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cannot be well understood. However, the nearest approach rendered their presence attractive; and possibly it did at to a reasonable explanation seems to be derived from a the same time, by its shape or ornament, denote the proreference to the fact, that the Orientals, when they wish fession or character of those who wore them, and which to be at their ease, sit, lounge, or recline on or against va- is, in the East, in all cases, more generally expressed by rious kinds and qualities of rich pillows or cushions; and, the head-dress than by anything else. It is clear that as the evil woman in the Proverbs alludes to the costli- these women practised divinations, and pretended to deness and richness of those which belonged to her divan liver oracles, which contradicted the Divine propheciesor 'bed,' among the circumstances by which she sought promising peace and safety where they predicted death to seduce the young man void of understanding' to her and desolation. Joining this to the fact that Astarte was snare, it is not unreasonable to suppose that something of reputed to deliver oracles, and that, as appears from both the same kind may be here intended, since it
that Jeremiah and Ezekiel, the Hebrews--and particularly the females of loose character are alluded to in this, as they women-were at this time greatly addicted to the wor. certainly are in the other instance. It is not impossible ship of this idol, we may reasonably presume that these that the women here mentioned were false prophetesses, women were not only false prophetesses, but, as such, voor female votaries of the queen of heaven,' and that the taries of Astarte; and, if this be premised, the impurities prophet has in view the arts which they employed to se- practised by her worshippers may countenance the given duce the faithful to a participation in the impure rites explanation concerning the pillows' and the kerchiefs ;' which so disgracefully signalized her worship.
and with reference to the latter we may add, that in the • Kerchiefs upon the head of every stature.' – The mean- figures of Astarte there is always something remarkable ing of this seems to be, that they put kerchiefs upon the about the head-dress. Macrobius describes her as repreheads of females of every age (or stature) whom they had sented by her worshippers in Mount Lebanon under the brought to join their society. But what this kerchief was, figure of an afflicted woman, with her head covered, and and what peculiarity made it instrumental to hunt (or leaning upon her left hand, mourning for Adonis. sedace) souls' may be difficult to conjecture; perhaps it 19. For handfuls of burley: -A proverbial expression was merely a rich or peculiar veil or head-dress, which for the humblest presents.'
cometh to a prophet to enquire of him concern1 God answereth idolaters according to their own heart. ing me; I the Lord will answer him by my6 They are exhorted to repent, for fear of judgments,
self: by means of seduced prophets. 12 God's irrevocable 8 And I will set my face against that man, sentence of famine, 15 of noisome beasts, 17 of the and will make him a 'sign and a proverb, and sword, 19 and of pestilence. 22 A remnant shall be
I will cut him off from the midst of my people ; reserved for example of others.
and ye shall know that I am the LORD. Then came certain of the elders of Israel unto 9 And if the prophet be deceived when he me, and sat before me.
hath spoken a thing, I the Lord have deceived 2 And the word of the LORD came unto that prophet, and I will stretch out my hand me, saying,
upon him, and will destroy him from the midst 3 Son of man, these men have set up their of my people Israel. idols in their heart, and put the stumbling- 10 And they shall bear the punishment of block of their iniquity before their face : should their iniquity : the punishment of the prophet I be enquired of at all by them?
shall be even as the punishment of him that 4 Therefore speak unto them, and say unto seeketh unto him; them, Thus saith the Lord God; Every man 11 That the house of Israel may go no of the house of Israel that setteth up his idols more astray from me, neither be polluted any in his heart, and putteth the stumblingblock of more with all their transgressions ; but that his iniquity before his face, and cometh to the they may be my people, and I may be their prophet; I the LORD will answer him that God, saith the Lord God. cometh according to the multitude of his idols ; 12 T The word of the Lord came again to
5 That I may take the house of Israel in me, saying, their own heart, because they are all estranged 13 Son of man, when the land sinneth from me through their idols.
against me by trespassing grievously, then will 69 Therefore say unto the house of Israel, I stretch out mine hand upon it, and will break Thus saith the Lord God; Repent, and turn the staff of the bread thereof, and will send 'yourselves from your idols; and turn away famine upon it, and will cut off man and beast your faces from ail: your abominations.
from it: 7 For every one of the house of Israel, or 14 "Though these three men, Noah, Daniel, of the stranger that sojourneth in Israel, which and Job, were in it, they should deliver but separateth himself from me, and setteth up his their own souls by their righteousness, saith idols in his heart, and putteth the stumbling the Lord God. block of his iniquity before his face, and 15 1 If I cause noisome beasts to pass
1 OT, others. 2 Deut. 28. 37. Chap. 3. 13.
3 1 Kings 22, 23,
* Levit. 26. 26. Chap. 4. 16, and 5. 16.
5 Jer. 15. 1.
through the land, and they 'spoil it, so that it deliver neither son nor daughter ; they shall be desolate, that no man may pass through but deliver their own souls by their righteousbecause of the beasts :
16 Though these three men were "in it, as I 21 [ For thus saith the Lord God; *How live, saith the Lord God, they shall deliver much more when I send my four sore judgneither sons nor daughters ; they only shall be ments upon Jerusalem, the sword, and the delivered, but the land shall be desolate. famine, and the noisome beast, and the pesti
17 9 Or if I bring a sword upon that land, lence, to cut off from it man and beast ? and say, Sword, go through the land ; so that 22 Yet, behold, therein shall be left a I cut off man and beast from it:
remnant that shall be brought forth, both sons 18 Though these three men were in it, as I and daughters: behold, they shall come forth live, saith the Lord God, they shall deliver unto you, and ye shall see their way and their neither sons nor daughters, but they only shall doings : and ye shall be comforted concerning be delivered themselves.
the evil that I have brought upon Jerusalem, 19 1 Or if I send a pestilence into that even concerning all that I have brought upon it. land, and pour out my fury upon it in blood, 23 And they shall comfort you, when ye to cut off from it man and beast :
see their ways and their doings : and ye shall 20 Though Noah, Daniel, and Job, were in know that I have not done without cause all it, as I live, saith the Lord God, they shall that I have done in it, saith the Lord God.
7 Heb, in the midst of il. 8 Or, Also when.
6 Or, bereave.
Verse 14. • Noah, Daniel, and Job.'—The mention of those holy patriarchs, Noah and Job, does not require any explanation ; but that Daniel, who was then living, and still a rather young man, should be joined with them in this manner may be pointed out as a most distinguished honour conferred upon that prophet. • Daniel was taken captive in the third year of Jehoiakim. (Dan. i. 1.) After this Jehoiakim reigned eight years. (2 Kings xxiii. 26.) And this prophecy, as appears from chap. viii. 1, was uttered in the sixth year of Jehoiachin's captivity, who succeeded Jehoiakim, and reigned only three months. (2 Kings xxiv. 6, 8.) Therefore at this time Daniel had been fourteen years in captivity.' (Newcome.) At this
time, as we may see from the history in the early chap ters of his own book, he had been for many years the most conspicuous and remarkable man of the Hebrew nation then living, whether we regard his exalted piety, and the singular favour which the Lord had shewn unto him, or the high and influential place which he occupied at the Babylonian court. Is it not possible that the especial and singular mention of Daniel in this passage may have partly been intended to counteract an impression entertained by his countrymen, that his high station and great influence with Nebuchadnezzar rendered improbable, or would be successful in averting, those calamities which Jeremiah and Ezekiel foretold ?
5 Behold, when it was whole, it was 'meet
for no work : how much less shall it be meet 3 By the unfitness of the vine branch for any wor? 6 is shewed the rejection of Jerusalem.
work, when the fire hath devoured
it, and it is burned ? And the word of the LORD came unto me, 6 Therefore thus saith the Lord GOD; As saying,
the vine tree among the trees of the forest, 2 Son of man, What is the vine tree more which I have given to the fire for fuel, so will than any tree, or than a branch which is among I give the inhabitants of Jerusalem. the trees of the forest ?
7 And I will set my face against them ; 3 Shall wood be taken thereof to do any they shall go out from one fire, and another work ? or will men take a pin of it to hang any fire shall devour them; and ye shall know that vessel thereon ?
I am the LORD), when I set my face against 4 Behold, it is cast into the fire for fuel ; then.
the fire devoureth both the ends of it, and the 8 And I will make the land desolate,
midst of it is burned. 'Is it meet for
because they have committed a trespass, saith the Lord God.
i lleb. acill it prosper i
2 Ileb, made fit.
3 Heb. trespassed a trespass.
silk, and broidered work; thou didst eat fine 1 Under the similitude of a wretched infant is shewed flour, and honey, and oil: and thou wast 1 Under the similitude of a wretched infant is shewed exceeding beautiful, and thou didst prosper the natural state of Jerusalem. 6 God's extraor
into a kingdom. dinary love towards her. 15 Her monstrous whoredom. 35 Her grievous judgment. 44 Her sin, 14 And thy renown went forth among matching her mother, and exceeding her sisters, So- heathen for thy beauty: for it was perfect dom and Samaria, calleth for judyments. 60 Mercy through my comeliness, which I had put upon is promised her in the end.
thee, saith the Lord God. AGAiN the word of the LORD came unto me, 15 | But thou didst trust in thine own saying,
beauty, and playedst the harlot because of thy 2 Son of man, cause Jerusalem to know her
renown, and pouredst out thy fornications on abominations,
every one that passed by; his it was. 3 And say, Thus saith the Lord God unto 16 And of thy garments thou didst take, and Jerusalem ; Thy 'birth and thy nativity is of deckedst thy high places with divers colours, the land of Canaan: thy father was an Amor- and playedst the harlot thereupon : the like ite, and thy mother an Hittite.
things shall not come, neither shall it be so. 4 And as for thy nativity, in the day thou 17 Thou hast also taken thy fair jewels of wast born thy navel was not cut, neither wast my gold and of my silver, which I had given thou washed in water to supple thee; thou thee, and madest to thyself images of men, wast not salted at all, nor swaddled at all. and didst commit whoredom with them,
5 None eye pitied thee, to do any of these 18 And tookest thy broidered garments, unto thee, to have compassion upon thee; but and coveredst them: and thou hast set mine thou wast cast out in the open field, to the oil and mine incense before them. lothing of thy person, in the day that thou wast 19 My meat also which I gave thee, fine born.
flour, and oil, and honey, wherewith I fed thee, 6 And when I passed by thee, and saw thou hast even set it before them for a sweet thee "polluted in thine own blood, I said unto savour : and thus it was, saith the Lord God. thee when thou wast in thy blood, Live, yea, I 20 Moreover thou hast taken thy sons and said unto thee when thou wast in thy blood, Live. thy daughters, whom thou hast borne unto me,
7 I have caused thee to multiply as the bud and these hast thou sacrificed unto them 'to be of the field, and thou hast increased and waxen devoured. Is this of thy whoredoms a small great, and thou art come to 'excellent orna- matter, ments: thy breasts are fashioned, and thine 21 That thou hast slain my children, and hair is grown, whereas thou wast naked and bare. delivered them to cause them to pass through
8 Now when I passed by thee, and looked the fire for them? upon thee, behold, thy time was the time of 22 And in all thine abominations and thy love ; and I spread my skirt over thee, and whoredoms thou hast not remembered the days covered thy nakedness : yea, I sware unto thee, of thy youth, when thou wast naked and bare, and entered into a covenant with thee, saith and wast polluted in thy blood. the Lord God, and thou becamest mine.
23 And it came to pass after all thy wicked9 Then washed I thee with water ; yea, Iness, (woe, woe unto thee ! saith the Lord God;) throughly washed away thy 'blood from thee, 24 That thou hast also built unto thee an and I anointed thee with oil.
foeminent place, and hast made thee an high 10 I clothed thee also with broidered work, place in every street. and shod thee with badgers' skin, and I girded 25 Thou hast built thy high place at every thee about with fine linen, and I covered thee head of the way, and hast made thy beauty to with silk.
be abhorred, and hast opened thy feet to every 11 I decked thee also with ornaments, and one that passed by, and multiplied thy whoreI put bracelets upon thy hands, and a chain on doms. thy neck.
26 Thou hast also committed fornication 12 And I put a jewel on thy forehead, and with the Egyptians thy neighbours, great of earrings in thine ears, and a beautiful crown flesh; and hast increased thy whoredoms to upon thine head.
provoke me to anger: 13 Thus wast thou decked with gold and 27 Behold, therefore I have stretched out silver ; and thy raiment was of fine linen, and my hand over thee, and have diminished thine
1 Heb. cutting out, or, habitation. 5 Heb. ornament of ornaments.
8 Or, trodden under
2 Or, when I looked 6 Heb, bloods.
4 Heb, made thee a million. 8 Heb. a savour of rest.
foot, 1 Heb. of a male.
10 Or, brothel-house.
9 Heb. to devour.
ordinary food, and delivered thee unto the will stones, and thrust thee through with their of them that hate thee, the daughters of the swords. Philistines, which are ashamed of thy lewd 41 And they shall 'burn thine houses with way.
fire, and execute judgments upon thee in the 28 Thou hast played the whore also with sight of many women: and I will cause thee the Assyrians, because thou wast unsatiable; to cease from playing the harlot, and thou also yea, thou hast played the harlot with them, shalt give no hire any more. and yet couldest not be satisfied.
42 So will I make my fury toward thee to 29 Thou hast moreover multiplied thy for- rest, and my jealousy shall depart from thee, nication in the land of Canaan unto Chaldea ; and I will be quiet, and will be no more angry. and yet thou wast not satisfied herewith.
43 Because thou hast not remembered the 30 How weak is thine heart, saith the Lord days of thy youth, but hast fretted me in all God, seeing thou doest all these things, the these things; behold, therefore I also will work of an imperious whorish woman; recompense thy way upon thine head, saith the
31 "In that thou buildest thine eminent Lord God: and thou shalt not commit this place in the head of every way, and makest lewdness above all thine abominations. thine high place in every street; and hast not 44 9 Behold, every one that useth proverbs been as an harlot, in that thou scornest hire ; shall use this proverb against thee, saying, As
32 But as a wife that committeth adultery, | is the mother, so is her daughter. which taketh strangers instead of her husband ! 45 Thou art thy mother's daughter, that
33 They give gifts to all whores : but thou lotheth her husband and her children ; and givest thy gifts to all thy lovers, and "hirest thou art the sister of thy sisters, which lothed them, that they may come unto thee on every their husbands and their children :
mother side for thy whoredom.
was an Hittite, and your father an Amorite. 34 And the contrary is in thee from other 46 And thine elder sister is Samaria, she women in thy whoredoms, whereas none fol- and her daughters that dwell at thy left hand : loweth thee to commit whoredoms: and in that and thy younger sister, that dwelleth at thy thou givest a reward, and no reward is given right hand, is Sodom and her daughters. unto thee, therefore thou art contrary.
47 Yet hast thou not walked after their 35 q Wherefore, O harlot, hear the word ways, nor done after their abominations : but, of the LORD:
as if that were a very little thing, thou wast 36 Thus saith the Lord God; Because thy corrupted more than they in all thy ways. filthiness was poured out, and thy nakedness 48 As I live, saith the Lord God, Sodom discovered through thy whoredoms with thy thy sister hath not done, she nor her daughters, lovers, and with all the idols of thy abomina- as thou hast done, thou and thy daughters. tions, and by the blood of thy children, which 49 Behold, this was the iniquity of thy thou didst give unto them;
sister Sodom, pride, fulness of bread, and 37 Behold, therefore I will gather all thy abundance of idleness was in her and in her lovers, with whom thou hast taken pleasure, daughters, neither did she strengthen the hand and all them that thou hast loved, with all them of the poor and needy. that thou hast hated ; I will even gather them 50 And they were haughty, and committed round about against thee, and will discover thy abominatiou before me: therefore "I took nakedness unto them, that they may see all thy them away as I saw good. nakedness.
51 Neither hath Samaria committed half of 38 And I will judge thee, as women that thy sins ; but thou hast multiplied thine abobreak wedlock and shed blood are judged; minations more than they, and hast justified and I will give thee blood in fury and jealousy. thy sisters in all thine abominations which
39 And I will also give thee into their hand, thou hast done. and they shall throw down thine eminent 52 Thou also, which hast judged thy sisters, place, and shall break down thy high places : bear thine own shame for thy sins that thou they shall strip thee also of thy clothes, and hast committed more abominable than they: shall take ''thy fair jewels, and leave thee they are more righteous than thou : yea, be naked and bare.
thou confounded also, and bear thy shame, in 40 They shall also bring up a company that thou hast justified thy sisters. against thee, and they shall stone thee with 53 When I shall bring again their captivity, 19 Or, in thy daughters is thine, &c.
13 Heb. bribest.
14 Heb, with judgments of. 15 Heb, instruments of thine ornament. 18 Or, that was lothed as a small thing.
11 Or, cities.
16 2 Kings 25. 9. Jer. 52. 13.
17 Heb. lesser than thos. 19 Gen. 19. 24.
the captivity of Sodom and her daughters, and 59 For thus saith the Lord God; I will the captivity of Samaria and her daughters, even deal with thee as thou hast done, which then will I bring again the captivity of thy hast despised the oath in breaking the covecaptives in the midst of them :
nant. 54 That thou mayest bear thine own shame, 60 T Nevertheless I will remember my and mayest be confounded in all that thou hast covenant with thee in the days of thy youth, done, in that thou art a comfort unto them. and I will establish unto thee an everlasting
55 When thy sisters, Sodom and her covenant. daughters, shall return to their former estate, 61 Then thou shalt remember thy ways, and Samaria and her daughters shall return and be ashamed, when thou shalt receive thy to their former estate, then thou and thy sisters, thine elder and thy younger : and I will daughters shall return to your former estate. give them unto thee for daughters, but not
56 For thy sister Sodom was not mentioned by thy covenant. by thy mouth in the day of thy 'pride,
62' And I will establish my covenant with 57 Before thy wickedness was discovered, thee ; and thou shalt know that I am the as at the time of thy reproach of the daughters LORD: of Syria, and all that are round about her, 63 That thou mayest remember, and be the daughters of the Philistines, which despise confounded, and never open thy mouth any thee round about.
more because of thy shame, when I am pacified 58 Thou hast borne thy lewdness and toward thee for all that thou hast done, saith thine abominations, saith the LORD.
the Lord GOD. 20 Heb. for a report, or, hearing. 21 Heb. prides, or, excellencies.
23 Or, spoil.
22 Feb. Aram. 25 Galat, 4. 26.
24 Heb. borne them.
Verse 3. • Thy father was an Amorite, and thy mother a Hittite.'—In the language of Scripture those are often said to be our parents whose manners ours resemble. Hence, the sense is, ' Thou boastest thyself to be of the seed of Abraham, and yet followest the abominations of the Capaanites.'
4. Thou wast not salted at all.'— The treatinent of newborn children, mentioned in this verse, consists of various acts-some of which are physically necessary, and are universally practised, while others are matters of usage; examples of which may be found in some countries, and
not in others. The passage is interesting, as shewing what the customs of the ancient Hebrews were in this matter. According to R. Kimchi, all these acts were considered of such immediate necessity, that the traditions of the elders allowed them to be performed even on the sabbath-day.
As to the salting, it is said to have been performed either by sprinkling the infant with salt, or by using salt and water. The custom was by no means confined to the Hebrews; it was in extensive use, and is still preserved, in some parts of the East. The salting was considered to dry up all superfluous humours, to purify the body, and