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the people among whoin they are scattered, yea, they shall dwell with confidence, when and shall be sanctified in them in the sight I have executed judgments upon all those of the heathen, then shall they dwell in their that despise them round about them; and land that I have given to my servant Jacob. they shall know that I am the LORD their

26 And they shall dwell "safely therein, God. and shall build houses, and plant vineyards ;

9 Or, with confidence.

10 Or, spoil.

resembles the horns of Astarte on the coins and medals of Phænicia. The disk was the badge of a prince; inferior ranks were represented by the horns only. This may form an additional illustration to those already given of the common Scriptural phrases respecting the lifting up of

Verse 5. By thy great wisdom and by thy traffick hast thou increased ihy riches.'— It will be observed that the early part of this chapter is addressed to the prince' or ‘king of Tyre.' Heeren, with reference to these verses, observes : The prophet Ezekiel, in his prophecy against the king of Tyre, makes us acquainted with the power of the sovereign of that city: He represents him as a powerful prince, surrounded with great splendour, but, faithful to the spirit of commercial states, filling his coffers by commerce, and conforming himself at first to the maxims of political wisdom, but soon degenerating into cunning and injustice, the chastisement of which was foretold and duly received. It also results from this remarkable passage, that the revenues of the Tyrian kings, and doubtless those of other Phænician cities, were founded upon commerce: but we are uninformed whether they arose from dues and customs, or from monopolies exercised by the sovereign, or whether from both sources at once.'

13. Every precious stone was thy covering.—This verse seems to shew, in a very striking manner, the pitch to which luxury and splendour had arrived among the princely merchants of Tyre.

22. . Zidon.'—See the account of Zidon given under Josh. xix., with an engraving, representing the modern town. The Zidonians, like the Tyrians, are believed to be represented in the paintings of Egypt, where they usually appear as allies of the Egyptians. In personai appearance they are represented as a fine muscular race, with features resembling those of the Tyrians and Arvadites. Their statesmen and merchants wore the hair of the head and beard long, with the fillet around the head. The warriors cut their hair, beard, and whiskers short. Their arms and accoutrements were worthy of the fame and wealth of this great city. The helmet was of silver, with a singular ornament at the crown, consisting of a disk and two horns of a heifer, or of the crescent moon. This symbol is not like anything worn in Egypt, but strikingly

ZIDONIANS.

the horn, etc. See the Note on 1 Sam. The armour consisted of plates of some white metal, probably silver, quilted upon a white linen garment. The shield was large and circular, like that of the Philistines. It was of iron rimmed with gold, and ornamented with studs or bosses of the same metal. The sword, which was of bronze, was two-edged, and shaped like the modern poniard. The spear was a long lance. See Osborn's Egypt, pp. 119, 120.

CHAPTER XXIX.

river is mine own, and I have made it for

myself. 1 The judgment of Pharaoh for his treachery to Israel. 8 l'he desolation of Egypt.

4 But I will put hooks in thy jaws, and I

13 The restoration thereof after forty years. 17 Egypt the reward of thy scales, and I will bring thee up out of the

will cause the fish of thy rivers to stick unto be

midst of thy rivers, and all the fish of thy In the tenth year, in the tenth month, in the rivers shall stick unto thy scales. twelfth day of the month, the word of the 5 And I will leave thee thrown into the Lord came unto me, saying,

wilderness, thee and all the fish of thy rivers : 2 Son of man, set thy face against Pharaoh thou shalt fall upon the "open fields ; thou king of Egypt, and prophesy against him, and shalt not be brought together, nor gathered : against all Egypt :

I have given thee for meat to the beasts of the 3 Speak, and say, Thus saith the Lord field and to the fowls of the heaven. God; Behold, I am against thee, Pharaoh 6 And all the inhabitants of Egypt shall king of Egypt, the great 'dragon that lieth in know that I am the LORD, because they have the midst of his rivers, which hath said, My been a 'staff of reed to the house of Israel.

2 Heb. face of the field.

8 2 Kings 18. 21. Isa. 36. 6.

1 Psal. 74, 13, 14. Isa. 27. 1, and 51. 9. VOL. III.

2

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7 When they took hold of thee by thy 15 It shall be the basest of the kingdoms; hand, thou didst break, and rend all their neither shall it exalt itself any more above the shoulder: and when they leaned upon thee, nations: for I will diminish them, that they thou brakest, and madest all their loins to shall no more rule over the nations. be at a stand.

16 And it shall be no more the confidence 8 4 Therefore thus saith the Lord God; of the house of Israel, which bringeth their Behold, I will bring a sword upon thee, and iniquity to remembrance, when they shall look cut off man and beast out of thee.

after them: but they shall know that I am 9 And the land of Egypt shall be desolate the Lord God. and waste; and they shall know that I am 17 | And it came to pass in the seven and the LORD: because he hath said, The river is twentieth year, in the first month, in the first mine, and I have made it.

day of the month, the word of the LORD came 10 Behold, therefore I am against thee, unto me, saying, and against thy rivers, and I will make the 18 Son of man, Nebuchadrezzar king of land of Egypt utterly waste and desolate, Babylon caused his army to serve a great from the tower of 'Syene even unto the border service against Tyrus : every head was made of Ethiopia.

bald, and every shoulder was peeled: yet 11 No foot of man shall pass through it, had he no wages, nor his army, for Tyrus, nor foot of beast shall pass through it, neither for the service that he had served against shall it be inhabited forty years.

12 And I will make the land of Egypt 19 Therefore thus saith the Lord God; desolate in the midst of the countries that are Behold, I will give the land of Egypt unto desolate, and her cities among the cities that Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon; and he are laid waste shall be desolate forty years : shall take her multitude, and take her spoil, and I will scatter the Egyptians among the and take her prey; and it shall be the wages nations, and will disperse them through the countries.

20 I have given him the land of Egypt 13 Yet thus saith the Lord God; At the for his labour wherewith he served against 'end of forty years will I gather the Egyp- it, because they wrought for me, saith the tians from the people whither they were scat- Lord God. tered :

21 [ In that day will I cause the horn of 14 And I will bring again the captivity of the house of Israel to bud forth, and I will Egypt, and will cause them to return into give thee the opening of the mouth in the the land of Pathros, into the land of their midst of them; and they shall know that I 'habitation ; and they shall be there a "base am the LORD. kingdom.

it:

for his army.

4 Heb, wastes of waste.

8 Heb, low.

5 Heb. Seveneh. 6 Isa. 19. 23. Jer. 46. 26.

7 Or, birth. 9 Hob. spoil her spoil, and prey her prey. 10 Or, for his hire.

Verse 3. ' The great dragon that lieth in the midst of his convey the sense of the original, which is correctly rivers.'-The crocodile is doubtless alluded to. This given by Newcome,– From Migdol to Syene, even to the animal is elsewhere, and very properly, made to repre- border of Ethiopia. Migdol, rendered tower' in our sent the Egyptian king; and it is remarkable that it was version, but which should be preserved as a proper name, also used among the ancients as a symbol of Egypt, and was in the north of Egypt, while Syene was at its southappears as such upon some Roman coins.

era frontier ; so • from Migdol to Syene' is an expression *My river is mine own.'— This was the Nile, which for describing the whole extent of the country, analogous here symbolizes the kingdom of Egypt, as the crocodile in to · from Dan to Beersheba. The cataracts (or rather it does the king. The king alluded to is doubtless Apries, the first cataract) of the Nile, which occur above this the Pharaoh-hophra of Scripture; and it well deserves place, and the difficult navigation of the river, make a observation how exactly this vaunting language agrees natural boundary-line, so that Syene (now called Assouan) with the character which Herodotus gives of the same has under all governments been considered the frontierking. He considered himself so securely established, town of Egypt in this direction. Speaking more strictly, that he is said to have been of opinion that it was beyond the boundary may be said to be formed by the mighty the power of a god to deprive him of his kingdom.' terraces of that peculiar kind of reddish granite, called (Euterpe, 169.) Yet he was deprived of it by a God syenite from the name of the place. These terraces, shaped whom he knew not. See the account which has been into peaks, stretch across the bed of the Nile, and over given of his affairs under Jer. xliv. 30. The verses which them the great river rolls its foaming stream, forming the follow evidently refer to the same events which Jeremiah cataracts so often mentioned in every description of Egypt. foretold.

It was from the quarries at this place that the Egyptians 10. From the tower of Syene even unto the border of obtained the stone so frequently employed by them in Ethiopia.'-Syene itself being the last town of Egypt their obelisks and colossal statues. The town of Syene towards the frontier of Ethiopia, this version does not long retained its importance with a very considerable

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Assouan (SYENE). population. Ruins of works and buildings, by the suc- has been subject to the most intense oppression from a cessive masters of the land, the Pharaohs, the Ptolemies, foreign body of people. Egypt has indeed been an indethe Romans, and the Arabians, are still seen on and pendent kingdom under the Ptolemies and the Saracens, around the site of the old town, which the present town and it may be possible that the present ruler should so closely adjoins on the north, that the northern wall of establish its independence. But this matters not: for the old town forms the southern one of the new. The these independent sovereigns in Egypt were foreigners, removal is said to have been made in the year 1403 A.D. surrounded by people of their own nation, who engrossed (806 A.H.), in consequence of a plague, which destroyed all wealth, power and distinction; leaving Egypt as a 21,000 of the inhabitants; from which the importance of country, and the proper Egyptians as a people, oppressed the place, down to comparatively later times, may be es- and miserable. This is surely a marked fulfilment of timated. The scenery in this part is very striking :— The prophecy, delivered at a time when Egypt, under its own river is rocky here, and the navigation, by night at least, kings, great and magnificent, took no second place among dangerous. At the pass of Assouan, ruin and devastation the nations. And further, where is the nation against reign around. This pass, which nature has so well forti. which the prophecies were delivered? The present infied, seems ill-treated by man. Hardly anything was to habitants of the country are altogether a different people. be seen but the vast remains of the old town of Syene, with The descendants of the ancient Egyptians have usually mud-built walls and hovels on every side. Rocks, form- been sought in the Copts, a body of people

few in number, ing islands, were in the middle of the stream, upon which who act as shopkeepers, etc., in Egypt. But since opporshrubs were growing. The scene altogether was wild tunities have been obtained of comparing their persons and forlorn. In the distance appear high mountains, or with the sculptures and statues representing the form and masses of stone; with trees, corn, and grass, of great appearance of the ancient Egyptians, their claim to this height, extending to the water's edge. Madox's Excur- distinction has been much weakened ; and if it be set sions in the Holy Land, Egypt, etc. i. 285-6.

aside, it remains undetermined where the remuant of the 15. It shall" be the basest of the kingdoms.'—By this, old Egyptian nation should be sought, if any remnant still and as usually explained, we are to understand that Egypt survives. That, if it does not exist in the Copts, it is not should speedily become, and should long remain, subject now to be found in the present Egypt, is, however, agreed, to oppressing strangers. And how markedly this has On this point see the observations of Dr. Richardson, and been accomplished, the slightest acquaintance with history also the curious account given by Dr. Madden ( Travels, ii. suffices to evince! For more than two thousand years 91-95) of the results obtained by the comparison and Egypt has ever been subject to a succession of foreign measurement of the heads of twelve adult mummies with governors. Under the Persians, the Egyptians were the heads of twelve living Copts and Nubians. The reallowed at first to retain their own kings, by becoming sult seems as decisive against the Copts as that obtained tributary to the conquerors; repeated attempts, however, from a comparison of their forms exhibited in ancient having been made by the Egyptians to re-establish their paintings and sculptures; but whether equally in favour own independence, it was finally annexed by the Persians of the Nubians, as the descendants of the ancient Egyptians, to their empire as a province, governed by Persians. as Madden and others incline to suppose, seems a question Such it remained, till it was conquered by Alexander, not so well determined, nor is the investigation required whose successors established a royal dynasty in Egypt, for our present purpose. from the termination of which, through the long series of 18. Every head was made bald'— from disease, or ages down to our own time, Egypt has never lifted its from continual wearing of the helmet, or from both. Or head in independence, but, under its successive foreign it may express the duration of the siege, which was such rulers—the Romans, Arabians, Mamelukes, and Turks that, in the ordinary course of human life, those who were full haired men when it commenced, might become bald siege. Burdens were usually carried upon the shoulder, before it closed. Its duration was thirteen years.

or by yokes which the shoulders supported. Every shoulder was peeled'- from excessive and No wages for Tyrus.'—See the note on Jer. continued labour in carrying burdens for the work of the xliii. 10.

CHAPTER XXX.

is therein, by the hand of strangers : I the 1 The desolation of Egypt and her helpers.

Lord) have spoken it.

20 The arm of Babylon shall be strengthened to break the

13 Thus saith the Lord God; I will also arm of Egypt.

'destroy the idols, and I will cause their

images to cease out of Noph; and there shall The word of the LORD came again unto me, be no more a prince of the land of Egypt: saying,

and I will put a fear in the land of Egypt. 2 Son of man, prophesy and say, Thus 14 And I will make Pathros desolate, and saith the Lord God; Howl ye, Woe worth will set fire in ®Zoan, and will execute judgthe day!

ments in No. 3 For the day is near, even the day of the 15 And I will pour my fury upon 'Sin, Lord is near, a cloudy day; it shall be the the strength of Egypt; and I will cut off the time of the heathen.

multitude of No. 4 And the sword shall come upon Egypt, 16 And I will set fire in Egypt: Sin shall and great 'pain shall be in Ethiopia, when the have great pain, and No shall be rent asunder, slain shall fall in Egypt, and they shall take and Noph shall have distresses daily. away her multitude, and her foundations shall 17 The young men of "'Aven and of ''Pibe broken down.

beseth shall fall by the sword : and these 5 Ethiopia, and 'Libya, and Lydia, and cities shall go into captivity. all the mingled people, and Chub, and the 18 At Tehaplinehes also the day shall be Sinen of the land that is in league, shall fall darkened, when I shall break there the with them by the sword.

yokes of Egypt: and the pomp of her strength 6 Thus saith the LORD; They also that shall cease in her : as for her, a cloud shall uphold Egypt shall fall; and the pride of her cover her, and her daughters shall go into power shall come down: from the tower of captivity. Syene shall they fall in it by the sword, saith 19 Thus will I execute judgments in the Lord God.

Egypt: and they shall know that I am the 7. And they shall be desolate in the midst Lord. of the countries that are desolate, and her 20 9 And it came to pass in the eleventh cities shall be in the midst of the cities that year, in the first month, in the seventh day of are wasted.

the month, that the word of the Lord came 8 And they shall know that I am the unto me, saying, LORD, when I have set a fire in Egypt, and 21 Son of man, I have broken the arm of when all her helpers shall be 'destroyed. Pharaoh king of Egypt; and, lo, it shall not

9 In that day shall messengers go_forth be bound up to be healed, to put a roller to from me in ships to make the careless Ethio-bind it, to make it strong to hold the sword. pians afraid, and great pain shall come upon 22 Therefore thus saith the Lord God; them, as in the day of Egypt: for, lo, it Behold, I am against Pharaoh king of Egypt, cometh.

and will break his arms, the strong, and 10 Thus saith the Lord God; I will also that which was broken ; and I will cause the make the multitude of Egypt to cease by the sword to fall out of his hand. hand of Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon.

23 And I will scatter the Egyptians among 11 He and his people with him, the ter- the nations, and will disperse them through rible of the nations, shall be brought to the countries. destroy the land : and they shall draw their 24 And I will strengthen the arms of the swords against Egypt, and fill the land with king of Babylon, and put my sword in his the slain.

hand: but I will break Pharaoh's arms, and 12 And I will make the rivers 'dry, and he shall groan before him with the groanings sell the land into the hand of the wicked : of a deadly wounded man. and I will make the land waste, and 'all that 25 But I will strengthen the arms of the i Or, fear.

5 Heb. drought. 6 Heb. the fulness thereof, 8 Or, Tanis.

10 Or, Heliopolis. 11 Or, Pubastum. 12 Or, restrained.

4 Heb. broken.

2 Heb. Phut. 7 Zech. 13. 2.

3 Heb. children,

9 Or, Pelusium.

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king of Babylon, and the arms of Pharaoh 26 And I will scatter the Egyptians among shall fall down; and they shall know that I the nations, and disperse them among the am the LORD, when I shall put my sword into countries ; and they shall know that I am the the hand of the king of Babylon, and he shall LORD. stretch it out upon the land of Egypt.

Verse 14. • Zoan.'— See Num, xiii. 22. Some other Egyptian names which here occur have already passed under our notice: we shall now attend to those which have not previously engaged our attention.

17. Aven.'—This place is mentioned by several names in Scripture.- By On, which seems to have been the native Egyptian name, and which occurs in the history of Joseph, who married a daughter of the priest of On, a fact which shews the extreme antiquity of the place. (See the note and cut under Gen. xli. 45.) The destruction of the city, the temple, and the people, which Jeremiah and Ezekiel foretold, was probably accomplished by Nebuchadnezzar.

Pi-beseth: -The Seventy regard this as the famous city of Bubastis, on the Pelusiac branch of the Nile; and their conclusion has, in this instance, been generally admitted. Bubastis derived its name and celebrity from a magnificent temple, dedicated to the goddess Bubastis, of which a particular description has been given by Herodotus (Euterpe, 138). He identifies Bubastis with Diana, and describes (40) the annual festival celebrated at this place in her honour. The site still bears the name of Tel

bastah ; but the great mass of ruins is rather more than half a mile west of the Tel at Chobra and Heryeh. There is no portion of any standing edifice remaining. All is overthrown, and the wide-spread rubbish affords the only remaining evidence of the ancient splendour of Bubastis. The direction of the ruins can, however, easily be traced, and they correspond precisely to the ancient intimations concerning Bubastis.

18. Tehaphnehes.'—We have already mentioned this as usually, and on what appears good grounds, identified with Daphnæ Pelusiæ, not far from Pelusium, and on the eastern branch of the Nile, which took its name from that city. It appears from Jer. xliii. that the kings of Egypt had a royal residence at this town, though there is no record that it was ever considered a capital city. The desolation of the ancient city is so complete, that the site now offers nothing that calls for notice. Tyrius, as cited by Adrichomius (Theatrum Terra Sanctæ, p. 125), says that the site was in his time occupied by a very small town; as it is at present by a poor village, called Safnas,-a manifest modification of the ancient name.

CHAPTER XXXI.

length of his branches: for his root was by 1 A relation unto Pharaoh, 3 of the glory of Assyria,

great waters. 10 and the fall thereof for pride. 18 The like de

8 The cedars in the garden of God could struction of Egypt.

not hide him: the fir trees were not like his

boughs, and the chesnut trees were not like And it came to pass in the eleventh year, in his branches ; nor any tree in the garden of the third month, in the first day of the month, God was like unto him in his beauty. that the word of the LORD came unto me, 9 I bave made him fair by the multitude saying,

of his branches : so that all the trees of Eden, 2 Son of man, speak unto Pharaoh king of that were in the garden of God, envied him. Egypt, and to his multitude; Whom art thou 10 Therefore thus saith the Lord God; like in thy greatness ?

Because thou hast lifted up thyself in height, 3 Behold, the Assyrian was a cedar in and he hath shot up his top among the thick Lebanon 'with fair branches, and with a boughs, and his heart is lifted up in his shadowing shroud, and of an high stature ; height; and his top was among the thick boughs.

11 I have therefore delivered him into the 4 The waters *made him great, the deep hand of the mighty one of the heathen; "he oset him up on high with her rivers running shall surely deal with him : I have driven round about his plants, and sent out her 'little him out for his wickedness. rivers unto all the trees of the field.

12 And strangers, the terrible of the 5 Therefore his height was exalted above nations, have cut him off, and have left him : all the trees of the field, and his bouglis were upon the mountains and in all the valleys his multiplied, and his branches became long branches are fallen, and his boughs are broken because of the multitude of waters, 'when he by all the rivers of the land ; and all the shot forth.

people of the earth are gone down from his 6 All the fowls of heaven made their nests shadow, and have left him. in his boughs, and under his branches did all 13 Upon his ruin shall all the fowls of the the beasts of the field bring forth their young, heaven remain, and all the beasts of the field and under his shadow dwelt all great nations. shall be upon his branches : 7 Thus was he fair in his greatness, in the 14 To the end that none of all the trees by | Heb. fair of branches.

3 Or, brought him up.

5 Or, when it sent them forth. 8 Heb, in doing he shall do unto him.

2 Or, nourished. 6 Dan, 4.

4 Or, conduits.

7 Gen. 2.

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