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upon a tack, may have led to the disuse of oars in sailing of which any representations remain. This indeed affords vessels. One thing that the reader will not fail to notice, an important circumstance in explaining one cause of the is the small size of all the vessels which our cuts exhibit. slowness of ancient navigation; for as the ships did not This observation equally applies to all vessels of this class afford mach room for the stowage of provisions, they were
necessarily so inadequately victualled, that they were frequently obliged to stop on the coast to obtain fresh supplies of food. Herodotus, in describing the circumnavigation of Africa in the time of Necho, says that the fleet stopped at some point on the African coast, where the mariners sowed corn, and having awaited the harvest and reaped it, again set sail. Whatever credit be due to this single circumstance, the mere existence of the story demonstrates the delays which arose from this cause. Major Rennell,
7. EGYPTIAN SHIP.- From Sculptures in the Grotto of
10. The Building of the Argo.
8. GALLEY.-- From a Painting on the walls of Pompeii.
9. Bas-relief on the Tomb of Nævolei Tyche.
11. Sup.–From a Painting on the Walls of Pompeii.
with reference to the same anecdote, has an important observation, which we cannot forbear to quote: It appears that the principal difficulty to be surmounted in ancient voyages, arose from the impracticability of stowing the ships with provisions adequate to the vast length of time required for their navigations, when the rate of sailing was so remarkably slow. They were ill adapted to distant voyages (which indeed they seldom undertook): but did very well in situations where they could land and command provisions almost at pleasure. But, on the other hand, they were better adapted to those coasting voyages which constituted almost the whole of their navigations. The fatness of their bottoms required much less water than modern vessels of the like tonnage; whence arose an incredible advantage over ours, in finding shelter more frequently; and, indeed, almost everywhere except on a steep or rocky shore; since, in default of shelter afloat, they drew their larye ships up on the beach, as our fishermen do their large boats. And we may certainly conclude that vessels of a construction and size the best adapted to the service of discovery and long voyages were chosen on occasions like the present.' This occasion was the alleged circumpavigation of Africa by the Phænicians, under the direction of Pharaoh. Necho; and the observation is of course applicable to the vessels employed by the same parties in the navigation to Ophir in co-operation with the Hebrew king. The construction of the bottoms, to which Rennell refers, is shewn in the annexed coin (of Roman Africa), which shews more of the hull than the other cuts, and otherwise forms an interesting illustration of the general subject.
have been caulked with linen, and the whole exterior of the vessel to have been carefully coated with Greek pitch, over which was laid an external sheathing of lead, rolled or beaten to a proper degree of thinness, and closely attached to the planking by means of small copper nails.
11. • The men of Arvad with thine army,' etc.- In this verse the regular soldiers in the pay of Tyre are described as stationed upon the walls and in the towers, and as hanging upon the walls round about. This is in accordance with existing usages in the East, the soldiers when not in active service being distributed in large numbers as guards about the walls of places, particularly in the towers and at the gates. Niebuhr states that the foot-soldiers of the imad of Yemen having very little to do in times of peace, any more than the cavalry, soine of them mounted guard at the dela's, or governor's; they are also employed at the gates and upon the towers. Van Egmont and Hey. man give a similar account. Sandys, speaking of the decorations of one of the gates of the imperial seraglio in Constantinople, tells us, that it is hung with shields and scimiters. Through this gate people pass to the divan, where justice is administered; and these are the ornaments of this public passage. A people supposed to be the Arvadites are represented in the ancient Egyptian mural tablets which depict the victories of Sethos; but they are so much mutilated that very few particulars respecting their arms and accoutrements can be collected from them. We can see, however, that they do not appear to have generally worn defensive armour in battle. A scull-cap, with a small feather or tail at the crown, used by chiefs only, is the only accoutrement of this kind that appears. The shield was oblong and somewhat large. Their weapons seem to have been the bow and the spear. They appear to have had a considerable force of war-chariots,
9. • Calkers.'-As a means of preventing water from making its way between the planking, a stuffing or caulking was early found necessary. The first application for this purpose among the Greeks is said to have been nothing drawn by two horses, and generally resembling in form more than the use of sea-shells which were reduced to those of the Egyptians. These particulars do not all ap. powder, mixed up into the state of a paste, and introduced pear in the present engraving, which represents a body of into the chinks: being liable, however, to crack, by the the same people in the act of tendering their submission yielding of the vessel, this composition fell out by degrees, of a fort violently assaulted by Rameses II., the son of and soon failed to answer its purpose. The next step was Sethos. The attire, so far as seen, appears to bear conto burn the lime, as a means of making the mortar more siderable resemblance to that of the Tyrians themselves ; adhesive ; and afterwards wax and pitch were employed. but the reader will not fail to notice the remarkable apA far better plan, and one nearly in conformity with mo- pendage of a cross from the neck of the aged man at the dern practice, was found to consist in the use of the coarse left corner, who holds up an instrument or badge (perhaps a outer fibres of the flax-plant; bruised and divided by being lighted torch), which we know from other examples to have beaten with a mallet, and driven in between the planks of been a token of surrender. Women are seen among those the ship. The bottom of the vessel was also, in some cases, who implore the mercy of the victor. [APPENDIX, No. 71.] coated with a layer of melted wax or pitch. In others, as 12. • Tarshish:—Whatever may be sometimes the more is stated by Maurice, the ship-builders were accustomed extended signification of Tarshish,' it is probably here to to use hides, properly prepared and hardened for the pur- be understood with reference to Tartessus in Spain (see pose, which, being stretched and firmly attached to the the note on 2 Chron. ix.), as the articles mentioned are bottom, served as a species of sheathing, and, being well such as the Phænicians obtained from Spain, or from the graved or covered with a sufficient coat of resin or pitch, coasts on the Atlantic to which they traded ; and the comproved a very considerable protection to it against those modities of which they appear to have brought in the first injuries which would have arisen from the salt
water being instance to Tartessus, where the cargoes seem to have been in constant contact with it.'
finally made up for Tyre. It is well to understand that A curious proof has been brought to light of the existence Tartessus was not only the port for the products of Spain, of the modern practice of caulking' and 'sheathing' ships but the general entrepôt for the western commerce of the in early times. Trajan's galley was dug up from the Lake Phænicians. The tin probably came from Britain. Riccio in Italy, after having lain there thirteen hundred 13. “Javan, Tubal, and Meshech.'—Javan has already years; and, on being excavated, the seams were found to been explained to mean Greece, in the large sense. With respect to the other names, we see no reason to dissent Dedan mentioned below (verse 20), which appears clearly, from the opinion that they designate countries situated from the connection, to be that of Arabia, between and near the Black and Caspian Seas. This is • Horns of ivory and ebony'— Horns' of ivory would very much confirmed by the fact that the merchandises mean tusks, from their resemblance to horns; but, indeed, named continue to be those of the same countries. The the better aud more received reading is .horns, ivory, and inhabitants of the north-east angle of Asia Minor have ebony. What the .horns' were has been disputed. Some beeu in all ages, and still are, the manufacturers of steel, have it to be the horns of the ibex, or some other kind of iron, and brass, for the supply of Armenia, Persia, Greece, goat. However, it is not pecessary to suppose that horns and the eastern countries of the Mediterranean; and the are actually intended. That the substance resembled Caucasian countries have always been a source from which horn, or that the article bore the shape of a horn, are proa highly-valued class of slaves was drawn. The race of bable alternatives. Hence some suggest tortoise-shell; men inhabiting this region has always been considered and Heeren, following Michaelis, proposes the tusks of eminent for personal comeliness; and in this kind of com- the narwal, which is found in the Indian Ocean. All merce this consideration has been much regarded. The these products might, it seems, be derived from the coasts important part which the male slaves from these countries of Ethiopia, as well as from India; but whether Dedan be have taken in the Turkish empire is well known; and placed in the Persian Gulf, or near it on the coast of Aranone are ignorant that the harams of the rich Turks and bia, it is equally allowed that they were derived in this Persians have always been filled, in preference, with fe- instance from India. The best kind of ebony, at least, male slaves from Georgia and Circassia. It seems, from seems to have been by the Romans regarded as peculiar to the present text, that the Tyrians obtained slaves and ves- India. Thus, Virgil, sels of brass, as well intermediately through the Greeks
India alone will the dark ebon bear.' as directly from the native merchants. This verse seems
Georg. ii. 117.-SOTHEBY. to intimate, as do other passages of Scripture, that the domestic vessels of these times were chiefly of brass or cop- That ebony is intended by the digan habenim of the text, per. We found this to be still the case wherever we went. is one of the least doubtful of the conclusions concerning the Vessels of iron and tin, so common amoug ourselves, are not seen, In the countries indicated in this verse, the
botanical products mentioned in the Bible. The similarity
of the names alone is of great weight with regard to an vessels not intended for the fire are of polished brass, but in Western Asia generally of tinned copper.
Oriental production, the name of which usually passed
with the article itself into Greece; and the derivation of 14. • Togarmah traded in thy fairs with horses.”—Togar- the names bevos, ebenum, ebony, from the Hebrew habenim, mah, we believe, with Michaelis, to have been Armenia. This region was in very ancient times celebrated for its horses. It was in this country and Media that the Persian kings bred horses for themselves and their armies; and in later times the Armenians paid their tribute in horses. The word rendered horsemen' (D'® parashim) has certainly sometimes that meaning, and may here imply, that, along with the horses, were sold slaves, skilled in the care and treatment of those animals. But the word also means horses for riding, as distinguished from others; and if thus understood here, the others were probably chariot-horses. Michaelis thinks that the two words (D'DID susim, and d'una parashim) distinguish the common and more noble breeds i and if so, this is a distinction anciently applicable, so far as we know, to no other part of the East than Armenia; and we may recognize in the latter the famous Nysæan horses, which were in those times the coursers of luxury, and which were admired not less for the colour and brightness of their hair than for the elegance of their forms, on which account they alone were held worthy to draw the chariots of the Persian kings. Compare the authorities on this verse.
15. Dedan,' etc.---The common explanation is, that this Dedan was on the southern coast of Arabia ; the people of which brought to Tyre, in their caravans, the produce of India. Heeren, however, following a hint thrown out by Michaelis, considers that this passage rather points to the ludian trade which visited Tyre through the Persian Gulf, and to which we have already had occasion to refer in the note to 2 Chron. xx. Dedan be considers to have been one (that called Tylos) of the isles on which the Phænicians established themselves in the Persian Gulf, to facilitate their trade in that direction. lu those isles the Phænicians would appear, from his col. lectious and reasonings, to have arranged much of the trade of the far east before it was finally transmitted to Tyre, as they did at Tartessus, in Spain, that of the far west. The case of the men of Dedan and merchants of the isles therefore would be analogous, in an opposite di
EBONY (Diospyros Ebenum). rection, to that of Tarshish already mentioned." We unwillingly refrain from any longer statement on this sub
seems clear enough. In this, and with respect to other
costly woods, the name occurs only in the plural ; project, referring the reader to Heeren's Phænicians, sect. i.
bably, as Gesenius suggests, because the woud was brought ch. 4; Babylonians, sect. ii. ch. 2; and also to the above- from abroad divided into planks. The ebony is the heartcited note. “We may add, however, that this view is in
wood of a family of trees (the Ebenaceæ of Brown), va. our opinion much strengthened by our observing another
rious species of which occur in India, in easteru Africa, 526
and in the intermediate islands. The best eboy is not sidering it difficult to connect the Hebrew tribe of Dan, afforded by any one species in all its habitats. The species as in this verse, with the trade of Tyre. But, as Vincent figured above is the important one called Diospyros Ebe. remarks, the situation of this tribe between the Philisnum. It bears a berry that is eaten by the natives, when tines and Joppa, was very commodious for its receiving ripe. The leaves are elliptical, with numerous veins. the caravans from Arabia, in that age, which came to The corolla or coloured part is shaped like an antique Rhinocolura in a later; and equally convenient for emvase, and bears eight stamens, with which the eight cells barking at Joppa the commodities brought by the caraand eight seeds in the berry correspond. The white wood vans to be conveyed to Tyre. which surrounds the heart or ebony is soft, and soon falls * Javan.'—This, most clearly, cannot be the Javan of a prey to insects.
Greece; but, as the commodities are Indian, we are to look 16. Syria,' etc.--Syria, in the original, is Aram: and for it in Arabia. Indeed the distinction between the two the Aram, in Scripture, is sometimes Mesopotamia, some- names is pointed out by the adjunct, which in our version times Damascus, and likewise the country about Libanus is rendered going to and fro,' but which in the original and the Orontes. With a due regard to the nature of is, braxn me-Uzal, and Uzal is explained by Gen. x. 27, the articles enumerated, Dr. Vincent reasonably concludes that they were all brought by land from the Gulf of
where Uzal is the son of Joktan, joined with Hazarmaveth Persia, through Mesopotamia or Damascus, in exchange (Hadramaut), Theba, Ophir, and Havilah ; all of which for the manufactures of Tyre,
we know to be in Arabia, and consequently Javan-me17. • Judah, and the land of Israel.!—This verse is of
Uzal is so likewise. The cassia and calamus' brought much importance, as shewing that the Hebrews were in
by these are evidently Oriental, indeed Indian, and procluded, as indeed from their vicinity they could not help
bably also the iron, for Indian iron is likewise a part of being, among the number of nations affected by the Tyrian
the eastern invoice in the Periplus. We have already We see that Tyre afforded a ready market
alluded to the intercourse which the Phænicians had with for the redundant produce of their fertile country, and in
India through the Persian Gulf; and the present verse is return for which they doubtless obtained those manu
of great interest, in Dr. Vincent's view, as clearly inti. factured articles and foreign commodities which they
mating their intercourse with India through Arabia, and could not otherwise have procured. Thus we may consider
as furnishing the most ancient record of the trade between that, in exchange for their own valuable produce, they
India and Arabia that can be called historical. For, might have obtained any of the articles mentioned in this
although spices are mentioned frequently, that term is not chapter, and for which the known world was ransacked
decisive, as all the gums and odours of Arabia are comto furnish the great markets of Tyre: and we should pro
prehended under that name. Cinnamon, cassia, and bably, for instance, not be mistaken in concluding that
calamus alone prove an Indian origin; and notwithstanding through this source, the tin used by them came originally
these are mentioned by Moses, David, and Solomon, the from Britain. The neighbourhood of an agricultural
conveyance of them by caravans from the southern coast people, like the Hebrews, was, on the other hand, a great
of Arabia is nowhere specified till we arrive at this pasadvantage to the Tyrians, who were not addicted to cul.
sage in Ezekiel.' tivation, and the mountainous character and limited ex
20. • Dedan...precious clothes for chariots:- This was tent of whose territory would at all times have prevented
probably the Dedan of Arabia, if it were not rather the them from raising the supplies they required. The He
one of Edom. (Jer. xlix. 8.) The verse is altogether brew territory was thus in some sort the granary of the
very obscure. We do not know whether the cloths were Phænicians, and the tie of mutual benefits may explain
a native manufacture, or obtained from countries more to the generally friendly character of the relations which
the East; nor how they were employed, the term rendered subsisted between them. Heeren well observes, with re
chariots' being very indefinite, literally, riding,' and ference to this verse, "The corn of Palestine was the best
may apply either to horses, horsemen, chariots, or chariotthen kuown, not excepting, even that of Egypt; whence
eers. [APPENDIX, No. 72.] we may infer that the proximity of this country was not 21. 'Arabia,'-This verse refers to the trade of the the only motive which engaged the Phænicians to draw Bedouin Arabs with the produce of their flocks and herds. their supplies from it. The other products of Palestine, 22. “ The merchants of Sheba and Raamah.'— This verse of which the prophet makes mention, were also of a supe- seems to relate to the trade which Arabian nations in the rior quality. The vine, which was at all times cultivated, south of the peninsula carried on with Tyre, in both the afforded abundance of delicious raisins. The olive, as produce of their own country and the commodities which still cultivated by the actual population, is said to furnish they obtained from Arabia. This and preceding verses an oil superior to that of Provence, notwithstanding the open interesting views concerning the commerce between ignorance and þarbarism into which the country has fallen Tyre and Arabia, and, being ourselves obliged to abstain under the Ottoman despotism. And the balm which is from the subject, we may refer the reader to the valuable collected in the neighbourhood of the lake of Gennesareth particulars, in relation to it, which have been given by is the same which still enjoys so great a reputation under
Heeren. the name of the balm of Mecca.'
23. ' Haran,' etc.- Michaelis, followed as usual by 18. • Damascus,' It seems from this verse that Da
Heeren, would place these names also in Arabia ; but we mascus received the richest manufactures of Tyre in ex- have no hesitation in agreeing with Vincent in fixing change for wine of Helbon and white wool—that is, wool them to Mesopotamia and Assyria. Indeed most of the in the fleece, or unwrought. If Tyre bought wool in the names are such as we at once recognize as applied in fleece, and manufactured it, it is the same policy as Scripture to places in that quarter. The single name of Flanders formerly adopted in regard to the wool of Eng- Ashur would shew this, if those of Haran and Canneh land. The wine of Helbon is the Chalybon of the Greeks; (Calneh) should be doubtful. With respect to the comthe kings of Persia drank no other. The eastern name modities mentioned in the next verse, Vincent also obof Aleppo is still Haleb; and Haleb, Halebon, or Chaly- serves, “The chests of cedar bound with cords seem to bon, are only varied by different aspirations or Greek
imply great caution adopted for the preservation of the terminations. Vincent, ii. 645,
cloths, which were the costly manufacture of Babylon, if 19. · Dan also.'— Dan also’ (17!); many read this either not of India ; aud this caution seems more necessary for a as 'Vedan,' or as and Dan.' Michaelis, followed by conveyance overland, not only to prevent injury to the Heeren, thinks it may be Vadan, a city in Arabia, con- goods, but robbery likewise,
the workmanship of thy tabrets and of thy
pipes was prepared in thee in the day that 1 God's judgment upon the prince of Tyrus for his sa- thou wast created. crilegious pride. il A lamentation of his great glory 14 Thou art the anointed cherub that corrupted by sin. 20 The judgment of Zidon.
covereth ; and I have set thee so: thou wast 24 The restoration of Israel.
upon the holy mountain of God ; thou hast The word of the LORD came again unto me, walked
and down in the midst of the stones saying,
of fire. 2 Son of man, say unto the prince of 15 Thou wast perfect in thy ways from the Tyrus, Thus saith the Lord God; Because day that thou wast created, till iniquity was thine heart is lifted up, and thou hast said, found in thee. I am a god, I sit in the seat of God, in the 16 By the multitude of thy merchandise 'midst of the seas ; *yet thou art a man, and they have filled the midst of thee with vionot God, though thou set thine heart as the lence, and hou hast sinned : therefore I will heart of God:
cast thee as profane out of the mountain of 3 Behold, thou art wiser than Daniel ; God: and I will destroy thee, O covering there is no secret that they can hide from cherub, from the midst of the stones of fire. thee :
17 Thine heart was lifted up because of 4 With thy wisdom and with thine under-thy beauty, thou hast corrupted thy wisdom standing thou hast gotten thee riches, and by reason of thy brightness : I will cast thee hast gotten gold and silver into thy trea- to the ground, I will lay thee before kings,
that they may behold thee. 5 "By thy great wisdom and by thy traffick 18 Thou hast defiled thy sanctuaries by hast thou increased thy riches, and thine heart the multitude of thine iniquities, by the is lifted up because of thy riches :
iniquity of thy traffick ; therefore will I bring 6 Therefore thus saith the Lord God; forth a fire from the midst of thee, it shall Because thou hast set thine heart as the heart devour thee, and I will bring thee to ashes of God;
upon the earth in the sight of all them that 7 Behold, therefore I will bring strangers behold thee. upon thee, the terrible of the nations : and 19 All they that know thee among the they shall draw their swords against the people shall be astonished at thee: thou shalt beauty of thy wisdom, and they shall defile be a terror, and never shalt thou be
any thy brightness.
8 They shall bring thee down to the pit, 20 | Again the word of the Lord came and thou shalt die the deaths of them that are unto me, saying, slain in the midst of the seas.
21 Son of man, set thy face against Zidon, 9 Wilt thou yet say before him that slay- and prophesy against it, eth thee, I am God; but thou shalt be a man, 22 And say, Thus saith the Lord God; and no God, in the hand of him that 'slayeth Behold, I ani against thee, O Zidon ; and Í thee.
will be glorified in the midst of thee: and 10 Thou shalt die the deaths of the uncir- they shall know that I am the LORD, when cumcised by the hand of strangers : for I have I shall have executed judgments in her, and spoken it, saith the Lord God.
shall be sa ified in her. 11 4 Moreover the word of the LORD 23 For I will send into her pestilence, and came unto me, saying,
blood into her streets; and the wounded shall 12 Son of man, take up a lamentation be judged in the midst of her by the sword upon the king of Tyrus, and say unto him, upon her on every side ; and they shall know Thus saith the Lord God; Thou sealest up that I am the LORD. the sum, full of wisdom, and perfect in 24 9 And there shall be no more a prickbeauty.
ing brier unto the house of Israel, nor any 13 Thou hast been in Eden the garden of grieving thorn of all that are round about God; every precious stone was thy covering, them, that despised them; and they shall the ‘sardius, topaz, and the diamond, the know that I am the Lord God. oberyl, the onyx, and the jasper, the sapphire, 25 Thus saith the Lord God; When I the emerald, and the carbuncle, and gold : shall have gathered the house of Ísrael from
1 Hcb. heart,