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rently following a hint to that effect in the Targum, Other explanations of the present text have, however, suggests that some of the kings were buried and their been given. Some understand the passage to refer to monuments erected near the wall which surrounded the idols, called carcases,' as things lifeless and abominable, temple and its courts, and that this vicinity is regarded as while others suppose it alludes to the carcases of the a profanation of the temple. The very general disposition human sacrifices offered to Moloch or Milcolm, undermanifested in different countries to inter the dead in or standing the word rendered their king'as the proper or near holy places renders this far from improbable; while, titular name of this idol. on the other hand, it is certain that the law regarded the Threshold.'-See the note on 1 Sam. v. 5. contact and proximity of a dead body as most polluting.

8.

CHAPTER XLIV.

flesh, shall enter into my sanctuary, of any

stranger that is among the children of Israel. 1 The east gate assigned only to the prince. 4 The 10 And the Levites that are gone away priests reproved for polluting of the sanctuary. 9

far from me, when Israel went astray, which Idolaters incapable of the priest's office. 15 The sons of Zadok are accepted thereto. 17 Ordinances went astray away from me after their idols; for the priests.

they shall even bear their iniquity.

ii Yet they shall be ministers in my sancTuen he brought me back the way of the tuary, having charge at the gates of the house, gate of the outward sanctuary which looketh and ministering to the house : they shall slay toward the east; and it was shut.

the burnt offering and the sacrifice for the 2 Then said the Lord unto me; This gate people, and they shall stand before them to shall be shut, it shall not be opened, and no minister unto them. man shall enter in by it; because the LORD, 12 Because they ministered unto them the God of Israel," hath entered in by it, before their idols, and 'caused the house of therefore it shall be shut.

Israel to fall into iniquity; therefore have I 3 It is for the prince ; the prince, he shall lifted up mine hand against them, saith the sit in it to eat bread before the LORD; he Lord God, and they shall bear their iniquity. shall enter by the way of the porch of that 13 And they shall not come near unto me, gate, and shall go out by the way of the same. to do the office of a priest unto me, nor to

44 Then brought he me the way of the come near to any of my holy things, in the north gate before the house : and I looked, most holy place : but they shall bear their and, behold, the glory of the Lord filled the shame, and their abominations which they house of the LORD: and I fell upon my face. have committed.

5 And the Lord said unto me, Son of 14 But I will make them keepers of the man, 'mark well, and behold with thine eyes, charge of the house, for all the service thereof, and hear with thine ears all that I say unto and for all that shall be done therein. thee concerning all the ordinances of the 15 | But the priests the Levites, the sons house of the LORD, and all the laws thereof; of Zadok, that kept the charge of my sancand mark well the entering in of the house, tuary when the children of Israel went astray with every going forth of the sanctuary. from me, they shall come near to me to

6. And thou shalt say to the rebellious, minister unto me, and they shall stand before even to the house of Israel, Thus saith the me to offer unto me the fat and the blood, Lord God; O ye house of Israel, let it suffice saith the Lord God: you of all your abominations,

16 They shall enter into my sanctuary, and 7 In that ye have brought into my sanc- they shall come near to my table, to minister tuary 'strangers, uncircumcised in heart, and unto me, and they shall keep my charge. uncircumcised in flesh, to be in my sanctuary, 17 | And it shall come to pass, that when to pollute it, even my house, when ye offer they enter in at the gates of the inner court, my bread, the fat and the blood, and they they shall be clothed with linen garments; have broken my covenant because of all your and no wool shall come upon them, whiles abominations.

they minister in the gates of the inner court, 8 And ye have not kept the charge of mine and within. holy things; but ye have set keepers of my 18 They shall have linen bonnets upon ʻcharge in my sanctuary for yourselves. their heads, and shall have linen breeches

9 1 Thus saith the Lord God; No stranger, upon their loins; they shall not gird themuncircumcised in heart, nor uncircumcised in selves **with any thing that causeth sweat.

2 Heb, children of a stranger.

8 Or, ward, or, ordinance : and so verses 14 and 16. 4 Heb. were for a stumbling-block of iniquity unto, &c.

3 Or, in sweating places.

6 Heb. in, or, with sweat,

1 Heb. set thine heart.

19 And when they go forth into the utter for mother, or for son, or for daughter, for court, even into the utter court to the people, brother, or for sister that hath had no husband, they shall put off their garments wherein they they may defile themselves. ministered, and lay them in the holy chambers, 26 And after he is cleansed, they shall and they shall put on other garments; and reckon unto him seven days. they shall not sanctify the people with their 27 And in the day that he goeth into the garments.

sanctuary, unto the inner court, to minister in 20 Neither shall they shave their heads, the sanctuary, he shall offer his sin offering, nor suffer their locks to grow long; they shall saith the Lord God. only poll their heads.

28 And it shall be unto them for an inhe21 Neither shall any priest drink wine, ritance : I "am their inheritance : and ye shall when they enter into the inner court.

give them no possession in Israel : I am their 22 Neither shall they take for their wives possession. a 'widow, nor her that is put away: but they 29 They shall eat the meat offering, and shall také maidens of the seed of the house of the sin offering, and the trespass offering; Israel, or a widow 'that had a priest before. and every ''dedicated thing in Israel shall be

23 And they shall teach my people the their's. difference between the holy and profane, and 30 And the 19 first of all the firstfruits of cause them to discern between the unclean all things, and every oblation of all, of every and the clean.

sort of your oblations, shall be the priest's : 24 And in controversy they shall stand in ye shall also give unto the priest the first of judgment; and they shall judge it according your dough, that he may cause the blessing to to my judgments : and they shall keep my rest in thine house. laws and my statutes in all mine assemblies ; 31 The priest shall not eat of any thing and they shall hallow my sabbaths.

that is dead of itself, or torn, whether it be 25 And they shall come at no 'odead per- fowl or beast. son to defile themselves : but for father, or

7 Levit. 21. 13.

8 Heb. thrust forth.
11 Num. 18. 20. Deut. 10. 9, and 18. 1, 2. Josh. 13. 14, 33.

14 Exod. 13. 2, and 22, 29, 30. Num. 3. 13, and 18. 12.

9 Heb. from a priest.

12 Or, devoted.

15 Exod. 22. 31.

10 Lev. 21. 1, 11.

13 Or, chief. Lev, 22. 8.

Verse 2. This gate shall be shut.'-In the note to 1 Chron. ix. 18, we have taken some notice of the Oriental custom of honouring monarchs by appropriating gates to their exclusive use, keeping them closed, except when they are to enter, and of building others, which had been in common use, completely up after the sovereign has passed through them. This usage seems to explain the present passage : and to the illustrations already given we may now add the one furnished by Chardin, who informs us, that when a great man in Persia had built a palace, it was the custom for him to entertain the king and his grandees in it for several days. The great gate was then kept open; but when the festivities were over, and the king had departed, it was shut up to be opened no

more. He adds, that he understood the same custom to exist in Japan.

20. They shall only poll their heads.—That is, only cut their hair: they were not to shave their heads, on the one hand, nor to allow their hair to grow long, on the other. Jerome conjectures that the regulation forbidding the priests to shave their heads was in order to distinguish them from several of the heathen priests, and particularly the Egyptian priests of Isis and Serapis, who had their heads shaved and uncovered. Most of the rules which the priests are directed to observe, in this chapter, are the same as those that occur in the Law of Moses, where the most remarkable of them have already received our attention.

CHAPTER XLV.

2 Of this there shall be for the sanctuary

five hundred in length, with five hundred in 1 The portion of land for the sanctuary, 6 for the city, 7 and for the prince. 9 Ordinances

for the prince.

breadth, square round about ; and fifty cubits

round about for the suburbs thereof. MOREOVER, 'when ye shall divide by lot the 3 And of this measure shalt thou measure land for inheritance, ye shall offer an oblation the length of five and twenty thousand, and unto the LORD, 'an holy portion of the land : the breadth of ten thousand : and in it shall the length shall be the length of five and twenty be the sanctuary and the most holy place. thousand reeds, and the breadth shall be ten 4 The holy portion of the land shall be for thousand. This shall be holy in all the borders the priests the ministers of the sanctuary, which thereof round about.

shall come near to minister unto the LORD : 1 Heb. when ye cause the land to fall.

3 Or void places.

% Heb. holiness.

and it shall be a place for their houses, and 15 And one 'lamb out of the flock, out of an holy place for the sanctuary.

two hundred, out of the fat pastures of Israel; 5 And the five and twenty thousand of for a meat offering, and for a burnt offering, length, and the ten thousand of breadth, and for peace offerings, to make reconciliation shall also the Levites, the ministers of the for them, saith the Lord God. house, have for themselves, for a possession 16 All the people of the land 'shall give for twenty chambers.

this oblation ''for the prince in Israel. 6. And ye shall appoint the possession of 17 And it shall be the prince's part to give the city five thousand broad, and five and burnt offerings, and meat offerings, and drink twenty thousand long, over against the obla- offerings, in the feasts, and in the new moons, tion of the holy portion : it shall be for the and in the sabbaths, in all solemnities of the whole house of Israel.

house of Israel: he shall prepare the sin 7. | And a portion shall be for the prince offering, and the meat offering, and the burnt on the one side and on the other side of the offering, and the peace offerings, to make oblation of the holy portion, and of the pos- reconciliation for the house of Israel. session of the city, before the oblation of the 18 Thus saith the Lord God; In the first holy portion, and before the possession of the month, in the first day of the month, thou shalt city, from the west side westward, and from take a young bullock without blemish, and the east side eastward : and the length shall cleanse the sanctuary: be over against one of the portions, from the 19 And the priest shall take of the blood west border unto the east border.

of the sin offering, and put it upon the posts 8 In the land shall be his possession in of the house, and upon the four corners of the Israel : and my princes shall no more oppress settle of the altar, and upon the posts of the my people ; and the rest of the land shall they gate of the inner court. give to the house of Israel according to their 20 And so thou shalt do the seventh day tribes.

of the month for every one that erreth, and 9 4 Thus saith the Lord God; Let it suf- for him that is simple: so shall ye reconcile fice you, O princes of Israel : remove violence the house, and spoil, and execute judgment and justice, 21 In the first month, in the fourteenth day take away your *exactions from my people, of the month, ye shall have the passover, a saith the Lord GOD.

feast of seven days; unleavened bread shall 10 Ye shall have just 'balances and a just be eaten. ephah, and a just bath.

22 And upon that day shall the prince 11 The ephah and the bath shall be of one prepare for himself and for all the people of measure, that the bath may contain the tenth the land a bullock for a sin offering. part of an homer, and the ephah the tenth part 23 And seven days of the feast he shall of an homer : the measure thereof shall be prepare a burnt offering to the LORD, seven after the homer.

bullocks and seven rams without blemish daily 12 And the 'shekel shall be twenty gerahs: the seven days; and a kid of the goats daily twenty shekels, five and twenty shekels, fifteen for a sin offering. shekels, shall be your maneh.

24 And he shall prepare a meat offering of 13 This is the oblation that ye shall offer ; an ephah for a bullock, and an ephah for a the sixth part of an ephah of an homer of ram, and an hin of oil for an ephah. wheat, and ye shall give the sixth part of an 25 In the seventh month, in the fifteenth ephah of an homer of barley:

day of the month, shall he do the like in the 14 Concerning the ordinance of oil, the 12 feast of the seven days, according to the sin bath of oil, ye shall offer the tenth part of a offering, according to the burnt offering, and bath out of the cor, which is an homer of ten according to the meat offering, and according baths ; for ten baths are an homer :

to the oil. 4 Heb. expulsions.

8 Or, thank-offerings.

5 Levit. 19. 35, 36. 9 Heb. shall be for.

6 Exod. 30. 13. Levit. 27. 25. Num. 3. 47.
10 Or, with, 11 Or, thank-offerings.

7 Or, kid.
12 Num. 29. 12.

Verse 12. Twenty shekels, five and twenty shekels, fifteen shekels, shall be your maneh?- During the captivity of the Jews and after their return, they made use of the weights and measures of other nationsEzekiel accordingly mentions foreign manehs of fifteen, of twenty, and of five and twenty shekels. (Jahn’s Archæologia

Biblica, p. 115.) There is, however, another explanation, which supposes that we are to add these several sums together, in order to obtain the amount of the Hebrew maneh, which is thus stated at sixty shekels. And to account for the singular mode of computation, it is alleged that the component sums were pieces of money, of the

respective values stated, and the amount of which made a different values, we may observe that there is not the maneh. Another explanation of this last matter suggests least evidence or probability that the Hebrews had any a reference to the Oriental mode of stating sums of money such pieces of money, and that the text does not speak of in contracts and acknowledgments; when, to prevent money or value, but of weight. And then, as to the fraud by changes in single words and figures, not only is explanation suggested by the Oriental mode of stating the whole sum stated, but it is added, that the half of it is values, it clearly cannot apply in the present instance, so much, and the quarter so much. Nothing of all this since the numbers fifteen, twenty, twenty-five, have not appears very satisfactory to our minds. As it would that corresponding relation to each other, and to the whole require discussion, we will not here particularly insist sum, which the practice alluded to requires. The text is that a comparison of i Kings x. 17, with 2 Chron. ix. 16, however very difficult; and it is easier to object to the seems to furnish clearer evidence for taking the maneh explanations which have been given, than to suggest one at 100 shekels than the present text does for making it liable to no objection. sixty; but, with respect to what is said about coins of

CHAPTER XLVI.

to worship shall go out by the way of the south

gate ; and he that entereth by the way of the 1 Ordinances for the prince in his worship, 9 and for south gate shall go forth by the way of the

the people. 16 An order for the prince's inheritance. 19 The courts for boiling and baking.

north gate: he shall not return by the way of

the gate whereby he came in, but shall go Thus saith the Lord God; The gate of the forth over against it. inner court that looketh toward the east shall 10 And the prince in the midst of them, be shut the six working days ; but on the when they go in, shall go in; and when they sabbath it shall be opened, and in the day of go forth, shall go forth. the new moon it shall be opened.

11 And in the feasts and in the solemnities 2 And the prince shall enter by the way of the meat offering shall be an ephah to a bulthe porch of that gate without, and shall stand lock, and an ephah to a ram, and to the lambs by the post of the gate, and the priests shall as he is able to give, and an hin of oil to an prepare his burnt offering and his peace offer- ephah. ings, and he shall worship at the threshold of 12 Now when the prince shall prepare a the gate: then he shall go forth; but the gate voluntary burnt offering or peace offerings shall not be shut until the evening.

voluntarily unto the LORD, one shall then 3 Likewise the people of the land shall open him the gate that looketh toward the worship at the door of this gate before the east, and he shall prepare his burnt offering Lord in the sabbaths and in the new moons. and his peace offerings, as he did on the sab

4 And the burnt offering that the prince bath day : then he shall go forth ; and after shall offer unto the Lord in the sabbath day his going forth one shall shut the gate. shall be six lambs without blemish, and a ram 13 Thou shalt daily prepare a burnt offerwithout blemish.

ing unto the LORD of a lamb of the first year 5 And the meat offering shall be an ephah without blemish: thou shalt prepare it every for a ram, and the meat offering for the lambs morning. 'as he shall be able to give, and an hin of oil 14 And thou shalt prepare a meat offering to an ephah.

for it every morning, the sixth part of an 6 And in the day of the new moon it shall ephah, and the third part of an hin of oil, to be a young bullock without blemish, and six temper with the fine flour ; a meat offering lambs, and a ram: they shall be without continually by a perpetual ordinance unto the blemish.

LORD. 7 And he shall prepare a meat offering, 15 Thus shall they prepare the lamb, and an ephah for a bullock, and an ephah for a the meat offering, and the oil, every morning ram, and for the lambs according as his for a continual burnt offering. hand shall attain unto, and an hin of oil to

16 Thus saith the Lord God; If the an ephah.

prince give a gift unto any of his sons, the 8 And when the prince shall enter, he inheritance thereof shall be his sons’; it shall shall go in by the way of the porch of that

of the porch of that be their possession by inheritance. gate, and he shall go forth by the way 17 But if he give a gift of his inheritance thereof.

to one of his servants, then it shall be his to 9 1 But when the people of the land shall the year of liberty ; after it shall return to come before the LORD in the solemn feasts, he the prince; but his inheritance shall be his that entereth in by the way of the north gate sons' for them. 1 Heb. the gift of his hand.

? Heb. a son of his year.

3 Heb. morning by morning.

18 Moreover the prince shall not take of 21 Then he brought me forth into the utter the people's inheritance by oppression, to court, and caused me to pass by the four thrust them out of their possession ; but he corners of the court; and, behold, 'in every shall give his sons inheritance out of his own corner of the court there was a court. possession : that my people be not scattered 22 In the four corners of the court there every man from his possession.

were courts 'joined of forty cubits long and 15 1 After he brought me through the thirty broad : these four 'corners were of one entry, which was at the side of the gate, into measure. the holy chambers of the priests, which looked 23 And there was a row of building round toward the north : and, behold, there was a about in them, round about them four, and it place on the two sides westward.

was made with boiling places under the rows 20 Then said he unto me, This is the place round about. where the priests shall boil the trespass offer- 24 Then said he unto me, These are the ing and the sin offering, where they shall bake places of them that boil, where the ministers the meat offering; that they bear them not out of the house shall boil the sacrifice of the into the utter court, to sanctify the people. people.

• Heb. a court in a corner of a court, and a court in a corner of a court. 5 Or, made with chimneys. 6 Heb. cornered.

Verse 3. ' The people of the land shall worship at the door of this gate-We have met with a very curious engraving in the Antiquités d'Herculanum, after an ancient painting found at Portici, representing the Egyptian worship of Isis. This we have copied ; for while some allege that the forms of the Hebrew worship resembled, essentially, those of the Egyptians, and others contend that their forms were designedly made as different as possible from those of Egypt, it is an advantage to ascertain the truth from the unexceptionable testimony of an ancient painting.

That there are some resemblances is certain ; and most of these applied not merely to the worship of the Egyptians, but to that of other nations also. And when we quietly consider the subject, while we can see very clearly why observances and ceremonies liable to misconception or abuse, should be altered or omitted, there does not

appear any reason why the forms which the general consent of mankind had considered suitably to mark their reverence or adoration, should be changed to something else which had not previously been known. Bowing the knee is a ceremony; but the Hebrews were not forbidden to bow the knee, so that they did not bow it to Baal.

The resemblances we see here are :that sacrifice and worship are not performed in the sanctuary, but in the court before it, where the altar also appears to occupy nearly the same position as it did in the court before the Hebrew temple. The altar, moreover, is provided with "horns.' Other analogies are, that the worshippers are in a standing posture, with one exception; that they are all barefooted, and that one man is blowing a trumpet precisely similar to that which the Levites blew at the Hebrew sacrifices.

The differences are more considerable than the ana

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