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1385) also introduced an imitation of the arch in a temple at Abydus. In this building the roof is formed of single blocks of stone, reaching from one architrave to the other, which, instead of being placed in the usual manner, stand upon their edges, in order to allow room for hollowing out an arch in their thickness; but it has the effect of inconsistency, without the plea of advantage or utility' Another imitation of the arch occurs in a building at Thebes, constructed in the style of a tomb. The chambers lie under a friable rock, and are cased with masonry, to prevent the fall of its crumbling stone; but, instead of being roofed on the principle of the arch, they are covered with a number of large blocks, placed horizontally, one projecting beyond that immediately below it, till the uppermost two meet in the centre, the interior angles being afterwards rounded off to form the appearance of a vault as represented in the left hand figure of our cut. The date of this building is about B.c. 1500, and consequently many years after the Egyptians had been acquainted with the art of vaulting.
Thus as the temple architecture of the Egyptians did not admit of arches, and as the temples are almost the only buildings that remain, it is not strange that arches have
the first Osirtasen is derived from the drawings at BeniHassan (Wilkinson, ii. 117).
In the secluded valley of Dayr el Medeeneh, at Thebes, are several tombs of the early date of Amenoph I. Among the most remarkable of these is one whose crude brick roof and niche, bearing the name of the same Pharaoh, prove the existence of the arch at the remote period of B.C. 1540 (Wilkinson, Topography of Thebes, p. 81). Another tomb of similar construction bears the ovals of Thothmes III., who reigned about the time of the Exode (Ancient Egyptians, iii. 319). At Thebes there is also a brick arch bearing the name of this king (Hoskins, Travels in Ethiopia). To the same period and dynasty (the 18th) belong the vaulted chambers and arched doorways which yet remain in the erude brick pyramids at Thebes (Wilkinson, Ancient Egyptians, iii. 317). In ancient Egyptian houses it appears that the roofs were often vaulted, and built, like the rest of the house, of crude brick; and there is reason to believe that some of the chambers in the pavilion of Rameses III. (about B.C. 1245), at Medeenet Haboo, were arched with stone, since the devices in the upper part of the walls shew that the fallen roofs bad this form. The most ancient actually existing arches of stone occur at Memphis, near the modern village of Saqquara. Here there is a tomb with two large vaulted chambers, whose roofs display in every part the name and sculptures of Psamaticus II. (about B.C, 600). The chambers are cut in the limestone rock, and this being of a friable nature, the roof is secured by being, as it were, lined with an arch like our modern tunnels.
To about the same period—that of the last dynasty before the Persian invasion-belong the remarkable doorways of the enclosures surrounding the tombs in the Assaséef, which are composed of two or more concentric semicircles of brick. Ancient Egyptians, iii. 319.
Although the oldest stone arch whose age has been positively ascertained does not date earlier than the time of Psamaticus, we cannot suppose that the use of stone was not adopted by the Egyptians for that style of building previous to his reign, even if the arches in the pyramids in Ethiopia should prove not to be anterior to the same era. Nor does the absence of the arch in temples and other large buildings excite our surprise, when we consider the style of Egyptian monuments; and no one who understands the character of their architecture could wish for its introduction. In some of the small temples of the Oasis the Romans attempted this innovation, but the appearance of the chambers so constructed fails to please; and the whimsical caprice of Osirei (about B.C.
not oftener been found. The evidence offered by the paintings, the tombs, and the pyramids is conclusive for the existence and antiquity of arches and vaults of brick and stone; and if any remains of houses and palaces had now existed, there is little doubt that the arch would have been of frequent occurrence. We observe that Sir J. G.
Wilkinson, in portraying an Egyptian mansion (Ancient them to be skinned and dressed for sacrifice. Thus we Egyptians, ii. 131), makes the grand entrance an archway. are informed by the Rabbinical writers, that in the
After this it seems unreasonable to doubt that the arch slaughter-place of the second temple, to the north of the was known to the Hebrews also, and was employed in altar, there were eight pillars of stone boarded with cedar, their buildings. Palestine was indeed better wooded than in each of which were fixed three rows of iron hooks, one Egypt; but still that there was a deficiency of wood suit- above another, and that from the higher hooks were susable for building and for roofs is shewn by the fact that pended the bullocks, from the next the rams, and from large importations of timber from the forests of Lebanon The lowest the lambs, when dressed for sacrifices. A large were necessary (2 Sam, vii. 2, 7; 1 Kings v. 6; 1 Chron. variety of instruments were employed in the ancient sacrixxii. 4; 2 Chron. ii. 3; Ezra iii. 7; Cant. i. 17), and fices. Of knives alone there were several kinds, and some that this imported timber, although of no very high qua- of these have a hooked shape in ancient paintings; and Jity, was held in great estimation. [APPENDIX, No. 74.] something of this sort might be intended here, unless the
43. · Hooks.'- It is probable that these hooks were at- above explanation should seem preferable. tached to posts, and that the victims were suspended from
about: the foundations of the side chambers
were a full reed of six great cubits. The measures, parts, chambers, and ornaments of the
9 The thickness of the wall, which was for temple.
the side chamber without, was five cubits: and AFTERWARD he brought me to the temple, that which was left was the place of the side and measured the posts, six cubits broad on chambers that were within. the one side, and six cubits broad on the 10 And between the chambers was the other side, which was the breadth of the taber wideness of twenty cubits round about the nacle.
house on every side. 2 And the breadth of the 'door was ten 11 And the doors of the side chambers cubits; and the sides of the door were five were toward the place that was left, one door cubits on the one side, and five cubits on the toward the north, and another door toward other side: and he measured the length the south : and the breadth of the place that thereof, forty cubits : and the breadth, twenty was left uas five cubits round about. cubits.
12 Now the building that was before the 3 Then went he inward, and measured the separate place at the end toward the west was post of the door, two cubits; and the door, seventy cubits broad; and the wall of the six cubits; and the breadth of the door, seven building was five cubits thick round about, cubits.
and the length thereof ninety cubits. 4 So he measured the length thereof, twenty 13 So he measured the house, an hundred cubits; and the breadth, twenty cubits, before cubits long; and the separate place, and the the temple : and he said unto me, This is building, with the walls thereof, an hundred the most holy place.
cubits long; 5 After he measured the wall of the house, 14 Also the breadth of the face of the six cubits; and the breadth of every side house, and of the separate place toward the chamber, four cubits, round about the house east, an hundred cubits. on every side.
15 And he measured the length of the 6 And the side chambers were three, 'one building over against the separate place which over another, and 'thirty in order ; and they was behind it, and the galleries thereof on entered into the wall which was of the house the one side and on the other side, an hundred for the side chambers round about, that they cubits, with the inner temple, and the porches might have hold, but they had not hold in
of the court ; the wall of the house.
16 The door posts, and the narrow windows, 7 And there was an enlarging, and a wind- and the galleries round about on their threc ing about still upward to the side chambers: stories, over against the door, "cieled with for the winding about of the house went still wood round about, and from the ground up upward round about the house : therefore the to the windows, and the windows were covered; breadth of the house was still upward, and so 17 To that above the door, even unto the increased from the lowest chamber to the inner house, and without, and by all the wall highest by the midst.
round about within and without, by 'measure. 8 I saw also the height of the house round 18 And it was made with cherubims and
1 Or, entrance.
9 Heb. side chamber over side chamber. 3 Or, three and thirty times, or, foot. 4 Heb. be holden. 3 Heb. it was made broader, and went round, 6 Or, several walks, or, walks with pillars.
7 Heb. cieling of wood.
O Heb, measures. 8 Or, and the ground unto the windows.
palm trees, so that a palm tree was between and the walls thereof, were of wood : and he à cherub and a cherub; and every cherub had said unto me, This is the table that is before two faces;
the LORD. 19 So that the face of a man was toward 23 And the temple and the sanctuary had the palm tree on the one side, and the face two doors. of a young lion toward the palm tree on the 24 And the doors had two leaves apiece, other side: it was made through all the house two turning leaves ; two leaves for the one round about.
door, and two leaves for the other door. 20 From the ground unto above the door 25 And there were made on them, on the were cherubims and palm trees made, and on doors of the temple, cherubims and palm the wall of the temple.
trees, like as were made upon the walls; and 21 The posts of the temple were squared, there were thick planks upon the face of the and the face of the sanctuary; the appearance porch without. of the one as the appearance of the other.
26 And there were narrow windows and 22 The altar of wood was three cubits palm trees on the one side and on the other high, and the length thereof two cubits; and side, on the sides of the porch, and upon the the corners thereof, and the length thereof, | side chambers of the house, and thick planks. .
10 Heb. post.
Verse 1. He brought me to the temple.'—Having now concluded his description of the exterior portion of the building, the angel proceeds to describe to the prophet its more important feature, the temple itself.
The tabernacle.'— The application is derived from the tabernacle of Moses, and is applied to the temple as its representative and as being applied to similar uses.
8. * A full reed of six greai cubits.”—This reed of six great cubits was that with which all the measurements were taken. Compare verse 5 of the preceding chapter, where this reed is called a measuring reed of six cubits long, by the cubit, and a hand's breadth. It has there been disputed whether the whole reed exceeded six cubits by a hand's breadth, or that each of the six cubits was a hand's breadth more than the common cubit. To us it seems that the present text decides for the latter alterna
tive, which is that also chosen by the Targum, followed by many Jewish and Christian interpreters. The distinction of measures (and also weights, as in our own troy and avoirdupois), great and small, has existed among different nations, ancient and modern, and was probably also found among the Hebrews. That there was such a distinction among the Babylonians, among whom the prophet was a captive, is attested by Herodotus, who so gives the measurement of the walls of Babylon in such a manner as to supply a parallel illustration of some interest. “The width of the wall is fifty royal cubits, and its height two hundred cubits: the royal cubit exceeds the common cubit by three fingers' breadth.' (Clio, 178.) It may not be impossible that this royal cubit' was the very measure called the 'great cubit' by the prophet.
the lower, and than the iniddlemost of the
building 1 The chambers for the priests. 13 The use thereof. 19 The measures of the outward court.
6 For they were in three stories, but had
not pillars as the pillars of the courts : thereThen he brought ne forth into the utter fore the building was straitened more than court, the way toward the north : and he the lowest and the middlemost from the brought me into the chamber that was over ground. against the separate place, and which was 7 And the wall that was without over before the building toward the north.
against the chambers, toward the utter court 2 Before the length of an hundred cubits on the forepart of the chambers, the length was the north door, and the breadth was fifty thereof was fifty cubits. cubits.
8 For the length of the chambers that were 3 Over against the twenty cubits which were in the utter court was fifty cubits : and, lo, for the inner court, and over against the before the temple were an hundred cubits. pavement which was for the utter court, was 9 And 'from under these chambers was gallery against gallery in three stories. *the entry on the east side, 'as one goeth into
4 And before the chambers was a walk of them from the utter court. ten cubits breadth inward, a way of one cubit; 10 The chambers were in the thickness of and their doors toward the north.
the wall of the court toward the east, over 5 Now the upper chambers were shorter: against the separate place, and over against for the galleries 'were higher than these, “than the building. i Or, did eat of these. 2 Or, and the building consisted of the lower and the middlemost. 3 Or, from the place. 4 Or he that brought me.
5 Or, as he came.
11 And the way before them was like the holy; and shall put on other garments, and appearance of the chambers which were to
shall approach to those things which are for ward the north, as long as they, and as broad the people. as they : and all their goings out were both 15 T Now when he had made an end of according to their fashions, and according to measuring the inner house, he brought me their doors.
forth toward the gate whose prospect is toward 12 And according to the doors of the the east, and measured it round about. chambers that were toward the south was a 16 He measured the east side with the door in the head of the way, even the way measuring reed, five hundred reeds, with the directly before the wall toward the east, as measuring reed round about. one entereth into them.
17 He measured the north side, five hun13 Then said he unto me, The north dred reeds, with the measuring reed round chambers and the south chambers, which are about. before the separate place, they be holy cham- 18 He measured the south side, five hurbers, where the priests that approach unto the dred reeds, with the measuring reed. LORD shall eat the most holy things: there 19 He turned about to the west side, shall they lay the most holy things, and the and measured five hundred reeds with the meat offering, and the sin offering, and the measuring reed. trespass offering ; for the place is holy.
20 He measured it by the four sides : it 14 When the priests enter therein, then had a wall round about, five hundred reeds shall they not go out of the holy place into long, and five hundred broad, to make a the utter court, but there they shall lay their separation between the sanctuary and the garments wherein they minister ; for they are profane place.
6 Heb. wind.
Verse 14. 'Not go out of the holy place into the utter the probability is, that they wore the common dress of the court.'—That is, the priests, while employed in their sacred time, being, as the Targum expresses it, ' mingled with services, or eating the holy offerings, were forbidden to the people. The Jewish writers favour the opinion that interrupt their functions by going into the outer courts. the priests appeared in the common dress of private per
• There they shall lay their garments wherein they sons when not officiating. The Rabbinical writers say minister.'-- From this it appears still more clearly than that the priestly, wardrobe was kept by a priest, whose from Exod. xxviii., that the priests did not ordinarily duty it was to deliver out and receive back the sacerdotal wear any of the sacred garments in which they discharged vestments, the several articles of which were kept sepatheir sacred functions. Whether there was any thing in rately in chests in an apartment appropriated to the their dress which distinguished them in common life from purpose, each chest having on it the name of the article the mass of the people does not appear in Scripture ; but of dress which it contained, so that there was no confusion certainly they wore none of their sacred habiliments; and or mistake when the dresses were wanted.
4 And the glory of the Lord came into 1 The returning of the glory of God into the temple.
the house by the way of the gate whose pros7 The sin of Israel hindered God's presence. 10 pect is toward the east. The prophet exhorteth them to repentance, and ob- | 5. So the spirit took me up, and brought servation of the law of the house.
13 The measures,
me into the inner court; and, behold, the 18 and the ordinances of the altar.
glory of the LORD filled the house. AFTERWARD he brought me to the gate, even 6° And I heard him speaking unto me out the gate that looketh toward the east : of the house; and the man stood by me.
2 And, behold, the glory of the God of 7 1 And he said unto me, Son of man, the Israel came from the way of the east: and place of my throne, and the place of the soles 'his voice was like a noise of many waters : of my feet, where I will dwell in the midst of and the earth shined with his glory.
the children of Israel for ever, and my holy 3 And it was 'according to the appearance name, shall the house of Israel no more defile, of the vision which I saw, even according to neither they, nor their kings, by their whorethe vision that I saw 'when I came to destroy dom, nor by the carcases of their kings in the city: and the visions were like the vision their high places. that I saw by the river Chebar; and I fell 8 In their setting of their threshold by my
thresholds, and their post by my posts, and 1 Chap. 4. 21. 9 Chap. 1, 4, and 8, 4. 3 Or, when I came to prophesy that the city should be destroyed. See chap, 9. 2, 5.
Or, for there was but a wall between me and them.
upon my face.
the wall between me and them, they have even cubit about; and his stairs shall look toward defiled my holy name by their abominations the east. that they have committed : wherefore I have 18 | And he said unto me, Son of man, consumed them in mine anger.
thus saith the Lord God; These are the or9 Now let them put away their whoredom, dinances of the altar in the day when they and the carcases of their kings, far from me, shall make it, to offer burnt offerings thereon, and I will dwell in the midst of them for ever. and to sprinkle blood thereon.
10 I Thou son of man, shew the house to 19 And thou shalt give to the priests the the house of Israel, that they may be ashamed Levites that be of the seed of Zadok, which of their iniquities : and let them measure the approach unto me, to minister unto me, saith 'pattern.
the Lord God, a young bullock for a sin 11 And if they be ashamed of all that they offering. have done, shew them the form of the house, 20 And thou shalt take of the blood thereof, and the fashion thereof, and the goings out and put it on the four horns of it, and on the thereof, and the comings in thereof, and all four corners of the settle, and upon the border the forms thereof, and all the ordinances round about: thus shalt thou cleanse and thereof, and all the forms thereof, and all the purge it. laws thereof: and write it in their sight, that 21 Thou shalt take the bullock also of the they may keep the whole form thereof, and all sin offering, and he shall burn it in the apthe ordinances thereof, and do them.
pointed place of the house, without the sanc12 This is the law of the house ; Upon the tuary. top of the mountain the whole limit thereof 22 And on the second day thou shalt offer round about shall be most holy. Behold, this a kid of the goats without blemish for a sin is the law of the house.
offering; and they shall cleanse the altar, as 13 | And these are the measures of the they did cleanse it with the bullock. altar after the cubits: The cubit is a cubit 23 When thou hast made an end of cleansand an hand breadth ; even the bottom shall ing it, thou shalt offer a young bullock without be a cubit, and the breadth a cubit, and the blemish, and a ram out of the flock without border thereof by the 'edge thereof round blemish. about shall be a span : and this shall be the 24 And thou shalt offer them before the higher place of the altar.
LORD, and the priests shall cast salt upon 14 And from the bottom upon the ground them, and they shall offer them up for a burnt even to the lower settle shall be two cubits, and offering unto the LORD. the breadth one cubit; and from the lesser 25 Seven days shalt thou prepare every settle even to the greater settle shall be four day a goat for a sin offering: they shall also cubits, and the breadth one cubit.
prepare a young bullock, and a ram out of 15 So the altar shall be four cubits; and the flock, without blemish. from the altar and upward shall be four 26 Seven days shall they purge the altar horns.
and purify it; and they shall consecrate 16 And the altar shall be twelve cubits themselves. long, twelve broad, square in the four squares 27 And when these days are expired, it thereof.
shall be, that upon the eighth day, and so 17 And the settle shall be fourteen cubits forward, the priests shall make your burnt long and fourteen broad in the four squares offerings upon the altar, and your "peace thereof; and the border about it shall be half offerings ; and I will accept you, saith the a cubit ; and the bottom thereof shall be a Lord God. 5 Or, sum, or, number. 6 Heb, bosom.
7 Heb. lip.
Heb. Harel, that is, the mountain of God. 9 Heb, Ariel, that is, the lion of God,
11 Or, thank offerings.
10 Heb. fill their hands.
Verse 2. • Came from the way of the cast.'— In allusion, as the Jewish writers understand, to the restoration of the people of Israel from the Babylonish captivity ; Babylon İying to the eastward from Palestine.
- The earth shined with his glory.'—Or rather, “and the land shined with his glory'-alluding to Palestine which was to become more glorious at the period of the second temple than of the first. Compare Hagg. ii. 9. We have here the same fact differently expressed.
3. · When I came to destroy the city.-That is, when he came to prophesy that the city should be destroyed. This is a strong and remarkable instance of what occurs several times in the writings of the prophets, who express themselves as doing, or having done, that which they were commissioned to foretel or declare. Some other instances of this practice have been noticed as they occurred. 7. • By the carcuses of their kings.'—Michaelis, appa