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ye have been scattered, and I will give you way upon their own heads, saith the Lord the land of Israel.

God. 18 And they shall come thither, and they 22 4 Then did the cherubims lift up their shall take away all the detestable things wings, and the wheels beside them; and the thereof and all the abominations thereof from glory of the God of Israel was over them thence.

above. 19 And 'I will give them one heart, and I 23 And the glory of the LORD went up will put a new spirit within you; and I will from the midst of the city, and stood upon the take the stony heart out of their flesh, and mountain which is on the east side of the will give them an heart of flesh :

city. 20 That they may walk in my statutes, and 24 9 Afterwards the spirit took me up, keep mine ordinances, and do them: and and brought me in a vision by the Spirit of they shall be my people, and I will be their God into Chaldea, to them of the captivity. God.

So the vision that I had seen went up from 21 But as for them whose heart walketh after the heart of their detestable things and 25. Then I spake unto them of the captivity their abominations, I will recompense their all the things that the Lord had shewed me.

me.

4 Jer. 32. 39. Chap. 36. 26.

Verse 3. The caldron.'— Pots of strong earthenware were doubtless used, to a considerable extent, among the poorer Hebrews, for boiling their food; but those of the

less from any natural scarcity than from the greater difficulty of working it. None of the utensils, either of the tabernacle or temple, were made of iron; a vessel or pot of that metal does not once occur in Scripture-the iron pan' of ch. iv. 3, having been shewn to be an “iron plate.' Egypt is indeed described figuratively as an iron furnace; but this allusion refers not to a culinary vessel. The most definite circumstance is that the pots,' and even the • shovels' for the use of the temple, were of bright brass ;' by which we may perhaps understand fine copper. The kitchen utensils which have been found at Herculaneum and Pompeii are mostly of bronze; and from the specimens which have been obtained, it would be difficult to say that our own culinary boilers exceed them in convenience, or equal them in elegance of form and workmanship. All the specimens we have seen are round, never oval; and they mostly rest upon feet, and are furnished with handles inserted into eyes or rings attached to the vessel. Some have ornamental mouldings and borders, with massive leaves and volutes below the rings for the handles, and some of the larger kinds, with thick handles, have eyes at the top of the bandle, by which they were doubtless suspended by hooks over the fire. It is very possible that the Hebrew utensils of this kind were not inferior to these ; for whatever may have been their own skill or taste in such matters, we are to recollect that they had models for their caldrons in those which were made for Solomon by Hiram of Tyre, the most skilful worker in metal of his time, and to whose people the useful arts of eastern Europe probably owed as much as did those of their neighbours in Asia.

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EGYPTIAN CULINARY VESSELS. wealthier people were probably of metal, and copper seems to be more likely to have been used than any other metal, iron being comparatively rarely used in Western Asia,

CHAPTER XII.

and see not; they have ears to hear, and hear

not: for they are a rebellious house. 1 The type of Ezekiel's removing, 8 sheweth the cap

3 Therefore, thou son of man, prepare thee tivity of Zedekiah. 17 Ezekiel s trembling sheweth the Jews' desolation. 21 The Jews' presumptuous

'stuff for removing, and remove by day in proverb is reproved. 26 The speediness of the vision. their sight; and thou shalt remove from thy

place to another place in their sight: it may The word of the LORD also came unto me, be they will consider, though they be a rebelsaying,

lious house. 2 Son of man, thou dwellest in the midst 4 Then shalt thou bring forth thy stuff by of a rebellious house, which have eyes to see, day in their sight, as stuff for removing: and thou shalt go forth at even in their sight, "as come; and they shall know that I am the they .

1 Or, instruments.

LORD. 5 Dig thou through the wall in their sight, 17 [ Moreover the word of the Lord and carry out thereby.

came to me, saying, 6 In their sight shalt thou bear it upon thy 18 Son of man, eat thy bread with quaking, shoulders, and carry it forth in the twilight: and drink thy water with trembling and with thou shalt cover thy face, that thou see not carefulness ; the ground : for I have set thee for a sign 19 And say unto the people of the land, unto the house of Israel.

Thus saith the Lord God of the inhabitants 7 And I did so as I was commanded: Iof Jerusalem, and of the land of Israel ; They brought forth my stuff by day, as stuff for shall eat their bread with carefulness, and captivity, and in the even I 'digged through drink their water with astonishment, that her the wall with mine hand; I brought it forth land may be desolate from all that is therein, in the twilight, and I bare it upon my shoul- | because of the violence of all them that dwell der in their sight.

therein. 8_And in the morning came the word of 20 And the cities that are inhabited shall the LORD unto me, saying,

be laid waste, and the land shall be desolate; 9 Son of man, hath not the house of Israel, and ye shall know that I am the LORD. the rebellious house, said unto thee, What 21 | And the word of the LORD came doest thou ?

unto me, saying, 10 Say thou unto them, Thus saith the 22 Son of man, what is that proverb that Lord God; This burden concerneth the prince ye have in the land of Israel, saying, The in Jerusalem, and all the house of Israel that days are prolonged, and every vision faileth? are among them.

23 Tell them therefore, Thus saith the 11 Say, I am your sign : like as I have Lord God; I will make this proverb to cease, done, so shall it be done unto them : 'they and they shall no more use it as a proverb in shall remove and go into captivity.

but say unto them, The days are at 12 And the prince that is among them hand, and the effect of every vision. shall bear upon his shoulder in the twilight, 24 For there shall be no more any vain and shall go forth : they shall dig through vision nor flattering divination within the the wall to carry out thereby : he shall cover house of Israel. his face, that he sce not the ground with his 25 For I am the Lord: I will speak, and eyes.

the word that I shall speak shall come to 13 My 'net also will I spread upon him, pass; it shall be no more prolonged: for in and he shall be taken in my snare : and I your days, O rebellious house, will I say

the will bring him to Babylon to the land of the word, and will perform it, saith the Lord Chaldeans; yet shall he not see it, though he God. shall die there.

26 Again the word of the LORD came to 14 And I will scatter toward every wind me, saying, all that are about him to help him, and all his 27 Son of man, behold, they of the house bands; and I will draw out the sword after of Israel say, The vision that he seeth is 'for them.

many days to come, and he prophesieth of the 15 And they shall know that I am the times that are far off. Lord, when I shall scatter them among the 28 Therefore say unto them, Thus saith nations, and disperse them in the countries. the Lord God; There shall none of my words

16 But I will leave 'a few men of them be prolonged any more, but the word which I from the sword, from the famine, and from have spoken shall be done, saith the Lord the pestilence; that they may declare all their God. abominations among the heathen whither they 2 Heb. as the goings forth of captivity.

3 Heb. Dig for thee.

4 Heb. digged for me. 3 Heb. by removing go into captivity. 6 Chap. 37. 23. 7 Heb. men of number. 8 Heb, the fulness thereof.

Israel;

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0 2 Pet. 3. 4.

Verse 4. Thou shalt bring forth thy stuff by day, as stuff for removing.'— This is still done in caravan travelling. In all cases of travelling the goods and baggage are brought out towards the close of the day, and all arranged to be ready for the start in the early morning. The same happens when the season of the year and heat of the

weather do not admit of travelling by day. The goods
are still brought out in the afternoon to be ready for de-
parture in the late evening. We think the former alter-
native is to be understood here, because it was near twi-
light, which points rather to a departure the next morning
than the same evening; and in verse 8 we see that in the

morning,' instead of carrying out the symbolical action by chapter of St. Matthew, “ Lay up for yourselves treasures departing, he proceeded to explain the purport of what he . where thieves do not break through and steal”—TOU had already done.

KRÉTTAI un dropvooovoiv, where thieves “do not dig through.” 7. 'I digged through the wall with mine hand! — With In fact, the common Greek term for a housebreaker was respect to walls, compare the notes on Job iv. 19, Prov. TOIXwpuxos, a wall-breaker. Therefore the author of that xxviii. 3, and Isa. xxx. 13. In the first of these notes the most ancient book, Job, in the fourth chapter, adverts to class numbered 2 answers exactly to the cob-walls of the little trust to be placed in those "who dwell in houses Devonshire, which form the subject of an interesting of clay, whose foundation is in the dust, who are crushed paper in No. cxvi. of the Quarterly Review. These walls, by the moth.” A very high authority has suggested, that formed of earth and straw well beaten and trodden toge- by the moth is meant the white ant. It is clear that some ther, and raised upon a foundation of stone or brick, were sort of those destructive insects are alluded to, which so very ancient and are still very common in the East; and, notoriously harbour in walls of clay, that is, of cob;' as observed in the note to which we refer, explain what is 13. I will bring him to Babylon...yet shall he not sre meant by digging through walls. To the brief intimation it, though he shall die there.The prophet Jeremiah forethere given, we may as well add the somewhat larger re- told of Zedekiah that his eyes should behold the eyes of mark in the recent Quarterly Review ;—Ezekiel, of all the king of Babylon; and here Ezekiel predicts that he the prophets best acquainted with the customs of the Phæ- should not see Babylon though he should die there. We nicians-of which the thirty-seventh chapter is a proof, are informed by Josephus, that the king, thinking these when speaking of breaking through a wall, invariably prophecies contradicted each other, gave no credit to uses the word “dig through," SLOPUTTELV,—"I digged either. But both proved true; for, being taken captive through the wall with mine hand” (Ezek. xii. 7); this and carried to Riblah, he there saw Nebuchadnezzar, and would be impossible in the case of a stone or brick wall, then his eyes were put out, and he was sent to Babylon, but by no means so as to one of cob. The identical ex- where he remained for the rest of his life; so that he saw pression is used twice by our Saviour himself in the sixth not that city though he died in it.

CHAPTER XIII.

people, neither shall they be written in the

writing of the house of Israel, neither shall 1 The reproof of lying prophets, 10 and their untempered morter. 17 of prophetesses and their pillows.

they enter into the land of Israel ; and ye shall

know that I am the Lord God. And the word of the LORD came unto me, 10 Because, even because they have sesaying,

duced my people, saying, 'Peace; and there 2 Son of man, prophesy against the pro- was no peace; and one built up 'a wall, and, phets of Israel that prophesy, and say thou lo, others daubed it with untempered morter : unto 'them that prophesy out of their own 11 Say unto them which daub it with un'hearts, Hear ye the word of the LORD ; tempered morter, that it shall fall: there shall

3 Thus saith the Lord God; Woe unto be an overflowing shower ; and ye, Ogreat the foolish prophets, that "follow their own hailstones, shall fall; and a storing wind shall spirit, 'and have seen nothing !

rend it. 4 O Israel, thy prophets are like the foxes 12 Lo, when the wall is fallen, shall it not in the deserts.

be said unto you, Where is the daubing 5 Ye have not gone up into the 'gaps, wherewith ye have daubed it ? neither 'made up the hedge for the house of 13 Therefore thus saith the Lord God; I Israel to stand in the battle in the day of the will even rend it with a stormy wind in my LORD.

fury; and there shall be an overflowing shower 6 They have seen vanity and lying divina- | in mine anger, and great hailstones in my tion, saying, The LORD saith : and the Lord fury to consume it. hath not sent them : and they have made 14 So will I break down the wall that ye others to hope that they would confirm the have daubed with untempered morter, and word.

bring it down to the ground, so that the 7 Have ye not seen a vain vision, and have foundation thereof shall be discovered, and it ye not spoken a lying divination, whereas ye shall fall, and ye shall be consumed in the say,

The LORD saith it; albeit I have not midst thereof: and ye shall know that I am spoken ?

the LORD.

15 Thus wrath upon Because ye have spoken vanity, and seen lies, the wall, and upon them that have daubed it therefore, behold, I am against you, saith the with untempered morter, and will say unto Lord God.

you, The wall is no more, neither they that 9 And mine hand shall be upon the pro- daubed it; phets that see vanity, and that divine lies : 16 To wit, the prophets of Israel which they shall not be in the 'assembly of my prophesy concerning Jerusalem, and which 1 Heb. them that are prophets out of their own hearts.

3 Heb. walk afier. 4 Or, and things which they have not seen. 5 Or, breaches. 6 Heb, hedged the hedge. 7 Or, secret, or, counsel.

9 Or, a slight roal?. 2 E

481

8 Therefore thus saith the Lord God; .15 This will I accomplish my

2 Jer. 23. 16.

8 Jer. 6. 14.

VOL. III.

see visions of peace for her, and there is no Behold, I am against your pillows, wherewith peace, saith the Lord God.

ye there hunt the souls "to make them fly, and 17 [ Likewise, thou son of man, set thy I will tear them from your arms, and will let face against the daughters of thy people, which the souls go, even the souls that ye hunt to prophesy out of their own heart; and prophesy make them fly. thou against them,

21 Your kerchiefs also will I tear, and 18 And say, Thus saith the Lord God; deliver my people out of your hand, and they Woe to the women that sew pillows to all 'arm- shall be no more in your hand to be hunted; holes, and make kerchiefs upon the head of and ye shall know that I am the LORD.

. 22 the

the souls of my people, and will ye save the heart of the righteous sad, whom I have not souls alive that come unto you?

made sad ; and strengthened the hands of the 19 And will ye pollute me among my wicked, that he should not return from his people for handfuls of barley and for pieces of wicked way, " 1*by promising him life: bread, to slay the souls that should not die, and 23 Therefore ye shall see no more vanity, to save the souls alive that should not live, by nor divine divinations : for I will deliver my your lying to my people that hear your lies ?

people out of your hand : and ye shall know 20 Wherefore thus saith the Lord God; that I am the LORD.

10 Or, elbows. 11 Or, into gardens. 12 Or, that I should save his life. 13 Heb. by quickening him.

Verse 10. ^ Daubed it with untempered mortar.'— The than plaster. However, there is no reason to question that Targum and Vulgate seem to understand this not of plaster the Hebrews did at least sometimes plaster their walls. but of the cement used in uniting the materials of the wall, The most common in the East is made with the same rendering it,' clay without straw'-clay and straw, well materials as the cob walls, sun-dried bricks and mortarmixed together, being correctly understood to have been namely, clay and straw mixed together, the straw, such the common cement of eastern buildings, as it still is in as they give to their cattle, chopped and beaten small, and the East. If this view be correct, it will of course imply serving the same purpose as the ox-hair which our plasthat the wall was not built with wet cob, which requires terers mix with their plaster. This, to be good, requires no cement; but with dry cob, or clay and straw worked to be well tempered, which is generally done by long-conwell together and formed into masses which are dried tinued treading or beating. This is much used for the before employed in building; or else common sun-dried exterior of walls of humbler materials; but it will only or kiln-burnt bricks, or even stone. We rather incline to do for dry countries, as the rain acts upon it very much, this view of regarding the mortar' here rather as cement causing it to peel away, or else wearing it off; whence

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MODERN ORIENTAL PLASTENERS AT WORK.-Shewing some of the Operations in tempering Plaster.

the prophet mentions an overwhelming shower' as the agent of its destruction. We have seen the interiors even of houses above the common sort, with no other plastering than this. Lime is, however, sometimes mixed with the clay and straw, and for certain purposes - such as the external coat of an interior plastering-simple lime plasters, such as our own, are sometimes employed. When lime is largely used alone, or in a large proportion with certain earths, the tempering is usually performed either by beating with sticks, or by the turning of a wheel or roller, in much the same manner that our brick-makers prepare their clay. This work is, as in the parallel case, done by a horse or other animal. It would be to little purpose to mention all the materials and preparations of plasters for different applications, such as the coating of walls, the covering of the terraced roofs, and the lining of baths, tanks, and pools. Some kinds, generally used in a semi-liquid state, set very hard and last long; and it is well understood that great pains must be taken to temper that required to resist

wet. In the way of tempering, perhaps nothing affords a stronger manifestation of persevering and patient labour than the long-continued and repeated beatings to which the Orientals

subject the plaster (of lime, ashes, and straw) which is more especially intended to resist wet, and which does most effectually answer that purpose.

18. "Women that sew pillows to all armholes.”—The verse is confessedly a very difficult one. In the present clause, the words rendered armholes' ('7 box atztzilai yadi) mean the juncture of the arms, and may be applied not merely to the shoulders or armholes, but to the elbows, or even the wrists; and, as elbows' seems most intelligible in this context, and is preferred by the Septuagint and Vulgate, as well as given in our margin, we would here so understand it. And then, as to the sewing or applying pillows to the elbows, we are disposed to think that it refers to some custom with which we are not acquainted, and for want of knowing which the passage

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