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7 Then said I unto them, Cast ye away 20 And hallow my sabbaths; and they every man the abominations of his eyes, and shall be a sign between me and you, that ye defile not yourselves with the idols of Egypt: may know that I am the Lord your God. I am the LORD


ŽI Notwithstanding the children rebelled 8 But they rebelled against me, and would against me : they walked not in my statutes, not hearken unto me: they did not every man neither kept my judgments to do them, which cast away the abominations of their eyes, if a man do, he shall even live in them; they neither did they forsake the idols of Egypt: polluted my sabbaths: then I said, I would then I said, I will pour out my fury upon pour out my fury upon them, to accomplish them, to accomplish my anger against them my anger against them in the wilderness. in the midst of the land of Egypt.

22 Nevertheless I withdrew mine hand, 9 But I wrought for my name's sake, that and wrought for my name's sake, that it it should not be polluted before the heathen, should not be polluted in the sight of the among whom they were, in whose sight I made heathen, in whose sight I brought them forth. myself known unto them, in bringing them 23 I lifted up mine hand unto them also in forth out of the land of Egypt.

the wilderness, that I would scatter them 10 q Wherefore I caused them to go among the heathen, and disperse them through forth out of the land of Egypt, and brought the countries; them into the wilderness.

24 Because they had not executed my 11 And I gave them my statutes, and judgments, but had despised my statutes, and shewed them my judgments, which if a man had polluted my sabbaths, and their eyes were do, he shall even live in them.

after their fathers' idols. 12 Moreover also I


esab- 25 Wherefore I gave them also statutes baths, to be a sign between me and them, that were not good, and judgments whereby that they might know that I am the LORD they should not live; that sanctify them.

26 And I polluted them in their own gifts, 13 But the house of Israel rebelled against in that they caused to pass through the fire me in the wilderness: they walked not in my all that openeth the womb, that I might make statutes, and they despised my judgments, them desolate, to the end that they might which if a man do, he shall even live in them; know that I am the LORD. and my sabbaths they greatly "polluted: then 27 | Therefore, son of man, speak unto I said, I would pour out my fury upon them the house of Israel, and say unto them, Thus in the ''wilderness, to consume them.

saith the Lord God; Yet in this


fathers 14 But I wrought for my name's sake, that have blasphemed me, in that they have "comit should not be polluted before the heathen, mitted a trespass against me. in whose sight I brought them out.

28 For when I had brought them into the 15 Yet also I lifted up my hand unto them land, for the which I lifted up mine hand to in the wilderness, that I would not bring them give it to them, then they saw every high hill, into the land which I had given them, flowing and all the thick trees, and they offered there with milk and honey, which is the glory of their sacrifices, and there they presented the all lands;

provocation of their offering : there also they 16 Because they despised my judgments, made their sweet savour, and poured out there and walked not in my statutes, but polluted their drink offerings. my sabbaths : for their heart went after their 29 Then ''I said unto them, What is the idols.

high place whereunto ye go? and the name 17 Nevertheless mine eyes spared them thereof is called Bamah unto this day. from destroying them, neither did I make an 30 Wherefore say unto the house of Israel, end of them in the wilderness.

Thus saith the Lord God; Are ye polluted 18 But I said unto their children in the after the manner of


fathers ? and comwilderness, Walk ye not in the statutes of mit ye whoredom after their abominations ? your fathers, neither observe their judgments, 3i For when ye offer your gifts, when ye nor defile yourselves with their idols : make your sons to pass through the fire, ye

19 I am the LORD your God; walk in my pollute yourselves with all your idols, even statutes, and keep my judgments, and do unto this day : and shall I be enquired of by them;

you, O house of Israel ? As I live, saith the

3 Exod. 13. 13.

Deut. 5. 12.

6 Heb. made them to know. 7 Levit. 18. 5. Rom. 10.5. Galat. 3. 12.
9 Exod. 16. 27. 10 Num. 14. 29, and 26. 65. ni Chap. 16.21.

18 Of I told them what the high place was, or, Bamah.

8 Exod. 20. 8, and 31, 13, &c., and 35, 2.

12 Heb. trespassed a trespass.

Lord God, I will not be enquired of by i I accept them, and there will I require your you.

offerings, and the "firstfruits of your oblations, 32 And that which cometh into your mind with all your holy things. shall not be at all, that ye say, We will be as 41 I will accept you with your "sweet the heathen, as the families of the countries, savour, when I bring you out from the people, to serve wood and stone.

and gather you out of the countries wherein 33 | As I live, saith the Lord God, surely ye have been scattered ; and I will be sanctiwith a mighty hand, and with a stretched out fied in you before the heathen. arm, and with fury poured out, will I rule 42 And ye shall know that I am the LORD, over you:

when I shall bring you into the land of Israel, 34 And I will bring you out from the into the country for the which I lifted up people, and will gather you out of the countries mine hand to give it to your fathers. wherein ye are scattered, with a mighty hand, 43 And there shall ye remember your ways, and with a stretched out arm, and with fury and all your doings, wherein ye have been poured out.

defiled ; and ye shall lothe yourselves in your 35 And I will bring you into the wilder- own sight for all

your evils that


have comness of the people, and there will I plead with

mitted. you face to face.

44 And ye shall know that I am the LORD, 36 Like as I pleaded with your fathers in when I have wrought with you for my name's the wilderness of the land of Egypt, so will I sake, not according to your wicked ways, nor plead with you, saith the Lord GOD.

according to your corrupt doings, O ye house 37 And I will cause you to pass under the of Israel, saith the Lord God. rod, and I will bring you into the bond of 45 | Moreover the word of the LORD came the covenant:

unto me, saying, 38 And I will purge out from among you 46 Son of man, set thy face toward the the rebels, and them that transgress against south, and drop thy word toward the south, me: I will bring them forth out of the country and prophesy against the forest of the south where they sojourn, and they shall not enter into the land of Israel : and ye shall know 47 And say to the forest of the south, that I am the LORD.

Hear the word of the LORD ; Thus saith the 39 As for you, O house of Israel, thus Lord God; Behold, I will kindle a fire in saith the Lord God; Go ye, serve ye every thee, and it shall devour every green tree in one his idols and hereafter also, if ye will not thee, and every dry tree: the flaming flame hearken unto me: but pollute ye my holy name shall not be quenched, and all faces from the no more with your gifts, and with your idols. south to the north shall be burned therein.

40 For in mine holy mountain, in the 48 And all flesh shall see that I the LORD mountain of the height of Israel, saith the have kindled it: it shall not be quenched. Lord God, there shall all the house of Israel, 49 Then said I, Ah Lord Gov! they say all of them in the land, serve me : there will of me, Doth he not speak parables ? 14 Or, a delivering.

15 Or, chief.


16 Heb, sarour of rest.

Verse 37. To pass under the rod.—There is probably here an allusion to the custom followed in marking out the tenth animal from the flock or herd, for sacred uses, and which has been mentioned in the note to Lev. xxvii. 2.

46. "Toward the south.' That is, towards Judæa,

which lay to the south-west of the river Khabur, near which Ezekiel resided. We have already mentioned the Oriental neglect of all but the cardinal directions in their statements of the relative bearings of different places.


2 Son of man, set thy face toward Jerusa

lem, and drop thy word toward the holy places, 1 Ezekiel prophesieth against Jerusalem with a sign of and prophesy against the land of Israel,

sighing. 8 The sharp and bright sword, 18 against Jerusalem, 25 against the kingdom, 28 and against

3 And say to the land of Israel, Thus saith the Ammonites.

the LORD ; Behold, I am against thee, and

will draw forth my sword out of his sheath, And the word of the LORD came unto me, and will cut off from thee the righteous and saying,

the wicked.

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4 Seeing then that I will cut off from thee 17 I will also smite mine hands together, the righteous and the wicked, therefore shall and I will cause my fury to rest : I the Lord my sword go forth out of his sheath against have said it. all flesh, from the south to the north :

18 | The word of the LORD came unto 5 That all Aesh may know that I the me again, saying, Lord have drawn forth my sword out of his 19 Also, thou son of man, appoint thee sheath: it shall not return any more.

two ways, that the sword of the king of Ba6 Sigh therefore, thou son of man, with bylon may come: both twain shall come the breaking of thy loins; and with bitterness forth out of one land : and choose thou a sigh before their eyes.

place, choose it at the head of the way to the 7 And it shall be, when they say unto city. thee, Wherefore sighest thou?" that thou 20 Appoint a way, that the sword may shalt answer, For the tidings; because it come to Rabbath of the Ammonites, and to cometh : and every heart shall melt, and all Judah in Jerusalem the defenced. hands shall be feeble, and every spirit shall For the king of Babylon stood at the faint, and all knees 'shall be weak as water : ''parting of the way, at the head of the two behold, it cometh, and shall be brought to ways, to use divination : he made his "arrows pass, saith the Lord God.

bright, he consulted with 'images, he looked 8 | Again the word of the LORD came in the liver. unto me, saying,

22 At his right hand was the divination for 9 Son of man, prophesy and say, Thus Jerusalem, to appoint **captains, to open saith the Lord; Say, A sword, a sword is the mouth in the slaughter, to lift up the sharpened, and also furbished :

voice with shouting, to appoint battering rams 10 It is sharpened to make a sore slaugh- | against the gates, to cast a mount, and to ter; it is furbished that it may glitter : build a fort. should we then make mirth ? 'it contemneth 23 And it shall be unto them as a false the rod of my son, as every tree.

divination in their sight, Sto them that have 11 And he hath given it to be furbished, sworn oaths : but he will call to remembrance that it may be handled : this sword is sharp- the iniquity, that they may be taken. ened, and it is furbished, to give it into the 24 Therefore thus saith the Lord God; hand of the slayer.

Because ye have made your iniquity to be 12 Cry and howl, son of man : for it shall remembered, in that your transgressions are be upon my people, it shall be upon all the discovered, so that in all your doings your princes of Israel : Øterrors by reason of the sins do appear ; because, I say, that ye are sword shall be upon my people : *smite there- come to remembrance, ye shall be taken with fore upon thy thigh.

the hand. 13 Because it is a trial, and what if the 25 ( And thou, profane wicked prince of sword contemn even the rod ? it shall be no Israel, whose day is come, when iniquity shall more, saith the Lord God.

have an end,

13 14

14 Thou therefore, son of man, prophesy, |26 Thus saith the Lord God; Remove

and smite thine hands together, and let the the diadem, and take off the crown: this shall sword be doubled the third time, the sword of not be the same : exalt him that is low, and the slain : it is the sword of the great men

abase him that is high. that are slain, which entereth into their privy 27 'I will overturn, overturn, overturn, it: chambers.

and it shall be no more, until he come whose 15 I have set the 'point of the sword right it is; and I will give it him. against all their gates, that their heart may 28 4 And thou, son of man, prophesy and faint, and their ruins be multiplied : ah! it say, Thus saith the Lord God concerning the is made bright, it is 'wrapped up for the Ammonites, and concerning their reproach ; slaughter.

even say thou, The sword, the sword is 16 Go thee one way or other, either on the drawn : for the slaughter it is furbished, to right hand, 'or on the left, whithersoever thy consume because of the glittering: face is set.

29 Whiles they see vanity unto thee, whiles they divine a lie unto thee, to bring upon thee, I will blow against thee in the fire thee upon

1 Heb. shall go into water. 2 Or, it is the rod of my son, it despiseth every tree. 3 Or, they are thrust down to the suord with my people.

& Heb. hand to hand. 4 Jer. 31, 19. 3 Or, when the trial hath been, what then shall they not also belong to the despising rod ! 7 Or, glittering, or, fear. 8 Or, sharpened. 9 Heb, set thyself, take the left hand.

10 Heb. mother of the way. 11 Or, knives. It Heb. Ieraphim. 13 Or, battering rams.

14 Heb, rams. 15 Or, for the oaths made unto them. 16 Heb. Perverted, perverted, perverted will I make it.


the necks of them that are slain, of of my wrath, and deliver thee into the hand the wicked, whose day is come, when their of brutish men, and skilful to destroy. iniquity shall have an end.

32 Thou shalt be for fuel to the fire; thy 30 'Shall I cause it to return into his blood shall be in the midst of the land, thou sheath ? I will judge thee in the place where

shalt be no

more remembered : for I the thou wast created, in the land of thy nativity. LORD have spoken it. 31 And I will pour out mine indignation 17 Or, cause it to return.

18 Or, burning.

Verse 14. Smite thy hands together.'-Smiting the for the Turks and the other for the Christians; then the hands together in a marked and emphatic manner is in witch readeth, and the captain, or some other, taketh the the East equivalent to a confirmatory oath, establishing arrows in their hand by the heads; and if the arrow for the certainty of the fact asserted in the declaration made. the Christians cometh over the head of the arrow for the It is probably so to be understood here—the prophet being Turks, then do they advance their sails, and will not directed to establish by this well known act of strong endure the fight, whatsoever they see; but if the arrow of assertion, the irrevocable certainty of his denunciations. the Turks is found, in the opening of the hand, upon that Compare v. 17, in which the Lord says: I will also smite of the Christians, then will they stay and encounter with mine hands together, and I will cause my fury to rest. any ship whatsoever.'

21. The king of Babylon stood at the parting of the * He looked in the liver.'—This form of divination, use divination.'--In what follows we have a re- called Hepatoscopia, constituted the principal part of those markable allusion to some of the principal processes by presages which were derived from observations made upon which the ancient heathen sought to obtain the direction the internal parts of animals slain for sacrifice. Indeed, and sanction of the gods they worshipped ; and by a so important was the liver esteemed in this view, that the recourse to which, rulers and military commanders often whole system of divination by entrails sometimes took the relieved themselves from the responsibility of deciding, name of Hepatoscopia from this its principal part. The on doubtful occasions, their own course of action. The liver was the first part inspected, and, if this appeared very object of the present divination being to ascertain whether bad, no observations were made on the other parts; any Nebuchadnezzar should first direct his arms against Jeru- favourable appearances which they offered not being in salem or against Rabbath-Ammon, the ceremonies were this case thought worthy of attention. If the liver experformed at the parting of the way, where it of course hibited its natural healthy colour and condition, or if, became necessary that his march should assume a definite further, its head was large, or if it was double, or thero object and direction.

were two livers, and if the lobes inclined inwards, the · He made his arrows bright:—Here is a clear refer- signs were highly favourable, and success in any proposed ence to the very widely diffused ancient superstition of object was deemed to be ensured. But nothing but Belomancy, or divination by arrows. This was exhibited dangers and misfortunes were foreboded when there was after various methods, some of which were little other too much dryness, or a band between the parts, or if it was than simple lots, under supposed divine control.

The without a lobe, and still more when the liver itself was most common process was to mark a number of arrows, wanting-a prodigy which is said to have sometimes hapcorresponding to the alternatives, with the names of the pened. The omens were also considered full of evil nations or places which were the subject of consideration. when the liver had any blisters or ulcers, if it was hard, The arrows were theu shaken together in a quiver, and thin, or discoloured, had any humour upon it, or if, in the marks on the one first drawn forth decided the prefer. boiling, it became soft or was displaced. The signs which

Jerome thinks this process was here intended, appeared on the concave part of the liver concerned the Not unlike it was a method in use among the Arabs, and family of the person offering the sacrifice; but those on which they employed on all occasions, whether public or the gibbous side affected his enemies : if either of these private. The arrows were three in number, unfeathered, parts were shrivelled, corrupted, or in any way unsound, and called achdad or azlam. Upon one of them was the omen was unfortunate, but the reverse when it

apwritten • Command me, Lord;' upon the second, “Forbid, peared sound and large. The place between the parts, in or prevent, Lord ;' and the third was blank. These were the middle, was called the gate, and it was regarded as put into a bag, which was held by the diviner, by whom most unfavourable when this part was closed or comalso the lot was drawn. If the first was drawn, it con- pressed. Hence the soothsayers warned Caracalla to take veyed of course an affirmative response; the second in- care of himself, because the gates of the liver were timated a negative; and, when the blank arrow appeared, closed.' It was also considered most unfortunate if the a second drawing was made. There was another method, liver happened to be cut in slaying or opening the victim. in which an arrow was shot perpendicularly into the air, 22. • At his right hand was the divinalion for Jerusalem.' and the direction in which it fell indicated the road which -This is altogether a most extraordinary example of the was to be taken. As the prophet mentions that the arrows want of plan and definite objects in ancient Oriental varwere made bright for the occasion, some writers imagine fare ; and others of a similar kind might be produced. that this divination consisted in the inspection of the ap- Here the king stops at a place where two roads met, to pearances which their polished heads might exhibit. În learn by divination, or by lot, to which side his arms an account (in Purchas) of the capture of the ship. Jacob;' should be turned ; and the lot having fallen upon Jerusaof Bristol, by the Algerine pirates, in 1621, we are in. lem, he marches against that city. This uncertainty of formed that every large ship had on board a sort of wizard purpose appears the more surprising when we reflect on or diviner, by whom the commander was guided in his the large bodies of men which these old conquerors determinations. When two great ships appeared in sight, brought into the field, and for whose wants it seems difthe captain of the vessel in which the narrator was held ficult to understand that any provision could be made prisoner was afraid to chase them, apprehending that they unless the seat of the war had been previously determined: might prove Spanish men-of-war; on such occasions the To appoint battering rams against the gates.'— The diviner is consulted :— Then have they two arrows and a word is simply the name of the “ram '--the word battercurtleaxe, lying upon a pillow, naked; the arrows are one ing' being added to point the sense, and, we doubt not,


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correctly, although it has been questioned that the battering-ram could be known so early. But, when an engine is not only called by the same name which it bore among the Greeks and Romans (72 car, kpíos, aries, 'ram '), but is so mentioned as to shew that it was applied to an exactly similar use, it seems as clear as possible that a battering engine called a ram, that is, a battering-ram, was used by the Babylonians. That it was employed by the Jews themselves is perhaps unlikely, as it is only mentioned by Ezekiel, and by him only as used in the warlike operations of Nebuchadnezzar against Jerusalem. That the Romans themselves considered the invention of the battering-ram to be of very high antiquity appears from the report, preserved by Pliny, that it was invented by Epeus during the siege of Troy; but, as nothing of the kind is inentioned by Homer, it is perhaps better to follow Vitruvius and Tertullian, who ascribe it to the Tyrians; and, as Nebuchadnezzar, who besieged Jerusalem, besieged also Tyre, there may be very good reason

to suspect that the Tyrians became acquainted with the engine from its having been used against them by the Babylonians. [APPENDIX, No. 69.]

Respecting the form of the Babylonian engines and their mode of action we know nothing, unless from the pro. bability that, from the similarity of name and use, they were not unlike those which we find employed in aftertimes by the Romans, and of which some representations remain. The name seems to have been derived from the mode in which the machine acted resembling the butting of a ram, and, this analogy having been suggested, it was, rather fancifully, thought of completing it by giving the form of a ran's head to that of the instrument.

There were three kinds of battering-rams :-1. One that was held in suspension, like a scale-beam, by means of cables or chains in a frame of strong timber. This must have been easier to work and apparently of greater power than the others, as a very heavy body suspended in the air requires no great strength to move it with


BATTERING-RAM.-From the Arch of Severus.

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