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Deoprayag, is of black stone, the lower part painted red and others, to determine the situation and limits of the (Ibid. xi. 490). Of Buddhu, the great Ceylonese deity, territories thus distinguished, seem to us so utterly un. as we learn from Mr. Percival, who visited the temple in satisfactory, and based on such bald etymological conjec1800, the placid countenance was daubed all over with tures, that, knowing so little as we do of the subdivisions red paint' (Account of Ceylon, p. 392)..

of the Babylonian empire, it seems best to be content with Iustances of this sort might be multiplied, almost inde- knowing that the people of Pekod, Shoa, and Koa were finitely, from travels in the East. But these will suffice subject to that empire, and served in its army against Jeto exemplify the prevalence of a usage. It is difficult to rusalem. determine with any certainty the origin of such a custom. 25. They shall take away thy nose and thine ears.'The conjecture of Sir William Ouseley, who first called These barbarous punishments have always been most exattention to this curious subject, is perhaps the best that tensively in use in the East, and examples, without numcan be offered. It was, and is believed to be still, usual to ber, of their infliction might be adduced from history, sprinkle an altar or idol with the victim's blood ; it may, ancient and modern. As the mystical adultery of Israel therefore, be supposed that the red paint served as a re- and Judah is the subject of this allegory, it may be inpresentative of the sanguinary oblation, for which it served, structive to learn that in Egypt the noses of adulterous at the same time, for a cheap and innocent substitute. persons were cut off, and in Chaldæa both their ears and

15. Exceeding in dyed attire upon their heads.'— From noses. For some offences, in the East, the nose has been this we understand two things, that the head-dress was and is cut off; for others, the ears; and frequently both ample, and that it was coloured : indeed the text is usu- members at once. Inileed there seems at all times to ally considered to express that it was parti-coloured ; and have been a barbarous fancy for joining these two so Boothroyd, having various coloured turbans upon members in the same punishment. It does not appear their heads. The comparison of this head-dress to an that the Hebrews ever exercised such mutilations; but Oriental turban was suggested by Calmet, and it is in fact they must have known them well as inflicted by their difficult to understand anything else. This, as is well heathen neighbours. That it was common in Persia, in known, consists of a cap (which, however, is sometimes Scriptural times, appears from the story of Zopyrus, a wanting), around which is wound a long and large band- Persian officer, who cut off his own nose and ears, and age, which goes round the head in many folds till it often otherwise mutilated himself in a very barbarous manner. attains a very large circumference. But it is remarkable He then went to the Babylonians, and pretended to have that these are seldom parti-coloured, except among the been thus treated by his sovereign, Darius Hystaspes; and representatives of the ancient Assyrians, the Kurds, who the trust and confidence which his pretended desire of generally wear turbans striped or plaided of different co- revenge procured for him enabled him to betray the place lours, most commonly red, blue, and white. We know to his master. This shews that this mutilation must also that the ancient Persians were noted for their love of have been known as a Persian punishment: and the various gay colours in their dresses generally, as the Greek same testimony is furnished by the merciful direction of writers sneered at them and called them peacocks on that Artaxerxes Longimanus, that those persons convicted of account. Gesenius, however, does not agree that there is offences for which the ears were usually cut off, should any reference to colour, but renders, ' with long turbans have the flaps of their turbans clipped instead. Even in hanging down.' At present one or both ends of the head

modern times this punishment has been inflicted on bandage are sometimes allowed to hang down, particularly persons of consideration. Shah Abbas, in particular, was in travelling, to cover the neck; and if we again refer to wont to cut off the ears and noses of governors of prothe Kurds, we find that they allow long strings, attached vinces convicted of injustice. Nadir Shah, when he withto the end of the bandage and forming a deep fringe, to drew his army from the Indian metropolis to return to hang down about and between their shoulders. In fact, Persia, left positive orders that if any of his soldiers were both explanations so well concur in the head-dress of this found in Delhi after his march, they were to cut off their people, that we might almost suspect it has descended ears and noses, and then send them to him. Some of unaltered from very ancient times. The peculiarities them incurred this punishment (Gladwin's, Khojeh Aballuded to indeed are found only among the representa- dulkurreem, p. 1). These punishments have of late years tives of ancient nations. The Turks rarely wear parti- become less conimon in Western Asia than formerly; coloured turbans, neither do theirs hang down; and the and are chiefly confined to the punishment of frauduleut Persians wear caps. But the proper head-dress of the dealings by shopkeepers and others. The ear is more Kurds is parti-coloured, and hangs down; and to the frequently cut off than the nose, and oftener the lobe of head-dress of the Arabs, the people least altered by time, the ear than the entire ear. The loss of both members at the same observations apply, although in other respects the same time occurs but rarely; and then chiefly through it differs widely from that of the Kurds.

the anger of some despotic prince or governor, who can 23. Pekod, and Shoa, and Kou.'—'The Vulgate, as well direct what punishment he pleases for his offending as Aquila and some Hebrew writers, with a few modern servants. Thus the notorious Djezzar of Acre seldom interpreters, take these words to denote the titles of dig- allowed those about him to remain long in possession of nitaries and governors in the Babylonian court or empire. their ears and noses, and often deprived them of their But no such titles occur in Daniel, where, if this conjec

eyes and hands.

• There were,' says Dr. Clarke, persons ture were well founded, we might expect to find them. standing by the door of his apartment, some without a There are other reasons of great weight in favour of the nose, others without an arm, with one ear only, or one more general opinion that the names denote certain por- eye—"marked men,”. as he termed them; persons bearing tions of the Babylonian empire, or of nations subject to signs of having been instructed to serve their master with that empire. But the attempts made by Junius, Grotius, fidelity.' [Vv. 12, 15, 24. APPENDIX, No. 70.]

CHAPTER XXIV. 1 Under the parable of a boiling pot, 6 is shewed the

irrecoverable destruction of Jerusalem. 15 By the sign of Ezekiel not mourning for the death of his wife, 19 is shewed the calamity of the Jews to be

beyond all sorrow. Again in the ninth year, in the tenth month,

in the tenth day of the month, the word of the LORD came unto me, saying,

2 Son of man, Write thee the name of the day, even of this same day: the king of Babylon set himself against Jerusalem this same day. 3 And utter a parable unto the rebellious

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house, and say unto them, Thus saith the 16 Son of man, behold, I take away from Lord God; Set on a pot, set it on, and also thee the desire of thine eyes with a stroke: pour water into it:

yet neither shalt thou mourn nor weep, neither 4 Gather the pieces thereof into it, even shall thy tears ørun down. every good piece, the thigh, and the shoulder; 17 'Forbear to cry, make no mourning for fill it with the choice bones.

the dead, bind the tire of thine head upon 5 Take the choice of the flock, and 'burn thee, and put on thy shoes upon thy feet, and also the bones under it, and make it boil cover not thy 'lips, and eat not the bread of well, and let them seethe the bones of it men. therein.

18 So I spake unto the people in the morn6 Wherefore thus saith the Lord God; | ing: and at even my wife died ; and I did in Woe to the bloody city, to the pot whose the morning as I was commanded. scum is therein, and whose scum is not gone 19 And the people said unto me, Wilt out of it! bring it out piece by piece ; let no thou not tell us what these things are to us, lot fall upon it.

that thou doest so? 7 For her blood is in the midst of her ; 20 Then I answered them, The word of she set it upon the top of a rock; she poured | the LORD came unto me, saying, it not upon the ground, to cover it with dust; 21 Speak unto the house of Israel, Thus

8 That it might cause fury to come up to saith the Lord God; Behold, I will profane take vengeance; I have set her blood upon my sanctuary, the excellency of your strength, the top of a rock, that it should not be the desire of your eyes, and ®that which covered.

your soul pitieth ; and your sons and your 9 Therefore thus saith the Lord God; daughters whom ye have left shall fall by the Woe to the bloody city! I will even make sword. the pile for fire great.

22 And

ye shall do as I have done : ye 10 Heap on wood, kindle the fire, consume shall not cover your lips, nor eat the bread of the flesh, and spice it well, and let the bones be burned.

23 And your tires shall be upon your 11 Then set it empty upon the coals heads, and your shoes upon your feet : ye thereof, that the brass of it may be hot, and shall not mourn nor weep; but ye shall pine may burn, and that the filthiness of it may be away for your iniquities, and mourn one tomolten in it, that the scum of it may be con- ward another. sumed.

24 Thus Ezekiel is unto you a sign : ac12 She hath wearied herself with lies, and cording to all that he hath done shall ye do: her great scum went not forth out of her: her and when this cometh, ye shall know that I scum shall be in the fire.

am the Lord God. 13 In thy filthiness is lewdness: because 25 | Also, thou son of man, shall it not be I have purged thee, and thou wast not purged, in the day when I take from them their thou shalt not be purged from thy filthiness strength, the joy of their glory, the desire of any more, till I have caused my fury to rest their eyes, and that whereupon they set their upon thee.

minds, their sons and their daughters, 14 I the LORD have spoken it: it shall 26 That he that escapeth in that day shall come to pass, and I will do it; I will not go come unto thee, to cause thee to hear it with back, neither will I spare, neither will I re- thine ears? pent; according to thy ways, and according 27 In that day shall thy mouth be opened to thy doings, shall they judge thee, saith the to him which is escaped, and thou shalt speak, Lord GOD.

and be no more dumb: and thou shalt be a 15 | Also the word of the Lord came sign unto them; and they shall know that I unto me, saying,

am the LORD.
1 Or, heap.
5 Heb. upper lip: and so verse 22. 6 Heb, the pity of your soul. 7 Heb, the lifting up of their soul.


? Nah. 3. 1. Hab. 2, 12.

8 Heb.go.

4 Heh. Be silent.

Verse 3. • Set on a pot,' etc.— The images here are derived from the wholesale cookery required for feeding a large number of persons-or such as occurs in the East when a large animal is killed, and (as the meat will not keep) must be dressed and eaten at once. Burder very happily conjectures that the following description of a

royal camel feast (from the Philosophical Transactions) supplies some illustration of the parable contained in this chapter: Before mid-day, a carpet being spread in the middle of the tent, our dinner was brought in, being served up in large wooden bowls between two men; and truly to my apprehension load enough for them. Of these great platters there were about fifty or sixty in number, of the moderns. It certainly produces a very clear sense perhaps more, with a great many little ones; I mean such (see Jer. xvi. 7), and is the more probable as the very as one man was able to bring in, strewed here and there phrase, as thus corrected, occurs in a similar sense in among them, and placed for a border or garnish round Hos. ix. 4. However, the word as it stands becomes sufabout the table. In the middle was one of a larger size ficiently expressive when employed in the strict sense, than all the rest, in which were camel's bones, and a thin with a reference to its root, to be sick, miserable,' allow. broth in which they were boiled. The other greater ing the translation given by Newcome and some others, ones seemed all filled with one and the same sort of pro- • Eat not the bread of wretched men.' vision, a kind of plum-broth, made of rice and the fleshy 18. At even my wife died.'-We may here fitly intropart of the camel, with currants and spices, being of a duce the remarks of the Rev. F. W. Gotch, on this somewbat darker colour than what is made in our incident, as given in his art. EZEKIEL, in Kitro's Cyclocountry.' The Hebrew words translated burn, shonld pædia. 'Most critics have remarked the vigour and have been rendered, as in the margin, heap. The mean- surpassing energy which are manifest in the character of ing cannot be that the bones were to be burnt under the Ezekiel. The whole of his writings shew how admirally caldron, but that they were to be heaped up in it: for it he was fitted, as well by natural disposition as by spiritual is said, let them seethe the bones of it therein. With this endowment, to oppose “the rebellious house," the people interpretation the Septuagint translation of the passage of stubborn front and hard heart," to which he was sent. agrees: and viewed in this light, the object is ascertained ... This characteristic is shewn most remarkably in the by the foregoing extract.

entire subordination of his whole life to the great work 17. 'Bind the tire of thine head upon thee.'—In this and to which he was called. We never meet with him as an the other directions, the prophet is enjoined to proceed as ordinary man; he always acts, and thinks, and feels as a people did in ordinary life to whom no bereavement had prophet. This energy of mind, developed in the one happened ; and the forms of mourning are therefore direction of the prophetic office, is strikingly displayed in rather implied than expressed. The present text doubt- the account he gives of the death of his wife. "It'js the less refers to the covering of the head, which is often only memorable event of his personal history which he mentioned in Scripture as the act of a mourner, and as records, and it is mentioned merely in reference to this such has already been duly noticed.

soul absorbing work. There is something, inexpressibly - Put on thy shoes upon thy feet.'— This directs the touching as well as characteristic in this brief narrativeprophet not to go barefoot, as mourners usually did. the “ desire of his eyes” taken away with a stroke—the - Cover not thy lips.'—To muffile or cover the lower command not to mourn-and the simple statement,

“ so I part of the face is a natural and expressive act of mourn- spake unto the people in the morning, and at even my ing, which may be seen any day among our mourners wife died: and I did in the morning as I was commanded." that go about the streets. The present text, however, That he possessed the common sympathies and affections perhaps refers to something more formal than this-some- of humanity is manifest from the beautiful touch of ten. thing such as was not long ago, and probably is still, derness with which the narrative is introduced. We may practised by the Jews of Barbary, according to the even judge that a mind so earnest as his would be more description which Harmer quotes from Dean Addison. than usually alive to the feelings of affection when once • They return from the grave to the house of the deceased, they had obtained a place in his heart. He then, who where one, who as chief mourner receives them, with his could thus completely subordinate the strongest interests jaws tied up with a linen cloth, after the same manner of his individual life to the great work of his prophetic that they bind up the dead. And by this the mourner is office, may well command our admiration, and be looked said to testify that he was ready to die with his friend, upon as (to use Hävernick's expression) " a truly gigantic And thus muffled the mourner goes for seven days; dur- phenomenon.” It is interesting to contrast Ezekiel in this ing which time the rest of his friends come every twenty- respect with his contemporary Jeremiah, whose personal four hours to pray with him.'

history is continually presented to us in the course of his - The bread of men.'— This is a correct translation writings; and the contrast serves to shew that the peculifrom our present copies; but some of the ancient versions arity we are noticing in Ezekiel belongs to his individual translate, the bread of mourners,' and must therefore have character, and was not necessarily connected with the gift read 5x, 'mourners,' instead of ver, men ;' and this of prophecy.' interpretation has been followed by Houbigant and many


4 Behold, therefore I will deliver thee to

the 'men of the east for a possession, and they 1 God's vengeance for their insolence against the Jews, upon the Ammonites, 8 upon Moab and Seir,

shall set their palaces in thee, and make their 12 upon Edom, 15 and upon the Philistines. dwellings in thee: they shall eat thy fruit, and

they shall drink thy milk. The word of the LORD came again unto me, 5 And I will make Rabbah a stable for saying,

camels, and the Ammonites a couching place 2 Son of man, set thy face 'against the for flocks: and ye shall know that I am the

LORD. 3 And say unto the Ammonites, Hear the 6 For thus saith the Lord God; Because word of the Lord God; Thus saith the Lord thou hast clapped thine hands, and stamped God; Because thou saidst, Aha, against my with the 'feet, and rejoiced in 'heart with all sanctuary, when it was profaned ; and against thy despite against the land of Israel ; the land of Israel, when it was desolate; and 7 Behold, therefore I will stretch out mine against the house of Judah, when they went hand upon thee, and will deliver thee for a into captivity;

spoil to the heathen; and I will cut thee off - Heb. foot.

1 Jer. 49. 1, &c.

2 Heb, children.

3 Heb. hand.

5 Heb. soul.

6 Or, meat.

from the people, and I will cause thee to perish | will also stretch out mine hand upon Edom, out of the countries : I will destroy thee; and and will cut off man and beast from it; and I thou shalt know that I am the LORD.

will make it desolate from Teman ; and “they 8 Thus saith the Lord God; 'Because of Dedan shall fall by the sword. that Moab and Seir do say, Behold, the house 14 And I will lay my vengeance upon of Judah is like unto all the heathen;

Edom by the hand of my people Israel: and 9 Therefore, behold, I will open the 'side they shall do in Edom according to mine of Moab from the cities, from his cities which anger and according to my fury; and they are on his frontiers, the glory of the country, shall know my vengeance, saith the Lord God. Beth-jeshimoth, Baal-meon, and Kiriathaim, 15 . Thus saith the Lord God; Because

10 Unto the men of the east 'with the Am- the Philistines have dealt by revenge, and monites, and will give them in possession, have taken vengeance with a despiteful heart, that the Ammonites may not be remembered to destroy it for the old hatred; among the nations.

16 Therefore thus saith the Lord God; 11 And I will execute judgments upon Behold, I will stretch out mine hand upon Moab; and they shall know that I am the Philistines, and I will cut off the Cherethims, LORD.

and destroy the remnant of the **sea coasts. 12 4 Thus saith the Lord God; Because 17 And I will execute great '*vengeance that Edom hath dealt against the house of upon them with furious rebukes; and they Judah ''by taking vengeance, and hath greatly shall know that I am the LORD, when I shall offended, and revenged himself upon them lay my vengeance upon them.

. 13 Therefore thus saith the Lord God; I



7 Jer. 18. 1, &c. 8 Heb. shoulder of Moab. 11 Or, they shall fall by the sw.rd unto Dedan.

9 Or, against the children of Ammon. 10 Heb. by revenging revengement, 12 Or, with perpetual hatred. 13 Or, haven of the sea. 1 Heb. rengeances.

CHAP. XXV.-The prophecies in this chapter, directed against the guilty neighbours of the Jews, are the same in substance with those which have already engaged our attention in Isaiah and Jeremiah, and which therefore require little further remark.

Verse 5. • 1 will make Rabbah a stable for camels, and the Ammonites a couching-place for flocks.'— See the end of the note on Rabbah, in Jer. xlix. 2; and also the note on Isa. xv. 2 ; which, although it primarily refers to Moab, is equally applicable here. With the word • Ammonites,' we must of course understand the chief city' or 'cities' of the Amnonites : for it is not expressive of desolation that flocks should pasture anywhere in the open country; but it is eminently so, that they should be stabled among the ruins and fed upon the sites of cities once populous and eminent. That this is the sense is shewn by the context, as well as by other passages. When Mr. Buckingham visited Rabbah-Ammon, he halted for the night with a tribe of Arabs, who were found encamped among the ruins, in a hollow behind the top of the theatre. Next morning he inserts in his journal—During the night I was almost entirely prevented from sleeping by the bleating of the flocks, the neighing of mares, and the barking of dogs.'— Travels anong the Arab Tribes, pp. 72, 73.

7. I will cause thee to perish out of the countries.'- In verse 10 it is also said that the Ammonites shall not be remembered among the nations.' strikingly point to the difference between their case and

that of the Hebrews. The latter, in the midst of their troubles and dispersions, have survived to this day as a distinct people; and their renowned land has never, since they lost it, ceased to be known and regarded with interest, because they once occupied it. But for ages no one has lived claiming a descent from the Ammonites; and for ages their existence as a nation, or even as a tribe, has been extinct. And as to their country, it has only been within these few years that it has been recognized by European travellers, or that any information concerning it has been acquired. Till then its situation generally was collected from the Scriptural intimations, which, with some information from ancient writers concerning its towns, formed the amount of what was known concerning the land of Ammon. And even now, while the antiquarian traveller knows that he is in that land, recognizes the name which the Bible has made familiar, marks the position and character of sites and ruins, and, whether he intends it or not, collects information to confirm the predictions of ancient prophecy-the few inhabitants, while they preserve the names which the Ammonites gave to their towns, have no traditions concerning that people, nor know whose land it is that they occupy. So utterly has the memory of Ammon perished, that it would at this day be unknown that such a people ever existed, or that the country in question was ever in their possession, were it not that the Sacred Book preserves the record of their history and doom.

These passages


the first day of the month, that the word of

the Lord came unto me, saying, 1 Tyrus, for insulting against Jerusalem, is threatened.

2 Son of man, because that Tyrus bath said T The power of Nebuchadrezzar against her. 15 The mourning and astonishment of the sea at her against Jerusalem, Aha, she is broken that fall.

was the gates of the people: she is turned

unto me: I shall be replenished, now she is And it came to pass in the eleventh year, inlaid waste :

3 Therefore thus saith the Lord God; 13 *And I will cause the noise of thy songs Beliold, I am against thee, O Tyrus, and will to cease ; and the sound of thy harps shall be cause many nations to come up against thee, no more heard. as the sea causeth his waves to come up.

14 And I will make thee like the top of a 4 And they shall destroy the walls of Tyrus, rock : thou shalt be a place to spread nets and break down her towers: I will also scrape upon; thou shalt be built no more: for I the her dust from her, and make her like the top LORD have spoken it, saith the Lord God. of a rock.

15 9 Thus saith the Lord God to Tyrus; 5 It shall be a place for the spreading of Shall not the isles shake at the sound of thy nets in the midst of the sea : for I have spoken fall, when the wounded cry, when the slaughit, saith the Lord God: and it shall become ter is made in the midst of thee? a spoil to the nations.

16 Then all the princes of the sea shall 6 And her daughters which are in the field come down from their thrones, and lay away shall be slain by the sword; and they shall their robes, and put off their broidered garknow that I am the LORD.

ments: they shall clothe themselves with 71 For thus saith the Lord God; Behold, 'trembling; they shall sit upon the ground, I will bring upon Tyrus Nebuchadrezzar king and shall tremble at every moment, and be of Babylon, a king of kings, from the north, astonished at thee. with horses, and with chariots, and with horse- 17 And they shall take up a 'lamentation men, and companies, and much people. for thee, and say to thee, How art thou

8 He shall slay with the sword thy daugh- destroyed, that wast inhabited of seafaring ters in the field : and he shall make a fort men, the renowned city, which wast strong in against thee, and 'cast a mount against thee, the sea, she and her inhabitants, which cause and lift up the buckler against thee.

their terror to be on all that haunt it! 9 And he shall set engines of war against 18 Now shall the isles tremble in the day thy walls, and with his axes he shall break of thy fall; yea, the isles that are in the sea down thy towers.

shall be troubled at thy departure. 10 By reason of the abundance of his horses 19 For thus saith the Lord God; When I their dust shall cover thee : thy walls shall shall make thee a desolate city, like the cities shake at the noise of the horsemen, and of the that are not inhabited; when I shall bring up wheels, and of the chariots, when he shall enter the deep upon thee, and great waters shall into thy gates, 'as men enter into a city wherein cover thee; is made a breach.

20 When I shall bring thee down with them 11 With the hoofs of his horses shall he that descend into the pit, with the people of tread down all thy streets: he shall slay thy old time, and shall set thee in the low parts of people by the sword, and thy strong garrisons the earth, in places desolate of old, with them shall go down to the ground.

that go down to the pit, that thou be not inha12 And they shall make a spoil of thy bited ; and I shall set glory in the land of the riches, and make a prey of thy merchandise : living ; and they shall break down thy walls, and 21 I will make thee 8a terror, and thou destroy thy pleasant houses : and they shall shalt be no more : though thou be sought for, lay thy stones and thy timber and thy dust in yet shalt thou never be found again, saith the the midst of the water.

Lord God. i Or, pour out the engine of shot. 2 Heb. according to the enterings of a city broken up. 3 Heb. houses of thy desire. • Jsa. 24. 8. Jer, 7. 34, and 16. 9. 5 Heb, tremblings.

7 Heb. of the sens.

6 Revel, 18. 9.

8 Heb. terrors.

Verse 2. Tyrus.'--This prophecy, which so circumstantially predicts the downfall of Tyre and its condition to remote ages, was delivered at a time when that city was in the height of its prosperity and power. From the interest necessarily connected with whatever relates to so remarkable a people as the Tyrians, and still more from the striking corroborations which may be obtained, from different sources, of the prophecies which relate to their history and condition, there are few passages of Scripture which afford room for more ample and interesting illustration than the present chapter. As the separate illustration of every point would occupy our space more fully than our limits allow, we judge it preferable to give a general historical notice of Tyre; adding under verse 5,

a series of brief notices from successive travellers, to illustrate its decline and present condition; thus enabling the reader to trace the historical connection and marked fulfilment of the prophecies which relate to that renowned city.

We have already taken some slight (but, for our purpose, sufficient) notice of the origin of Tyre, as a colony of Zidon (see the notes on Josh. xix. 24; Judges i. 31). and shall not here return to the subject, or inquire into the date-certainly very ancient--at which this Zidonian settlement was formed. It is however to be borne in mind that ancient history and geography recognize two Tyres, differently situated. The more ancient 'Tyre was placed on the shore of the continent; and the other upon




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