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much force. 2. In another kind of ram, the mighty in- allowance for the difference between the then existing and strument acted upon rollers, and its power appears to have the present standards. Sir Christopher Wreu found the been very great, although it must have been worked with ram a very serviceable instrument for throwing down old more labour than the preceding. Its advantage over the walls, particularly in disjoining the stones; but it is other seems to have been that, while its force was scarcely nevertheless calculated (Grose's Military Antiquities, inferior (some suppose it was greater), it acted with more i. 384) that the momentum of one, 28 inches in diameter, precision. 3. There was another ram, which was not 180 feet long, with a head of a ton and a half, weighing suspended or mounted on rollers, but was borne and worked 41,112 lbs., and worked by a thousand men, would only by manual strength. It is difficult to estimate the effect be equal to a point-blank shot from a thirty-six pounder. which such an instrument could have upon strong wall, Various methods were employed by the besieged to and perhaps it was only used for such purposes as did not avert or counteract the effect of the battering-ram, which, require the greater momentum which the other engines from the accounts of ancient sieges, appears to have been necessarily possessed. However, on the column of Tra- more dreaded by them than any other machine of war, jan, we see the Dacians besieging some Romans in a and against which therefore their ingenuity and force fortress, which they batter with a ram, worked only by were chiefly directed. Fire was thrown down upon the the strength of their arms. The battering.ram was very roof of the covering, or on the timbers that supported the generally covered by a moveable shed, called a tortoise ram, in the hope of burning the whole concern together; (testudo), which protected the men by whom it was to deaden the force of the blow, large sacks of wool or worked. In estimating the eff these engines from chaff were let down to cover place at which it was the accounts of ancient writers, we must make large levelled. This seems to have annoyed the besiegers more
SUSPENDED BATTERING-RAM.-From Grose's 'Military Antiquities.'
than anything else; but Josephus describes them as counteracting it by tying sharp hooks to the end of long poles, and cutting the cords by which the bags were suspended. Sontetimes also other machines were opposed to the ram, to break its force, or to turn aside its head while battering the works. Vast stones were also sometimes thrown down, in the hope of breaking off the head of the engine.
Josephus frequently alludes to the battering-rams in his account of the siege of Jerusalem, but the most complete and satisfactory account is that which he gives in the account of the affairs at Jotapata, where the defence was conducted under his own direction. It is too long for us to copy; but may be found in his Book iii. ch. 7, sects. 19-21.
of it, that her time may come, and maketh
idols against herself to defile herself. 1 A catalogue of sins in Jerusalem. 13 God will burn them as dross in his furnace. 23 The general cor
4 Thou art become guilty in thy blood ruption of prophets, priests, princes, and people.
that thou hast 'shed; and hast defiled thyself
in thine idols which thou hast made; and thou MOREOVER the word of the LORD came unto hast caused thy days to draw near, and art me, saying,
come even unto thy years: therefore have I 2 Now, thou son of man, 'wilt thou 'judge, made thee a reproach unto the heathen, and wilt thou judge the 'bloody city? yea, thou a mocking to all countries. shalt 'shew her all her abominations.
5 Those that be near, and those that be far 3 Then say thou, Thus saith the Lord from thee, shall mock thee, which art 'infaGod; The city sheddeth blood in the midst mous and much vexed. 1 Chap. 20. 4, and 23. 36. 2 Or, plead for: 3 Heb. city of bloods.
3 2 Kings 21. 16. 6 Heb. polluted of name, much in cezalion.
4 Heb. make her knor.
and thou hast greedily gained of thy neigh-26 Her priests have "violated
6 Behold, the princes of Israel, every one iron, and lead, and tin, into the midst of the were in thee to their "power to shed blood. furnace, to blow the fire upon it, to nielt it;
7 In thee have they set light by father and so will I gather you in mine anger and in iny mother: in the midst of thee have they dealt fury, and I will leave you there, and melt by Soppression with the stranger : in thee you. have they vexed the fatherless and the 21 Yea, I will gather you, and blow upon widow.
you in the fire of my wrath, and ye shall be 8 Thou hast despised mine holy things, melted in the midst thereof. and hast profaned my sabbaths.
22 As silver is melted in the midst of the 9 In thee are 'men that carry tales to furnace, so shall ye be melted in the midst shed blood : and in thee they eat upon the thereof; and ye shall know that I the Lord mountains : in the midst of thee they commit have poured out my fury upon you. lewdness.
23 | And the word of the LORD came unto 10 In thee have they discovered their me, saying, fathers' nakedness: in thee have they humbled 24 Son of man, say unto her, Thou art the her that was ''set apart for pollution.
land that is not cleansed, nor rained upon in 11 And 'one hath committed abomination the day of indignation. with his neighbour's wife; and another 25 There is a conspiracy of her prophets in hath lewdly defiled his daughter in law; the midst thereof, like a roaring lion ravening and another in thee hath humbled his sister, the prey; they have devoured souls ; they his father's daughter.
have taken the treasure and precious things; 12 In thee have they taken gifts to shed they have made her many widows in the midst
my law, and bours by extortion, and hast forgotten me, have profaned mine holy things : they have saith the Lord God.
put no difference between the holy and pro13 9 Behold, therefore I have ''smitten fane, neither have they shewed difference mine hand at thy dishonest gain which thou between the unclean and the clean, and have hast made, and at thy blood which hath been hid their eyes from my sabbaths, and I am in the midst of thee.
profaned among them. 14 Can thine heart endure, or can thine 27 Her ''princes in the midst thereof are hands be strong, in the days that I shall deal like wolves ravening the prey, to shed blood, with thee? I the LORD have spoken it, and and to destroy souls, to get dishonest gain. will do it.
28 And her prophets have daubed them 15 And I will scatter thee among the with untempered morter, seeing vanity, and heathen, and disperse thee in the countries, divining lies unto them, saying, Thus saith and will consume thy filthiness out of thee. the Lord God, when the LORD hath not
16 And thou ''shalt take thine inheritance spoken. in thyself in the sight of the heathen, and thou 29 The people of the land have used shalt know that I am the LORD.
oppression, and exercised robbery, and have 17 And the word of the LORD came unto vexed the poor and needy: yea, they have me, saying,
oppressed the stranger "wrongfully. 18 Son of man, the house of Israel is to 30 And I sought for a man among them, me become dross : all they are brass, and tin, that should make up the hedge, and stand in and iron, and lead, in the midst of the fur- the
gap before me for the land, that I should nace; they are even the ''dross of silver.
not destroy it: but I found none. 19 Therefore thus saith the Lord God; 31 Therefore have I poured out mine Because ye are all become dross, behold, indignation upon them; I have consumed therefore I will gather you into the midst of them with the fire of my wrath : their own Jerusalem.
way have I recompensed upon their heads, 20 * As they gather silver, and brass, and saith the Lord GOD. 9 Heb, men of slanders.
17 Chap. 21.11. 18 Or, shall be profaned.
žo Heb. according to the gathering. 22 Heb. offered violence to.
Zeph. 3. 3.
25 Heb. without right.
7 Heb. arni.
8 Or, decent. 13 Levit. 18. 20. Jer. 3. &.
10 Levit. 18. 8, and 20. 11. 15 Or, by lewdness.
11 Levit. 18. 19. 16 Levit, 18. 9.
12 Or, every one.
14 Or, every one.
23 Mic, 3. 11
1 Matt. 23. 14.
24 Or, deceit.
15 Girded with girdles upon their loins, CHAPTER XXIII.
exceeding in dyed attire upon their heads, all 1 The whoredoms of Aholah and Aholibah. 22 Aho- of them princes to look to, after the manner
libah is to be plagued by her lovers. 36 The prophet of the Babylonians of Chaldea, the land of reproveth the adulteries of them both, 45 and sheweth their judgments.
their nativity :
16 And as soon as she saw them with her The word of the LORD came again unto me, eyes, she doted upon them, and sent messaying,
sengers unto them into Chaldea. 2 Son of man, there were two women, the 17 And the 'Babylonians came to her into daughters of one mother:
the bed of love, and they defiled her with 3 And they committed whoredoms in their wboredom, and she was polluted with Egypt; they committed whoredoms in their them, and her mind was "alienated from youth : there were their breasts pressed, and them. there they bruised the teats of their virginity. 18 So she discovered her whoredoms, and
4 And the names of them were Aholah the discovered her nakedness: then my mind was elder, and Aholibah her sister : and they were alienated from her, like as my mind was mine, and they bare sons and daughters. Thus alienated from her sister. were their names ; Samaria is Aholah, and 19 Yet she multiplied her whoredoms, in Jerusalem Aholibah.
calling to remembrance the days of her youth, 5 And Aholah played the harlot when she wherein she had played the harlot in the land was mine ; and she doted on her lovers, on
of Egypt. the Assyrians her neighbours,
20 For she doted
paramours, 6 Which were clothed with blue, captains whose flesh is as the flesh of asses, and whose and rulers, all of them desirable young men, issue is like the issue of horses. horsemen riding upon horses.
21 Thus thou calledst to remembrance the 7 Thus she committed her whoredoms lewdness of thy youth, in bruising thy teats by with them, with all them that were 'the chosen the Egyptians for the
the Egyptians for the paps of thy youth. men of Assyria, and with all on whom she 22 1 Therefore, 0 Aholibah, thus saith doted : with all their idols she defiled herself. the Lord God; Behold, I will raise up thy
8 Neither left she her whoredoms brought lovers against thee, from whom thy mind is from Egypt: for in her youth they lay with alienated, and I will bring them against thee her, and they bruised the breasts of her vir
on every side; ginity, and poured their whoredom upon her. 23 The Babylonians, and all the Chal
9 Wherefore I have delivered her into the deans, Pekod, and Shoa, and Koa, and all hand of her lovers, into the hand of the the Assyrians with them : all of them deAssyrians, upon whom she doted.
sirable young men, captains and rulers, great 10 These discovered her nakedness: they lords and renowned, all of them riding upon took her sons and her daughters, and slew her horses. with the sword : and she became 'famous 24 And they shall come against thee with among women ; for they had executed judg- chariots, waggons, and wheels, and with an ment upon her.
assembly of people, which shall set against 11 And when her sister Aholibah saw this, thee buckler and shield and helmet round ‘she was more corrupt in her inordinate love about : and I will set judgment before them, than she, and in her whoredoms "more than and they shall judge thee according to their her sister in her whoredoms.
judgments. 12 She doted upon the "Assyrians her 25 And I will set my jealousy against neighbours, captains and rulers clothed most thee, and they shall deal furiously with thee : gorgeously, horsemen riding upon horses, all | they shall take away thy nose and thine ears ; of them desirable young men.
and thy remnant shall fall by the sword : 13 Then I saw that she was defiled, that they shall take thy sons and thy daughters ; they took both one way,
and thy residue shall be devoured by the fire. 14 And that she increased her whoredoms : 26 They shall also strip thee out of thy for when she saw men pourtrayed upon the clothes, and take away thy "fair jewels. wall, the images of the Chaldeans pourtrayed 27 Thus will I make thy lewdness to cease with vermilion,
from thee, and thy whoredom brought from 1 Heb. bestowed her whoredoms upon them. 2 Heb. the choice of the children of Asshur. 8 2 Kings 17. 23.
3 Heb. she corrupted her inordinate love more than, &c. 6 Heb. more than the whoredoms of her sister. 7 2 Kings 16.7. 8 Heb. at the sight of her eyes. 9 Heb. children of Babel. 10 Heb. loosed, or, disjointed. 11 Heb. instruments of thy decking.
4 Heb. a name.
the land of Egypt: so that thou shalt not lift they have defiled my sanctuary in the same up thine eyes unto them, nor remember Egypt day, and have profaned my sabbaths. any more.
39 For when they had slain their children 28 For thus saith the Lord God; Behold, to their idols, then they came the same day I will deliver thee into the hand of them whom into my sanctuary to profane it; and, lo, thou hatest, into the hand of them from whom ""thus have they done in the midst of mine thy mind is alienated :
house. 29 And they shall deal with thee hate- 40 And furthermore, that ye have sent for fully, and shall take away all thy labour, men 'sto come from far, unto whom a mesand shall leave thee naked and bare: and senger was sent; and, lo, they came : for the nakedness of thy whoredoms shall be dis- whom thou didst wash thyself, paintedst thy covered, both thy lewdness and thy whore- eyes, and deckedst thyself with ornaments, doms.
41 And satest upon a 'stately bed, and a 30 I will do these things unto thee, be- table prepared before it, ""whereupon thou cause thou hast gone a whoring after the hast set mine incense and mine oil.
heathen, and because thou art polluted with 42 And a voice of a multitude being at
ease was with her: and with the men of the 31 Thou hast walked in the way of thy common sort were brought " "Sabeans from the sister; therefore will I give her cup into thine wilderness, which put bracelets upon their hand.
hands, and beautiful crowns upon their heads. 32 Thus saith the Lord God; Thou shalt 43 Then said I unto her that was old in drink of thy sister's cup deep and large : thou adulteries, Will they now commit zowhoreshalt be laughed to scorn and had in derision; doms with her, and she with them ? it containeth much.
44 Yet they went in unto her, as they go 33 Thou shalt be filled with drunkenness in unto a woman that playeth the barlot: so and sorrow, with the cup of astonishment and went they in unto Aholah and unto Aholibah, desolation, with the cup of thy sister Samaria. the lewd women.
34 Thou shalt even drink it and suck it 45 | And the righteous men, they shall out, and thou shalt break the sherds thereof, judge them after the manner of adulteresses, and pluck off thine own breasts : for I have and after the manner of women that shed spoken it, saith the Lord God.
blood; because they are adulteresses, and 35 Therefore thus saith the Lord God; blood is in their hands. Because thou hast forgotten me, and cast me 46 For thus saith the Lord God; I will behind thy back, therefore bear thou also bring up a company upon them, and will give thy lewdness and thy whoredoms.
them to . 36 | The LORD said moreover unto me; 47 And the company shall stone them Son of man, wilt thou " "judge Aholah and with stones, and dispatch them with their Aholibah ? yea, declare unto them their swords; they shall slay their sons and their abominations ;
daughters, and burn up their houses with fire. 37 That they have committed adultery, 48 Thus will I cause lewdness to cease and blood is in their hands, and with their out of the land, that all women may be taught idols have they committed adultery, and have not to do after
lewdness. also caused their sons, whom they bare unto 49 And they shall recompense your lewdme, to pass for them through the fire, to ness upon you, and ye shall bear the sins of devour them.
shall know that I am the 38 Moreover this they have done unto me:
15 Heb. corning.
18 Heb. honourable. 18 Heb. of the multitude of men.
20 Heb, her whoredoms. * Chap 16. 38. 22 Heb. for a removing and spoil. 18 Or, single them out.
i7 Prov. 7. 17.
19 Oz, drunkards.
Verse 6. • Clothed with blue.'-- This is one of many intimations in Scripture of the esteem in which the blue colour was held by the Jews and other Oriental nations. This blue was probably the sky-colour. The robe of the ephod, in the splendid dress of the high-priest, was all blue; this was also a prominent colour in the hangings of the tabernacle; and the Hebrews were required to put a blue fringe upon the borders of their garment, and upon the fringe a ribbon of the same colour. The magnificent
feast of the Persian king Ahasuerus was given in a place hung with white, green, and blue hangings, upon a pavement of red, blue, white, and black marble (Esth. i. 6). Then there is the present text, in which the distinguished among the Assyrians are described as clad in blue. Light blue is still a favourite colour among the Persians, in whose dress it is more extensively used than any other. The outer gown and the drawers are the most usual articles of this colour, and these are commonly of linen;
and to have these blue is common among all classes of prophet refers, particularly as it is probable that the de. society. In Arabia also the dress of the women commonly corations of the interior surfaces of walls were of the same consists of an ample shift and drawers of blue linen; and description; and the subjects and general appearance of in Turkey and Syria the large wrapper in which the such representations, rather than the manner in which women envelop themselves is often of that colour. We they were executed, form the illustration proper to the know not therefore on what grounds Paxton affirms that
present text; and the stat nt of Diodorus is therefore blue has sunk in the estimation of the Orientals, particu- satisfactory for our purpose, though by no means so for larly as blue is also employed very prominently in the the other. interior decoration of houses and public buildings.
Of the representations which once adorned the walls of 10. · Famous.'—This word, in the time of our trans- Babylon, none of course can now be expected to remain, lator, signified notorious,' and was often used in a bad unless perchance some fragments should be entombed We should say “infamous.'
under the vast mounds which mark the site of that deso14. She saw men pourtrayed upon the wall, the images lated city. But perhaps some idea may be formed of the style of the Chaldeuns.'- This possibly alludes to similar cham- and taste of such representations, and particularly of the bers of imagery among the Chaldæans, to those of the dress and appearance of the ancient Chaldæans, to which Egyptians, noticed under ch. viii.; but probably with the the prophet more especially refers, by consulting the difference that the representations were generally in the figures engraved upon the ancient cylinders which we human figure, rather than of animals and creeping things have had former occasion to notice, and some specimens which the zoolatry of the Egyptians occasioned to abound of which have been already given. in their exhibitions. However, we may confine our at- Portrayed with vermilion.'—See also Wisdom xiii., tention to the simple fact, here announced, that the Baby- where the author describes the process of making an idol. lonians had “images' portrayed upon their walls. That The carver, who had applied all the best wood to other the Chaldæans did exhibit various representations upon purposes, such as the formation of cups or bowls, took, in their walls is also intimated by Diodorus; but in such a moment of idleness, one crooked piece, which served to a manner as leaves it a matter of investigation how this no use,' and fashioned it to the image of a man, or made was done. As Babylonia was not a country of stone, it it like some vile beast, laying it over with vermilion, and is not likely that the inhabitants sculptured their walls. with painting colouring it red,
' etc. To these instances Yet perhaps the want of stone has been exaggerated. from the canonical and apocryphal Scriptures numerous Blocks of marble obtained from the ruins of Babylon are examples might be added from various sources to shew used to some extent in the first-rate houses of Baghdad that the custom of besmearing objects of religious worship for steps, curb-stones, and pavements; and a few sculp- with red paint was an ancient practice among various na. tured specimens have been found. However, as it must tions, and the red colour seems to be still esteemed sacred, be allowed that probably even the best buildings of in many instances, by the inhabitants of a great portion of Babylon were of brick, it is likely that the representations Asia, from China to Caucasus, and from Tibet and Boutan in view were painted on a plane surface. Possibly, as in to the extremity of India and to Ceylon. In Horace the Egypt, the wall was coated with a fine plaster on which Roman garden god is described as being, at least partially, the representations were made; or it may be that, at least painted red (Sat. lib. i. int. viii. 5). Of images at Corinth in some instances, the representations were formed on
representing Bacchus, the faces were coloured with red bricks, the outer surface of which was enamelled. The paint (Pausan. Corinth. p. 115, ed. Kuhn, 1696); and one present inhabitants of the country have the art of enamel- of the same deity in Achaia was so painted (Achaic. p. ling bricks in great perfection, but are prevented by their 593): and also of another, which he describes, in Arcadia, religion from representing any objects upon them; and all the visible parts of which were reddened with cinnathat the ancient Babylonians had the art of enamelling bar. The face even of Jupiter's image was, on festivals, bricks, and that they did represent objects on bricks so coloured with minium, or red-lead, according to Verrius, enamelled, we are assured from actual specimens found quoted by Pliny (Hist. Nat. xxxiii. 7), who observes that among the ruins. Beauchamp found several varnished it was a colour once reckoned sacred among the Romans, bricks, on one of which was the figure of a lion, and on applied to the bodies of those who triumphed, and used by the other of the sun and moon; and Mignan found a flat the Ethiopians in colouring their idols. Servius (ad Virg. fragment of calcareous sandstone, glazed with brown Ecl. vi. 22) informs us that those who triumphed painted enamel on the superior surface, and bearing a raised orna- their faces with minium, because red was supposed to be mental figure in good relief. After this statement we may the colour of gods : he also informs us that Pan was as well see what Diodorus says (lib. ii. 1). Mentioning painted red. two palaces in the city built by Semiramis, he states that Examples of this ancient usage might be multiplied; the one on the west bank of the Euphrates was enclosed but a few modern instances will better please the reader. by a high and extensive wall built with well-burnt bricks. The red columns in Chinese temples are noticed by Sir Within was another wall-a circular one-upon which George Staunton (vol. i. 373; ii. 86); Klaproth (Travels was portrayed, on the bricks before they were burnt, all in the Caucasus, p. 100) found that the altars and other parts sorts of living creatures, represented to the life, with great of the Lama or Mougol temples were invariably painted art, in admirable colours. We think this suggests that on a ground of cinnabar red. Turner, in 1783, remarked the bricks were enamelled, the enamel, with the colours red or deep garnet to be the distinguishing colour of the of the painting, being fixed by fire. At least this appears temples and other religious places in Boutan and Tibet the most obvious interpretation as illustrated by the bricks (Embassy, 159, 294). The Indian deity Brahma is often we have mentioned. But to proceed :-Within this wall represented red; and this colour is supposed peculiar to was another, the innermost ; and on this wall were also the creative power, denoting fire, and its type, the sun represented all sorts of living creatures, expressed in the (Moor's Hindu Pantheon, p. 6). Many writers in the Asiatic most lively colours. Among these Diodorus particularly Researches supply similar facts. Thus the mountaineers mentions one which represented a grand hunting-scene of near Rajahmahall mark with red paint the sacred branch, various wild animals, on a scale of four cubits high and the hen's egg, and the basket of rice used iu their religious upwards, and in which was seen Semiramis transfixing a ceremonies; on which occasions they also employ strings panther with her dart, and, near her, Ninus her husband of red silk (Asiatic Researches, iv. 48-52); an Indian pierciug a savage lion with his spear. The other palace, image must be decked with garlands of red flowers, dressed on the eastern bank of the river, was smaller and less
in red garments, tied with red cords, and girt with a red magnificent. The outer wall was however highly adorned girdle (Ibid. v. 390). We find in a building sacred to with various statues of brass, and with paintings repre- Bhyroe an enormous idol made of blue granite, .rubbed senting armies drawn up in battalia, and various scenes over with red paint' (Ibid, vii. 104); a sacred stone, reof hunting. This seems, taken altogether, a very adequate presenting the divinity, at Chinchoor, is coloured red (ibid. illustration of the images upon the wails to which the vii. 305); and an image, worshipped in the temple of