzar the king was 29 Therefore I make a decree, That astonied, and rose up in haste, and spake, and every people, nation, and language, which said unto his counsellors, Did not we cast speak any thing amiss against the God of three men bound into the midst of the fire ? Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego, shall be They answered and said unto the king, True, 18 cut in pieces, and their houses shall be O kiug

made a dunghill : because there is no other 25 He answered and said, Lo, I see four God that can deliver after this sort. men loose, walking in the midst of the fire, 30 T Then the king promoted Shadrach, and 'they have no hurt; and the form of the Meshach, and Abed-nego, in the province of fourth is like the Son of God.

Babylon. 8 Chald. mighty of strength.

12 Or, spark. 18 Chap. 2. 5.

19 Chald. made pieces.

9 Or, mantles.

10 Or, turbans. 14 Chald, there is no hurt in them.

15 Chald. door.

13 Or, governors.

17 Chald. error.

11 Chald. word.

16 Chald. a decree is made by me. 20 Chald, made to prosper.

Verse 1. . An image of gold.'--Dr. Hales suggests that the Chaldæans affirmed, contained eight hundred talents of this image of gold may have been made and erected by the gold. He adds that there was also, not long since, within haughty and arrogant conqueror in opposition to his the sacred enclosure, a statue of solid gold, twelve cubits dream, and the foregoing interpretation thereof. "The in height. Darius Hystaspes would fain have taken away whole image, and not the head only, was made of gold to this figure, but dared not execute his wishes: but his son denote the continuance of his empire, and it was consecrated Xerxes not only did so, but put to death the priest who to his tutelary god Bel, or Belus (ver. 14; ch. iv. 18), endeavoured to prevent its removal. It may seem by no whose power he now considered superior to that of the God means unlikely that one of these statues, and more partiof the Jews, revoking his former confession. Some think cularly, perhaps, the one mentioned last, was the very same that the image was intended as a statue of Nabopolassar, that was made by Nebuchadnezzar, and which, after the the father of Nebuchadnezzar, and whom he proposed to transaction recorded in this chapter, we may suppose to rank among the gods; and others imagine that the image have been removed from the plain of Dura to the sacred represented Nebuchadnezzar himself, who intended to be enclosure of the temple. adored under this form. But the opinion that it was con- 6. · Hour.'_This is the first instance in which division secrated to the great Babylonian god Bel, or Baal, is the of time by hours occurs in Scripture; and we are, theremost probable and the best supported. The dimensions fore, supplied with a tolerably certain intimation that this given, sixty cubits high by six in breadth, would be quite was one of the useful things which the Hebrews learnt from disproportionate if understood of the figure alone, and we the Chaldæans. We merely notice this circumstance in are, therefore, probably to understand that the height passing; as John ix. 11, will afford us a better opportunity included the pedestal or pillar on which the statue was of considering the manner in which the day was anciently elevated. That the Chaldæans were accustomed to set up divided into hours. vast golden images of their gods, and particularly of Belus, Into the midst of a burning fiery furnace.' -Someappears from Herodotus, who, after describing the famous thing like this mode of capital punishment has subsisted in temple dedicated to him, and in which there was no statue, the East even to recent times. Chardin, after speaking in adds, that within the precincts of this temple, there was a his Voyages) of the most common modes of punishing with smaller sacred edifice upon the ground; within which death in his time, in Persia, goes on to say— But there is there was an immense golden statue of Jupiter (Belus), in still a particular way of putting to death such as have a sitting posture: around the statue were large tables, transgressed in civil affairs, either by causing a dearth, or which, with the steps and throne, were all of gold, and as by selling above the prescribed rate by means of a false

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