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by Bochart, Michaelis, Rosenmüller, Heeren, Vincent, Ocean. Let us contemplate these enterprises as completed Hävernick and Hengstenberg; but upon the whole, the by the efforts of a single city which possibly did not poshints and allusions which it offers have not yet received sess a territory of twenty miles in circumference ; which that sort of treatment, thrcugh which it might be made to sustained a siege of thirteen years against all the power throw a strong light upon many passages of Scripture and of Babylon, and another of eight months against Alex. upon the early history of commerce. It has only hitherto ander, in the full career of his victories; and then judge been treated incidentally, whereas it requires to become whether a commercial spirit debases the nature of man, or the principal subject of attention to minds prepared by unfits it for the exertion of determined valour; or whether long study and instruction.
any single city, recorded in history, is worthy to be comT'he limits and plan of this work necessarily confine us pared with Tyre. • Commerce and Navigation of the to a few observations on the principal facts which the Ancients,' ii. 624-5. chapter offers, and in performing this duty we shall avail Verse 5. ' Thy ship boards of fir trees of Senir.'—Senir ourselves of the researches of the authors we have named, is understood to be the same as Sirion, the Phænician particularly of Dr. Vincent, whose commencing observa- name for Hermon, a mountain of Lebanon (Deut. iii. 9). tions may suitably introduce the ensuing notes : •Let us, in conformity to the opening of the prophecy, consider Tyre as a city of great splendour, magnificently built, and inhabited by merchants, whose wealth rivalled the opulence of kings-who traded to the East by the intervention of Arabia,* and to the west by means of the Mediterranean : let us add to this, that in ages prior to the celebrity of Greece and Rome, their fleets had braved the dangers of the ocean, and their people were the only mariners who were not limited within the circle of the Mediterranean; that they penetrated eastward through the
Our knowledge of the firs of Lebanon is very limited line deed : it is very possible, however, that that here intended may have been the Pinus Laricio, or Corsican pine, which very much resembles the Pinus sylvestris, or Scotch fir, in appearance as well as in the structure of the cone. The wood is however more compact and flexible than that of the Scotch fir, and is therefore better adapted to the purpose indicated in the text-the planking of vessels.
We are however persuaded that the word wij? berosh was PINUS LARICIO.
a general name among the Hebrews for several kindred
kinds of trees, and not for one species in particular; and it Straits of Death, which were the termination of the Red probably included the cypress which is mentioned in Geni
. Sea, and westward beyond the Pillars of Hercules, which vi. 14, under the more specific name of GOPHER. We do not were the boundaries of all knowledge to every pation but know what species of fir grew in their country and neightheir own; that they advanced northward to the British bourhood ; but as it may be conjectured with tolerable Isles, and southward to the coast of Africa on the Atlantic safety that the P. Halepensis and P. Orientulis were of
the number, and included under the general name, we * Not only through Arabia, surely; compare the notes give specimens of these, in addition to the P. Laricio. on 2 Chron, viii, 24; xx. 36.
The P. Halepensis certainly grew in the neighbourhood
of Palestine, as its name, derived from Aleppo, indicates ; east of Jordan. We do not however recollect any inand that the P. Orientalis--distinguished for the elegance stance in which oak occurs among the timbers used in of its cone-grew in Lebanon, may safely be presumed. ancient ship-building; and from its heaviness and want There are some grounds on which the Pinaster might also of elasticity it seems peculiarly ill adapted for oars, hence have been added.
Houbigant translates alders.' Bui, although it is by no means certain that oak is intended, it may be well to recollect that the oars used in the ancient shipping were often of great length, and must hence have been employed at a greater mechanical disadvantage, and consequently with more force than is required by any use of the oar among ourselves. The same qualities were therefore not required in the wood they employed, and we indeed read of oars covered with brass or silver.
• The company of the Ashurites, etc.—It is very difficult to comprehend this verse as it stands in our translation. We do not know who may be intended by the company of the Ashurites;' that benches should be made of ivory is wholly improbable; neither was ivory brought from any of the places supposed to be denoted by the name
Chittim.' The Targum and R. Jarchi, followed by most modern interpreters,
by a very simple alteration, that of reading Diving as one word, produce a very clear sense— Thy benches have they made of ivory, inlaid in box from the isles of Chittim. This supposes that the benches were made of box inlaid or covered with ivoryan employment of ivory very probable, from the manner in which we know that substance to have been anciently used for the interior decoration of houses. In ancient vessels there are many benches for the numerous rowers to sit on; but here perhaps the distinguished seats, in what appears to have been a magnificent galley, may be intended. It is however uncertain whether seats be at all indicated.
· Chittim.'-See Num, xxiv. 24. 7. Fine linen with broidered work from Egypt be thy sail.'—Fine Egyptian linen, embroidered, was not very well adapted, one would think, for the sails of vessels, in any other than holiday navigation; nor would be very eligible even then. This consideration probably led the Targum and Vulgate to conclude that it would be better to understand the term to refer to a flag or ensign than to a sail. The flags of ancient vessels were usually placed at the prow, and in most cases each ship had its own particular flag, by which it was distinguished from others. It usually
contained the representation of a mountain, a
tree, a flower, a bird, a beast, or some imaginary creature. Pinus HALEPENSIS.
If, however, we understand that the present description
rather refers to the splendid pleasure-galleys of the merCedars from Lebanon to make masts.'— It is by no chant princes of Tyre, than to ships intended for the busimeans certain that the tree to which naturalists have given the name cedar of Lebanon,' is the same as the arez (17x) of Lebanon' so often mentioned in Scripture. As the word in the Aramæan dialects is applied to several similar trees of the pine tribe, it may very possibly have been the same in the Hebrew. Under this view it might sometimes denote the 'cedar of Lebanon' and often other trees of a similar character; and if so those equally err who insist that this tree can only be intended, with those who contend for some other particular species to the exclusion of all the rest. This is a subject of some interest, to which we may possibly return in some less occupied place. Meanwhile we may observe that the so called * cedar of Lebanon 'can hardly be intended in this particular text, as, although the trunk of this tree is large, it is neither long nor straight, and therefore utterly unfit to be the mast of a ship. To which we may add that the wood is soft, and inferior to the worst kinds of deal. Separately from any speculation about words, the probability is unquestionable that the Tyrians would employ the fir-trees of Lebanon, or some one of the several species growing there, for masts to their vessels. Even the Égyptians made, and do still make, large importations of firs
1. FERRY-BOAT OF THE NILE. from Syria to be applied to this and other uses.
6. • Of the oaks of Bashan have they made thine oars.' ness of navigation and commerce, sails may very well be - The common oak (Quercus robur) does at this day occur understood. For the fact is that, in Egypt, while the rather frequently in Bashan and the neighbouring districts ordinary sails were white, those belonging to the pleasure
vessels of ancient times generally than those of the Phan nicians in particular. The fact of resemblance is at least in oue particular substantiated by an Egyptian painting representing a Phænician war-galley, which has considerable likeness to Egyptian vessels of the same class (2, 5).
Herodotus thus describes the barges or vessels of burden
2. PHENICIAN WAR-GALLEY.
vessels of the king and the grandees appear to have been often painted with rich colours, or embroidered with fanciful devices, representing the phenix, flowers, and various emblems. Some exhibit chequered patterns, and others are striped. Sails of this sort were also furnished with a strong hem or border, neatly coloured, to strengthen and preserve them from injury; and, for the same purpose, a light rope was generally sewed round it. (See Wilkinsou's Ancient Egyptians, i. 9.) The sails of the Egyptian, and, seemingly of other ancient vessels, appear to have been always square, with a yard above and below. In this they differ from those now used in Egypt (1) and other parts of the Levant, which are generally furnished with luteen, or triangular-shaped sails. In common vessels among the Egyptians, there was a yard at the bottom as well as top of the sail; and in striking sail it seems to have been the course to lower the upper yard, and fold the sail between it and the lower; but in war-galleys and some other vessels the lower yard was wanting, and the sail was drawn up and reefed to the upper yard in action, or when, from winds or currents, the sails became useless, and the vessel was propelled wholly by the oars.
• Blue and purple from the isles of Elisha ...covered thee.'—Elisha was one of the sons of Javan (Gen: X. 4); and as Javan is the general title for the Greek nation, Elisha may well be taken for a part, and that part Elis, Hellas, or Peloponnesus. It seems odd that the Tyrians, who were themselves so famous for their purples, should have required this from Elisha. But the purple of Laconia was the finest dye next to the Tyrian; and the purple cloth of that province was possibly employed because it was cheaper than that of Tyre, which was reserved for the use of kings' (Vincent). It seems to have been employed for coverings or awnings to the galleys, which were sometimes very magnificent. Our readers will remember that the famous galley in which Cleopatra went to meet Anthony had an awning of cloth of gold. Indeed, it is observed by Bishop Newton, that •Cleopatra's sailing down the river Cydnus, to meet her gallant, Anthony, was not with greater finery and magnificence; nor have the historians and poets paiuted the one in more lively colours than the prophet has the other.'
8–11. These verses are very instructive, and the information they furnish is too clear to require explanation. • The Tyrians themselves were wholly devoted to commerce and to the management of their vessels; while the kindred Phænicians furnished them with mariners and shipwrights. Like the Carthaginians, also their kindred, their army was compo sed of foreign mercenaries, obtained by them from Persia and Africa ; while the important trust of forming the garrison of the city was given to native Phenicians, the men of Arvad (Aradus) and the Gammadim. Of the latter we do not elsewhere read; but they were probably a people of Phænicia; and perhaps the inhabitants of Ancon, "Ayaw and 703, both signifying a cubit. Pliny mentions Gamah, a city of Phænicia; for which some propose to read Gamade' (L. ii. c. x. 91)-- Newcome. Perhaps no certainty can be obtained on this point. But it appears that the mercenaries were for foreign, or more properly colonial, service; while the Aradians, at least, as joined in the same commercial interest, had the defence of the city confided to them; and the same people, with the Sidonians, manned the ships of Tyre.
9. The ships of the sea.'— The details respecting ancient ships and navigation which this chapter contains, afford an opportunity for some remarks on that subject, supplementary in some measure to the particulars respecting boats which were offered under Isaiah xviii. 2. In fulfilling this object it is necessary to notice the larger vessels employed by the Egyptians; for, although the condition of their navigation was materially different from that of the Phænicians, the information which we possess from history and from the sculptures and paintings of the country, is the most ancient to which we have access, is nearest the tiines under review, and some general resemblance must have existed, besides that our object is rather to notice the
used on the Nile:- The Egyptians frame their vessels of burden from a species of the thorn-tree, which in appearance much resembles the lotus of Cyrene, from which a gum exudes in drops. From this thorn they cut pieces of wood of about two cubits in length: these are put together in the manner of tiles, to form the vessel. The pieces are connected by stout and long wooden pins. When the sides are thus formed, they transverse beams above, without using any ribs; the joints are stopped on the inner side with the papyrus. The rudder is made to pass through the keel; the mast is formed of the thorn, and the sails are of papyrus. These vessels are not able to stem the current of the river, except with a wind directly favourable; but are drawn along from the shore. In passing down the stream, the plan they adopt is this: from the tamarisk-tree is formed a shutter or hurdle, wattled with reeds; they provide also a pierced stone weigbing about two talents. The hurdle is fastened crossways by a rope to the bow of the vessel, and receives the current, while the stone is suspended by another rope from the stern. The vessel or barge, as it is called, is therefore borne swiftly along by means of the hurdle; while its course is directed by the stone which hangs in deep water behind. The Egyptians have great numbers of barges of this kind, and some of them carry many thousand talents' burden.'
Sir J. G. Wilkinson, who quotes this (in a bad translation), says : • That boats of this construction were really
used in Egypt, is very probable; they may have been employed to carry goods from one town to another, and navigated in the manner he mentions; but we may be allowed
to doubt their carrying several thousand talents, or many rope fastened to the upper extremity. The rudders contons, weight; and we have the evidence of the paintings sisted of a long broad blade, and still longer handle, made of Upper and Lower Egypt to shew that the large boats of in imitation of the oars, by which they originally steered burden were made of wooden planks, which men are seen their boats, before they had so far improved them as to cutting with saws and hatchets, and afterwards fastening adopt a fixed rudder. The oars were a long round wooden together with nails and pins; and they were furnished shaft, to which a flat board, of oval or circular form, was with spacious cabins like those of modern Egypt.' We do fastened ; and it is remarkable that the same oar is used to not see anything in this contrary to Herodotus, who states this day on the Ganges and in the Arabian Gulf. They that they were made of planks, and does not say that they turned either on toll pins or in rings, fastened to the gunhad no cabins. The same writer states that the sails, wale of the boat; and the rowers sat on the deck, on when made of the rind of the papyrus, have been supposed benches, or on low seats, or stood or knelt to the oar, siinilar to those of the Chinese, which fold up like Vene- sometimes pushing it forward, sometimes (and indeed more tian blinds. Indeed there is much stated in this author's generally) pulling it, as is the modern custom in Egypt work to confirm the opinion that the vessels now in use and most other countries. That some of the ancient among the Chinese and Hindoos (3, 4) offer very great re- Egyptian vessels were built with ribs, like those of the semblauce to those anciently in use among the Egyptians, present day, is shewn by the rude models discovered in and probably among the Phænicians. Wilkinson remarks, the tombs at Thebes. It is probable that they had very however, that there is only one vessel (7) represented in the little keel, in order to enable them to avoid the sandbanks, paintings which appears to have sails of this kind, although and to facilitate their removal when they struck: and inso many are introduced there : Nor,' he adds, 'can we deed the models seem to shew that they were generally believe that a people, noted for their manufacture of linen flat-bottomed. The boats now used on the Nile have a and other cloths, should have preferred to imperfect a very small keel, particularly at the centre, where it is substitute as the rind of a plant, especially as they exported concave; so that when the head strikes they put to the sail-cloth to Phænicia for that purpose :' for which he quotes helm, and the hollow part clears the bank. And here it v. 7 of the present chapter (see the note thereon).
may be observed toat the difference between the maritime Large Egyptian vessels had generally one, and small navigation and that of large rivers was much less consiboats iwo rudders at the stern. The former traversed derable in ancient times than at present; for the sea-going upon a beam between two projecting heads, a short pillar vessels crept along shore in such a manner as exposed the or mast supporting it, and acting by the centre upon which vessels in both to nearly the same incidents, and therefore it moved. The latter were nearly the same in principle, a greater similarity of build than now exists prevailed. except that they turned on a bar, or in a ring, by which The cabins in the Egyptian vessels were not under the they were suspended to the gunwale at either side, and in deck, and were lofty and spacious. They did not, bowever, both instances the steersman directed them by means of a always extend over the whole breadth of the boat, but
merely occupied the centre, the rowers sitting on each side, nerally that the largest vessels practically in use among usually on a bench or stool. They were made of wood, the ancients were of very small size in comparison with with a door in front, or sometimes on one side, and they those of modern times. At the head of the vessels, a forewere painted within and without with numerous devices castle frequently projected above the deck, which was the in brilliant and lively colours. The head and steru of
station of a man with a long fathoming pole, who therewith Egyptian pleasure vessels were usually ornamented with sounded the water. At the stern another of similar form or terminated in the shape of a flower richly painted; in was sometimes added, reminding one of the poop of Roman the boats of burden they were destitute of ornament, and vessels : this was the station of the steersman. The war
galleys of all nations which the Egyptians have represented differed materially in their construction from the vessels of the Nile. They were less raised at the head and stern ; and on each side, through the whole length of the vessel, a wooden bulwark, rising considerably above the gunwale, sheltered the rowers, who sat behind it, from the missiles of the enemy, the handles of the oars passing through an aperture at the lower part.
From what has been stated, it will be seen that the ancient ships were of three kinds—ships of war, of passage, and of merchandise. All our cuts belong to the two latter classes, the first not being required for our present purpose. To diversify the illustration we have given specimens from different ancient nations- Egyptian and Roman. It will be observed that they have all but one mast; nor do any ancient authors mention more; but an engraved gem, copied by Stosch, represents a vessel with a
main and mizen mast. This vessel, like our figs. 9 and 11, 5. EGYPTIAN GALLEY.
is equipped for sailing only, not for rowing also; although,
as in the rest of our cuts, very ancient vessels are usually simply rounded off; and Wilkinson states that he had met represented as adapted for rowing only, or for both rowing with two only which had any resemblance to a beak. Nor and sailing. (See Jonah i. 13; Ezek. xxvii. 26.) The are the galleys of ships of war furnished with any thing progress of invention seems to have been—first rowing; like those sharp beaks of metal which were used with then sails to assist rowing; and ultimately sailing only. effect in the Roman galleys; but its place is in many cases It appears from Ezek. xxvi. 6, 7, 29, that the Phænician occupied with a figure-head-usually of a lion. This is ships were worked by oars and sails; some apparently by wanting in the single Phænician galley of which we live both, and others by oars only. There are other passages a representation; but in one supposed to belong to the of Scripture bearing on the practices of ancient navigation, Philistines, the figure-head is that of a goose.
which will receive our attention when we reach them. The number of rowers in the boats of the Nile enables us The mast remained for a long time moveable, and was to form some idea of the size of ancient vessels of this sort. only set up as wanted. Such are the masts mentioned by Some of them are furnished with forty-four oars, twenty-two Homer. The intimation of the prophet seems to the same being represented on each side, which, allowing for the purport (Isa. xxxiii. 23); and this is clearly exhibited in steerage and prow, would require their whole length to be the bas-relief of the building of the Argo, in the Townley about 120 feet. The Egyptians had, however, vessels collection of marbles. The poels, also, who relate the much larger than these, which their paintings do not voyage of that famous ship, of which they speak with exhibit. Diodorus mentions one of cedar wood, dedicated wonder, describe it as being propelled at once by sail and by Sesostris to the god of Thebes, 280 cubits, or 420 feet oars, and speak of the mast as taken down when in harlong; and Ptolemy Philopater built one of forty benches bour, and set up again when it departed. We introduce a of oars, which was 420 feet long, and 72 from the keel to cut (10) of the bas-relief, which affords a curious and the top of the poop, and carried 400 soldiers, besides 4000 appropriate illustration of the present subject. The anrowers, and nearly 3000 soldiers. These, however, were cient Davigators long continued to use the sail only with a extraordinary feats of ship building; and we observe ge- favourable wind; and their learning at last how to sail
6. EGYPTIAN Ships.- From Sculptures in the Grolto of Eleithuias.