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RUINS OF TYRE.-Cassas, a small island, about one-third of a mile from the shore. continental and insular Tyre together ; adding, that the As it was only after the Old Tyre was destroyed by then existing (insular) Tyre had no more than twenty-two Nebuchadnezzar, as predicted in the present chapter, that stades, or three miles. the capital seat of the Tyrians was removed to the island Concerning the continental Tyre we have no informa---this must of course be understood as the Tyre of Scrip- tion but that which the Bible offers; and from which we ture history. Whether it were also the sole Tyre of pro- learn that, according to the ideas of the time, it was a phecy, we regard as a distinct question. It is certain that
large, wealthy, and splendid city. That it did exist is some of the prophecies are best understood with refer- acknowledged by the Greek writers, but they could furence to the old 'lyre, and others as respecting the New pish no information, as it had been utterly destroyed Tyre; and if the latter did not exist when the prophecies before their time. It was never rebuilt, and not the least which may be supposed to regard it were delivered, no trace of its ruins can be discovered ; nor could indeed its objection can arise from this circumstance, when we re- site be determined, did we not know that it was on the flect that all things are present to Ilim in whose name the coast opposite the island. prophets spoke, and that prophecy actually does, in other When Nebuchadnezzar gaiped the city, after a siege of cases, sometimes relate the history and final condition of that thirteen years, the previous removal by the inhabitants of which had no existence when the prophecy was delivered. their valuable effects to the island, and to other places It is indeed easy to understand that the prophets should beyond his reach, as explained under Jer. xliii., so disapspeak in the wide sense of Tyre, the city of the Tyrians, pointed him, that he completely destroyed the place, and as continuously connected with their history, and there- marched to Egypt. However, although the Tyrians had fore proceeding with their history from the old town to evaded the spoliation of their valuable property, they bethe new. We have given this explanation in order to dis- came subject to the Babylonians, as the prophets foretold. pense with the necessity for the one of Bishop Newton, al- Indeed it would seem as if the royal family of Tyre, like though that still remains probable and well-supported :- that of Judah, had been carried into captivity; for Josethis is, that although the insular Tyre only became the sole phus cites the_Phænician annals, as shewing that, after city after the continental town had been destroyed by this time, the Tyrians received their kings from Babylon. Nebuchadnezzar, it had previously and from very ancient The duration of their subjection was limited by prophecy times, been built upon, and formed part of Tyre, and is to seventy years (Isa. xxiii. 15, 16, 17), that is, to the tercomprehended under that name. Whence it follows that mivation of the Babyloniau monarchy, when the Tyrians, the Tyre of Scripture history and prophecy embraced with some other remote nations, were restored to compaboth the continental and insular portions of the town. It rative independence by the Persians. They then seem to is indeed scarcely credible that the Tyrians, as a body of have been allowed the entire management of their own commercial navigators, could have overlooked the advan- affairs, with the only discoverable limitation, that they tages offered by an island so close to their shore; and that were obliged to furnish subsidies and vessels to the Perthey did not, and that it was regarded as part of Tyre, is sians when required. Accordingly they did render very almost demonstrated by the fact, that the ancient authors valuable assistance to the Persians in the famous war of cited by Newton bear witness to the remote antiquity of Xerxes against the Greeks; and Herodotus (viii. 67) parthe insular city. It is a remarkable circumstance that ticularly mentions the kings of Tyre and Zidon as present Pliny (Hist. Nat. v. 19), in describing the circumference at the council of war held by the Persian monarch. Under of Tyre as nineteen Roman miles, expressly includes the the Persians, the people of Tyre recovered much of their former wealth and importance ; and such were their re- proportionable thickness, constructed with great stones sources, and the strength and advantageous situation of strongly cemented together. their insular city, that they were enabled to stay the pro- 5. A place for the spreading of nets in the midst of the gress of Alexander's arms longer than any other place sea.'—The last clause must clearly refer this to the usular, under the Persian dominion. He spent eight months or (as the causeway of Alexander made it) peninsular before Tyre, and at last only succeeded by constructing Tyre. Indeed, besides the considerations stated in the an embankment or causeway between the main land and preceding note, it will be observed that nothing has the island, giving his troops and engines free access to the hitherto been said of Nebuchadnezzar; but in these introlatter. The Tyrians still however made a valiant defence, ductory verses the prophet seems rather to speak of the which, with the delay they had occasioned, so provoked ultimate result of the various succeeding desolations to the conqueror, that with a cruelty not unusual with him, which Tyre should be exposed, and of which Nebuchadand which has left a great stain upon his character, he pezzar's desolation of old Tyre was only the commencecrucified two thousand of the inhabitants, and sold thirty ment. thousand for slaves ; eight thousand had been slain in the The image of desolation employed, that of fishers storming and capture of the city. The town itself he set spreading their nets to dry on the site of a once populous on fire. Yet it recovered once more ; and only nineteen city, is as natural for a place on the coast, as that of teedyears after was able to withstand the fleets and armies of ing and stabling cattle is for iuland desolation. And as Antigonus, and sustained a siege of fifteen months before fishermen naturally spread their nets ou any convenient it was taken. After this it endured that frequent change place, on a naked rock or beach, it only becomes necessary of masters to which all this region was subject, in the to say that Tyre has become a fishing station, to shew continual contests between the Greek kings of Egypt and that this prophecy has been literally accomplished, withSyria, until it was finally, with all the rest, absorbed into out our being required to find that some traveller has the vast Roman empire. By that time Tyre had again happened to say that he saw nets spread upon the strand greatly declined in iniportance.
where old Tyre stood. But this has been said by travel. Alexander did the lyrians more evil than the ruin of lers even of the new or peninsular Tyre. This town their city and the slaughter of its people, by the foundation seems to have been in a tolerably prosperous condition, of Alexandria in Egypt, which gradually drew away from though wofully different from what it once was, till it was them that foreign traffic through which they had enjoyed destroyed by the Mameluke Sultan, from which stroke it unexampled prosperity for not less than a thousand years. never fully recovered. Our best course here will be to With the loss of their monopolies and colonial establish- introduce the substance of observations made by successive ments, the skill and enterprise of the Tyrians still, how- travellers, beginning with Benjamin of Tudela, who ever, sufficed to keep Tyre in a respectable station as an visited the place while possessed by the Crusaders, and individual town, and such it remained under the Romans. whose account is instructive, though dashed with his usual Many of the people of Tyre in the end embraced the extravagance in what he says about old Tyre. “One Jewish religion; and that city was one of the first that day's journey (from Zidon) is New Tsour, a very beautiful received the faith of Christ, who himself visited the coasts city, the port of which is in the very town. This port is of Tyre and Zidon, and miraculously healed the woman of guarded by two towers, within which the vessels ride at Canaan's daughter. Paul found there some faithful dis- anchor. The officers of the customs draw an iron chain ciples on his journey to Jerusalem; and in the persecution from tower to tower every night, thereby effectually preunder Dioclesian, there were many sincere believers at venting any thieves or robbers to escape by boat or by Tyre, who counted not their own lives dear' unto them.
other means. A port equal to this is to be met with noThis, as well as most of the other circumstances we have where upon earth. About four hundred Jews reside in related, appear very clearly to have been predicted by the this excellent place, the principal of which are the judge prophets (see in particular, Ps. xlv. 12; lxxii. 10; Isa. R. Ephraim Mitzri, R. Meir of Carcasson, and R. Abraxxxiii. 18). The decline of Tyre, even as a private town, ham, the elder of the community. The Jews of Tsour may soon be told. It passed, with the rest of Syria, to are ship-owners and manufacturers of the far-renowned the Arabs; in 1124 it was taken from them by the Cru- Tyrian glass; the purple dye is also found in the vicinity. saders ; Saladin made an ineffectual attempt to recover it If you mount the walls of New Tsour, you may see the in 1187; and it was finally taken, in 1291, by Khalil, the remains of " Tyre the crowned” (referring to lsa. xxiii.], sultan of Egypt, who nearly razed it to the ground, that it which was inundated by the sea. It is about the distance might never again afford a stronghold or harbour to the of a stone's throw from the new town; and whoever emChristians. The Turks took it from the Egyptian Mame- barks may see the towers, the markets, the streets, and lakes in 1516.
the halls at the bottom of the sea. The city of New These facts are chiefly of interest as connecting the pro- Tsour is very commercial, and one to which traders phecies concerning Tyre; for it appears, as already inti- resort from all parts' (Itinerary, i. 62, 63, ed. Asher, Bermated, that while Ezekiel speaks primarily of the destruc- lin, 1840). tion of continental Tyre by Nebuchadnezzar, he, by a Passing a long interval of time, we come to Sandys, transition not unusual in Scripture, glances at the subse- who was at Tyre about a century after it fell to the Turks. quent destruction of the insular Tyre by Alexander, and After alluding to its former greatness, he adds,— But this predicts its future history and condition. Even if this once famous Tyrus is now no other than a heap of ruins ; were disputed in the case of Ezekiel, the prophetic notice yet they have a reverent respect, and do instruct the penof the latter would be clear from Zechariah, who lived sive beholder with their exemplary frailty.' It had two after the old Tyre had been destroyed, and yet foretells harbours, of which that on the north side was, as he the destruction of Tyre, which must necessarily have been thought, the best in all the Levant, and which the corsairs that of the insular Tyre by Alexander.
entered at pleasure; the other was encumbered and choked 4. • They shall destroy the walls of Tyrus.'—This was up with the ruins of the city. Later in the same century true both of the old and new Tyre; the walls of the the place is noticed by Thevenot, Dumont,
and Le Bruyn, former having been destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar, and in their respective Voyages au Levant. They describe it those of the insular Tyre by Alexander. The wall was to the same effect as Maundrell, quoted below. Le Bruyn afterwards rebuilt-doubtless on the old foundations, and particularly notices the abundance of fish, and the bad with the old materials—but these were destroyed by the state of the harbour. There were but a few miserable sultan Khalil, and, as stated in the preceding note, only dwellings (Dumont says twelve or fifteen), inhabited by the foundations can now be traced. The strength of the Turks and Arabs. wall which opposed the efforts of Alexander is particularly The learned Huet (in his Demonstratio Evangelica, first noticed by Arrian, who states that opposite to the mole published in 1679) says that he knew a Jesuit named formed by the Macedonians, it was 150 feet high, and of Hadrian Parvillarius, a candid and learned man, who had
spent ten years in Syria, and who related to him how perity. When Volney was there, the town was still no strongly this prediction of Ezekiel was brought to his better than a village, containing only fifty or sixty mind when he approached the ruins of Tyre, and beheld poor families, who live but indifferently on the produce the rocks stretching forth to the sea, and the large stones of their little grounds and a trifling fishery. The houses strewed upon the shore, made smooth by the sun, the they occupy are no longer, as in the time of Strabo, waves, and the wind, and on which the fishermen dried edifices three or four stories high, but wretched huts their nets. To the same purpose follows our own admi- ready to crumble to pieces. It has since somewhat inrable traveller, Maundrell (1697). «The city, standing in creased in population and importance, and drives some the sea, upon the peninsula, promises at a distance some- active trade in tobacco, cotton, wool, and wood, which thing very magnificent. But when you come to it, you are its chief exports ; but as the once famous harbour is see no similitude of that glory for which it was renowned navigable only by boats, and becomes more and more in ancient times, and which the prophet Ezekiel describes. shallow every year, no material enlargement of its comOn the north side it has an old Turkish ungarrisoned mercial importance can be expected. The town was castle, besides which you see nothing but a mere Babel of much injured by the earthquake of 1837; but has rebroken walls, pillars, vaults, etc., there being not so much covered that stroke, and the population is now reckoned by as an entire house left. Its present inhabitants are only a Dr Wilson (Lands of the Bible, ii. 221) at 5000, of whom few poor wretches, harbouring themselves in the vaults, about one-half are Christians. and subsisting chiefly upon fishing; who seem to be pre- 10. Thy walls shall shuke at the noise of the horsemen, served in this place by Divine Providence as a visible and of the wheels.'—This must necessarily refer to the argument how God has fulfilled his word concerning continental Tyre, as of course neither horses nor chariots Tyre, that it should be as the top of a rock, a place for could approach that on the island. fishers to dry their nets on.' The east end of an ancient 12. • They shall lay thy stones and thy timber and thy Christian church remained tolerably entire; near it was dust in the midst of the water.'--In this verse the proa staircase, and Maundrell got upon the top, and had a phetic vision seems to go on to the circumstances attending full prospect over the peninsula, the isthmus, and neigh- the desolation of the insular Tyre by Alexander. We bouring shore. The island appeared of a circular form, are told that the conqueror should make a spoil of the containing about forty acres, and at the utmost margin of riches of Tyre, which was true of Alexander--at least the land the foundations might be traced of the wall by more true than of Nebuchadnezzar, of whom the same which it was anciently encircled. The island makes, with prophet declares that he should be disappointed of the the isthmus, two large bays, which were in part defended anticipated spoil, and that he should therefore have from the ocean each by a long ridge resembling a mole, Egypt for his reward. The transition from Nebuchadstretching directly out on both sides from the head of the nezzar to the Macedonians is indicated by a change of island; but whether these were walls or rocks, the work person : the doings of the former having been indicated of nature or art, Maundrell could not discover,
in the singular number-he shall do this and that; then Dr. Shaw says, that the best of the harbours, that to it comes abruptly—they shall make a spoil, etc. But the north, was in his time so choked up with sand and the change would be clear enough without this. The rubbish, that even the boats of the poor fishermen who now principal cause of the difference was that the Tyrians, on and then visit this once renowned emporium could only the latter occasion, trusted with more confidence to the with difficulty obtain admittance. Volney's avowed in- safety derived from their insular position and their fortififidelity renders him a valuable witness to the fulfilment cations, than they had when besieged by Nebuchadnezzar of prophecy–which service to truth he often uncon- on the continent; and hence they did not, at least to sciously renders. Besides quoting him with this view, we the same extent, take the precaution of removing their shall add such particulars from his general account of valuable property and merchandise beyond the reach of the place as may serve to complete the preceding intima- the invader. tions concerning its situation and condition, The penin
The text we have cited at the head of this note seems sula projects into the sea in the form of a mallet with an most clearly to refer to the manner in which Alexander oval head; this head is of solid rock, covered with a employed the ruins of the continental Tyre to facilitate brown cultivable earth, which forms a small plain about the conquest of the insular; and hence it furnishes a reeight hundred paces long by four hundred broad. The markable instance of most definite prophecy, analogous to isthmus, which joins the plain to the continent, is of pure that which foretold the very manner in which Babylon sea-sand. The difference of soil renders the ancient should be taken by Cyrus. Alexander having no fleet, insular state of this plain, before Alexander joined it to and seeing that nothing could be hoped from an ordinary the sea by a mole, very manifest, since it is clearly seen course of operations against Tyre, conceived, as we have that the sea, by covering the whole with sand, has en- already intimated, the bold idea of forming a mole from larged it by successive accumulations, and formed the the continent to the island, which might enable him to present isthmus. The port on the north side appears to bring his troops and military engines underneath its walls. have been formed by art, but is so choked up that The difficulties of this enterprise, which has in all ages children pass it without being wet above the middle. been the wonder and admiration of military men, are From the towers at its entrance began a line of walls fully stated by Q. Curtius, who says that the soldiers which, after surrounding the basin, enclosed the whole were in despair when the work was proposed to them; island; but, as in Maundrell's time, it can only be traced for the sea was so deep, that it seemed impossible to by the foundations which run along the shore. On ap- them, even with the assistance of the gods, to fill it up; proaching the continent from the island, the ruins of and besides, where could they find stones large enough arches at equal distances are perceived, as shewn in our and trees tall enough for so prodigious an undertaking ? engraving under Josh. xix., having at top a channel Alexander encouraged them, and desired them to recollect three feet wide by two and a half deep, lined by a cement that the ruins of the old town afforded plenty of stone harder than the stones themselves. This was an aque. fit for the purpose, and that timber suitable for their duct which conveyed water to the shore in the first boats and towers might be obtained from the neighbourinstance, and which the inhabitants, turning to good ing mountains of Lebanon. Arrian also notices that there account the mole of Alexander, afterwards continued was plenty of stone not far off, with a sufficient quantity across the isthmus to the island. In Pococke's time (1736) of timber and rubbish to fill up the vacant spaces. it was a place of export, but still contained only two or (Compare Q. Curtius, iii. 2, 3, with Arrian, ii. 18.) As three Christian families and a few other inhabitants. the mole when nearly completed was swept away by a But in 1766 the north-east corner of the peninsula was storm, and a new one had to be constructed, the materials walled in, and a town founded which retained the must have been well exhausted, and this, while it acancient name is Tsor, which in Hebrew signifies ' a rock.' counts for the entire disappearance of old Tyre, does This town receives no very sudden enlargement of pros- most strikingly corroborate the prediction that its stones, its timber, and its very dust (rubbish) should be laid in ancient people, as the colours are still very perfectly prethe midst of the water. See also verse 19, I shall bring served. The beard was flaxen, the eyes blue, and the up the deep upon thee, and great waters shall cover complexion of that florid but somewhat dark hue which is thee.' We wish to note the emphasis to be placed on the peculiar to the inhabitants of the parallel of latitude of word lay thy stones,' etc., in the present text, as imply, Tyre. The hair was either filled with white powder or ing a deliberate act, corresponding to the construction of covered with a net-work of blue beads, or a close cap the mole which was composed of successive layers of made of chintz, of such a pattern, was worn upon it; stones, rubbish, and timber. See Q. Curtius, as above. upon this was a fillet, tied behind with a loop and two
16. * The princes of the sea.... shall lay away their long ends, like those used in Egypt: like them also it robes, and put off their broidered garments.'- The Egyptian was made of scarlet leather. The dress was distirguished paintings seem to afford us some means of satisfying the from that of other Canaanites by a cape or short cloak natural curiosity which is felt respecting the personal ap- fastened at the throat and reaching to the elbows. This pearance and attire of a people so remarkable as the was made of one piece, and passed over the head when ancient inhabitants of Tyre. The figures regarded as put on; a cross-shaped slit, embroidered around, was representing the Phænician nations (the Tyrians, Arva- made in it in front to allow the head to pass. Beneath dites, and Hermonites) shew them to have been as closely this was a close coat or tunic, which seems to have fitted allied to each other in personal appearance and dress as the person more gracefully than any dress worn by the they were contiguous in geographical position. Their other nations of Canaan. It was confined at the waist by
a golden girdle, which, in war, was of great length, passing round the body many times, and tied in front in a large bow or knot, with long hanging ends. The two sides of the tunic folded over each other considerably, and were not left square like those of the neighbouring tribes, but sloped away in order to interfere as little as possible with the action of walking. The inner garment resembled that of all other ancient nations. It was a fine linen cloth, bound round the waist and descending to the ancles. The stiff heavy folds of the mantle and tunic seem to indicate that they were of wool, but it must have been of fine texture, as the contour of the arms and chest is represented as visible beneath the mantle. The colours seem to set at rest the difficult question as to the tint of the famous Tyrian dye. They are both purple and scarlet, and are so made that half the person is clothed in one, and the other half in the other. Both colours are extremely vivid, as the Greek and Latin authors uniformly represent them to have been. The scarlet part of the mantle has a pattern of large purple spots upon it. The
mantle and tunic are both edged with a deep gold lace. Tyrian.
This gorgeous dress agrees perfectly with the refinement
and luxury which all the classical writers ascribe to the features were well formed and regular, with more of the Tyrians, and which are vividly displayed by the prophet. European cast than is found in the Canaanites. The two The coloured figure is given by Rosellini, and has been figures regarded as Tyrian, in the tomb of Rameses well copied in Mr. Osborn's Egypt, her Testimony to the Meiamoun, give us much information respecting that Truth- from which the above description of it is abridged.
thine oars; the company of the Ashurites
have made thy benches of ivory, brought out | The rich supply of Tyrus. 26 The great and ir
of the isles of Chittim. recoverable fall thereof.
7 Fine linen with broidered work from The word of the LORD came again unto me, Egypt was that which thou spreadest forth to saying,
be thy sail ; 'blue and purple from the isles of 2 Now, thou son of man, take up a lament. Elishah was that which covered thee. ation for Tyrus ;
8 The inhabitants of Zidon and Arvad were 3 And say unto Tyrus, O thou that art thy mariners: thy wise men, O Tyrus, that situate at the entry of the sea, which art a were in thee, were thy pilots. merchant of the people for many isles, Thus
9 The ancients of Gebal and the wise men saith the Lord God; O Tyrus, thou hast said, thereof were in thee thy = $calkers : all the I am 'of perfect beauty.
ships of the sea with their mariners were in 4 Thy borders are in the midst of the seas, thee to occupy thy merchandise. thy builders have perfected thy beauty.
10 They of Persia and of Lud and of Phut 5 They have 'made all thy ship boards of were in thine army, thy men of war: they fir trees of Senir : they have taken cedars from hanged the shield and helmet in thee; they Lebanon to make masts for thee.
set forth thy comeliness. 6 of the oaks of Bashan have they made 11 The men of Arvad with thine army were 1 Heb. perfect of benuty.
* Or, they have made thy hatches of ivory well trodden, 6 Heb. the daughter. o Or, purple and scarlet. ? Or, stoppers of chinks.
8 lleb, strengtheners.
? Heb, heart.
3 Heb. built.
upon thy walls round about, and the Gam- cords, and made of cedar, among thy mermadims were in thy towers: they hanged their chandise. shields upon thy walls round about; they have 25 The ships of Tarshish did sing of thee made thy beauty perfect.
in thy market : and thou wast replenished, and 12 Tarshish was thy merchant by reason of made very glorious in the midst of the seas. the multitude of all kind of riches; with silver, 26 Thy rowers have brought thee into iron, tin, and lead, they traded in thy fairs. great waters: the east wind hath broken thee
13 Javan, Tubal, and Meshech, they were in the '&midst of the seas. thy merchants : they traded the persons of men
27 Thy 'riches, and thy fairs, thy merand vessels of brass in thy 'market.
chandise, thy mariners, and thy pilots, thy 14 They of the house of Togarmah traded calkers, and the occupiers of thy merchandise, in thy fairs with horses and horsemen and and all thy men of war, that are in thee, and mules.
in all thy company which is in the midst of 15 The men of Dedan were thy merchants; thee, shall fall into the "midst of the seas in many isles were the merchandise of thine hand : the day of thy ruin. they brought thee for a present horns of ivory 28 The suburbs shall shake at the sound and ebony
of the cry of thy pilots. 16 Syria was thy merchant by reason of the 29 And all that handle the car, the mamultitude of the wares of thy making: they riners, and all the pilots of the sea, shall come occupied in thy fairs with emeralds, purple, down from their ships, they shall stand upon the and broidered work, and fine linen, and coral, land ; and "agate.
30 And shall cause their voice to be heard 17 Judah, and the land of Israel, they were against thee, and shall cry bitterly, and shall thy merchants : they traded in thy market cast up dust upon their heads, they shall wheat of Minnith, and Pannag, and honey, and wallow themselves in the ashes : oil, and balm.
31 And they shall make themselves utterly 18 Damascus was thy merchant in the bald for thee, and gird them with sackclothi, multitude of the wares of thy making, for the and they shall weep for thee with bitterness of multitude of all riches; in the wine of Helbon, heart and bitter wailing. and white wool.
32 And in their wailing they shall take up 19 Dan also and Javan 'going to and fro a lamentation for thee, and lament over thee, occupied in thy fairs : bright iron, cassia, and saying, What city is like Tyrus, like the calamus, were in thy market.
destroyed in the midst of the sea ? 20 Dedan was thy merchant in 'precious 33 When thy wares went forth out of the clothes for chariots.
seas, thou filledst many people ; thou didst 21 Arabia, and all the princes of Kedar, enrich the kings of the earth with the multi18they occupied with thee in lambs, and rams, tude of thy riches and of thy merchandise. and goats: in these were they thy merchants. 34 In the time when thou shalt be broken
22 The merchants of Sheba and Raamah, by the seas in the depths of the waters thy they were thy merchants : they occupied in thy merchandise and all thy company in the midst fairs with chief of all spices, and with all pre- of thee shall fall. cious stones, and gold.
35 All the inhabitants of the isles shall be 23 Haran, and Canneh, and Eden, the astonished at thee, and their kings shall be merchants of Sheba, Asshur, and Chilmad, sore afraid, they shall be troubled in their were thy merchants.
countenance. 24 These were thy merchants in all sorts 36 The merchants among the people shall of things, in blue clothes, and broidered hiss at thee; thou shalt be "a terror, and work, and in chests of rich apparel, bound with ?never shalt be any more. 9 Or, merchandise. 10 Heb. thy works. 11 Heb. chrysoprase.
13 Or, Meuzal. 14 Heb. clothes of freedom. 15 Heb, they were the merchants of thy hand. 16 Or, excellent things. 17 Heb. foldings.
18 Heb. heart. 19 Revel. 18. 9, &c. 20 Or, even with all.
24 Heb. shalt not be for ever.
19 Or, rosin.
21 Heb. heart.
29 Or, waves.
23 Heb. terrors.
CHAP. XXVII.-We now arrive at a very singular and interesting chapter, giving an account of the commercial relations of Tyre, to the satisfactory elucidation of which, in all the lines of inquiry which it opens, the research and study of years might be advantageously applied. If we reflect on the extensive ramifications of the commerce
which this enterprising people conducted, we shall find, with Dr. Vincent, that if we consider this chapter only as historical, without any reference to the divine authority of the prophet, it is not only the most early but the most authentic record extant, relative to the commerce of the ancients.' Much has been done towards its illustration